Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: biomaterial

75 Nanosilver Loaded Biomaterial for Wound Healing Applications: In Vitro Studies

Authors: Sathish Sundar Dhilip Kumar, Nicolette Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are classified as metal-based nanomaterials and have received considerable attention globally for wound healing and tissue engineering applications. Naturally available materials are a significant source of medicinal products to treat numerous diseases; polysaccharides are among them. Polysaccharides are non-toxic, safe, and inexpensive, and it has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Most polysaccharides are shown to have a positive effect on wound healing processes, including chitosan and gum tragacanth. The present study evaluated the improvement of cellular wound healing by nanosilver-loaded polysaccharide-based biomaterial (CGT-NS) in WS1 cells. The physicochemical properties of prepared CGT-NS were studied using different characterization techniques, and it exhibited better stability and swelling properties in various pH conditions. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy, and it revealed the porous morphology of the synthesized CGT-NS. The synthesized biomaterial displayed acceptable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, and it may prevent infection. The biocompatibility of the synthesized CGT-NS biomaterial was studied in WS1 cells, where it may lead to promote increased cell adhesion and proliferation properties. Thus, the CGT-NS biomaterial has good potential as a biomaterial in wound healing applications.

Keywords: biomaterial, wound healing, nano, silver nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
74 Investigation of Cascade Loop Heat Pipes

Authors: Nandy Putra, Atrialdipa Duanovsah, Kristofer Haliansyah

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design a LHP with low thermal resistance and low condenser temperature. A Self-designed cascade LHP was tested by using biomaterial, sintered copper powder, and aluminum screen mesh as the wick. Using pure water as the working fluid for the first level of the LHP and 96% alcohol as the working fluid for the second level of LHP, the experiments were run with 10W, 20W, and 30W heat input. Experimental result shows that the usage of biomaterial as wick could reduce more temperature at evaporator than by using sintered copper powder and screen mesh up to 22.63% and 37.41% respectively. The lowest thermal resistance occurred during the usage of biomaterial as wick of heat pipe, which is 2.06 oC/W. The usage of cascade system could be applied to LHP to reduce the temperature at condenser and reduced thermal resistance up to 17.6%.

Keywords: biomaterial, cascade loop heat pipe, screen mesh, sintered Cu

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
73 Bio-Functional Polymeric Protein Based Materials Utilized for Soft Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Er-Yuan Chuang

Abstract:

Bio-mimetic matters have biological functionalities. This might be valuable in the development of versatile biomaterials. At biological fields, protein-based materials might be components to form a 3D network of extracellular biomolecules, containing growth factors. Also, the protein-based biomaterial provides biochemical and structural assistance of adjacent cells. In this study, we try to prepare protein based biomaterial, which was harvested from living animal. We analyzed it’s chemical, physical and biological property in vitro. Besides, in vivo bio-interaction of the prepared biomimetic matrix was tested in an animal model. The protein-based biomaterial has degradability and biocompatibility. This development could be used for tissue regenerations and be served as platform technologies.

Keywords: protein based, in vitro study, in vivo study, biomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
72 Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Microparticles for Scaffold Structure and Bioprinting

Authors: J. E. Mendes, T. T. de Barros, O. B. G. de Assis, J. D. C. Pessoa

Abstract:

Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide of β-1,4-linked glucosamine residues, is a biopolymer obtained primarily from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Interest in polymeric materials increases year by year. Chitosan is one of the most plentiful biomaterials, with a wide range of pharmaceutical, biomedical, industrial and agricultural applications. Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized via the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Two concentrations of chitosan microparticles (0.1 and 0.2%) were synthesized. In this study, it was possible to synthesize and characterize microparticles of chitosan biomaterial and this will be used for future applications in cell anchorage for 3D bioprinting.

Keywords: chitosan microparticles, biomaterial, scaffold, bioprinting

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
71 A Comprehensive Study on the Porosity Effect of Ti-20Zr Alloy Produced by Powder Metallurgy as a Biomaterial

Authors: Eyyup Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Huseyin Demirtas

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the porosity effect of Ti-20Zr alloy produced by powder metallurgy as a biomaterial was investigated experimentally. The Ti based alloys (Ti-20%Zr (at.) were produced under 300 MPa, for 6 h at 1200 °C. Afterward, the microstructure of the Ti-based alloys was analyzed by optical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry. Moreover, compression tests were applied to determine the mechanical behaviour of samples. As a result, highly porous Ti-20Zr alloys exhibited an elastic modulus close to human bone. The results later were compared theoretically and experimentally.

Keywords: porosity effect, Ti based alloys, elastic modulus, compression test

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
70 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub

Abstract:

Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: healthy and live herbal supplement, biomaterial, immune system, enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
69 Role of Biomaterial Surface Nanotopography on Protein Unfolding and Immune Response

Authors: Rahul Madathiparambil Visalakshan, Alex Cavallaro, John Hayball, Krasimir Vasilev

Abstract:

The role of biomaterial surface nanotopograhy on fibrinogen adsorption and unfolding, and the subsequent immune response were studied. Inconsistent topography and varying chemical functionalities along with a lack of reproducibility pose a challenge in determining the specific effects of nanotopography or chemistry on proteins and cells. It is important to have a well-defined nanotopography with a homogeneous chemistry to study the real effect of nanotopography on biological systems. Therefore, we developed a technique that can produce well-defined and highly reproducible topography to identify the role of specific roughness, size, height and density with the presence of homogeneous chemical functionality. Using plasma polymerisation of oxazoline monomers and immobilized gold nanoparticles we created surfaces with an equal number density of nanoparticles of different sizes. This surface was used to study the role of surface nanotopography and the interplay of surface chemistry on proteins and immune cells. The effect of nanotopography on fibrinogen adsorption was investigated using Quartz Cristal Microbalance with Dissipation and micro BCA. The mass of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surface increased with increasing size of nano-topography. Protein structural changes up on adsorption to the nano rough surface was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Fibrinogen unfolding varied depending on the specific nanotopography of the surfaces. It was revealed that the in vitro immune response to the nanotopography surfaces changed due to this protein unfolding.

Keywords: biomaterial inflammation, protein and cell responses, protein unfolding, surface nanotopography

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
68 Collagen Scaffold Incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum Plant Extracts as a–Burn/Wound Dressing Material, in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Thangavelu Muthukumar, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry

Abstract:

Collagen is the most abundantly available connective tissue protein, which is being used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. Presently, fish wastes are disposed improperly which is causing serious environmental pollution resulting in offensive odour. Fish scales are promising source of Type I collagen. Medicinal plants have been used since time immemorial for treatment of various ailments of skin and dermatological disorders especially cuts, wounds, and burns. Developing biomaterials from the natural sources which are having wound healing properties within the search of a common man is the need of hour, particularly in developing and third world countries. With these objectives in view we have developed a wound dressing material containing fish scale collagen (FSC) incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract (PE). The wound dressing composite was characterized for its physiochemical properties using conventional methods. SEM image revealed that the composite has fibrous and porous surface which helps in transportation of oxygen as well as absorbing wound fluids. The biomaterial has shown 95% biocompatibility with required mechanical strength and has exhibited antimicrobial properties. This biomaterial has been used as a wound dressing material in experimental wounds of rats. The healing pattern was evaluated by macroscopic observations, panimetric studies, biochemical, histopathological observations. The results showed faster healing pattern in the wounds treated with CSPE compared to the other composites used in this study and untreated control. These experiments clearly suggest that CSPE can be used as wound/burn dressing materials.

Keywords: collagen, wound dressing, Macrotyloma uniflorum, burn dressing

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
67 Hydrogel Based on Cellulose Acetate Used as Scaffold for Cell Growth

Authors: A. Maria G. Melero, A. M. Senna, J. A. Domingues, M. A. Hausen, E. Aparecida R. Duek, V. R. Botaro

Abstract:

A hydrogel from cellulose acetate cross linked with ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (HAC-EDTA) was synthesized by our research group, and submitted to characterization and biological tests. Cytocompatibility analysis was performed by confocal microscopy using human adipocyte derived stem cells (ASCs). The FTIR analysis showed characteristic bands of cellulose acetate and hydroxyl groups and the tensile tests evidence that HAC-EDTA present a Young’s modulus of 643.7 MPa. The confocal analysis revealed that there was cell growth at the surface of HAC-EDTA. After one day of culture the cells presented spherical morphology, which may be caused by stress of the sequestration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions at the cell medium by HAC-EDTA, as demonstrated by ICP-MS. However, after seven days and 14 days of culture, the cells present fibroblastoid morphology, phenotype expected by this cellular type. The results give efforts to indicate this new material as a potential biomaterial for tissue engineering, in the future in vivo approach.

Keywords: cellulose acetate, hydrogel, biomaterial, cellular growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
66 Evaluation of Human Amnion Hemocompatibility as a Substitute for Vessels

Authors: Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Mona Kakavand, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Objectives: An important issue in tissue engineering (TE) is hemocompatibility. The current engineered vessels are seriously at risk of thrombus formation and stenosis. Amnion (AM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes that consists of epithelial and mesenchymal sides. It has the advantages of low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties as well as good mechanical properties. We recently introduced the amnion as a natural biomaterial for tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated hemocompatibility of amnion as potential biomaterial for tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: Amnions were derived from placentas of elective caesarean deliveries which were in the gestational ages 36 to 38 weeks. Extracted amnions were washed by cold PBS to remove blood remnants. Blood samples were obtained from healthy adult volunteers who had not previously taken anti-coagulants. The blood samples were maintained in sterile tubes containing sodium citrate. Plasma or platelet rich plasma (PRP) were collected by blood sample centrifuging at 600 g for 10 min. Hemocompatibility of the AM samples (n=7) were evaluated by measuring of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), hemolysis, and platelet aggregation tests. P-selectin was also assessed by ELISA. Both epithelial and mesenchymal sides of amnion were evaluated. Glass slide and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) samples were defined as control. Results: In comparison with glass as control (13.3 ± 0.7 s), prothrombin time was increased significantly while each side of amnion was in contact with plasma (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PT between epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces (17.4 ± 0.7 s vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 s, respectively). However, aPPT was not significantly changed after incubation of plasma with amnion epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces or glass (28.61 ± 1.39 s, 31.4 ± 2.66 s, glass, 30.76 ± 2.53 s, respectively, p>0.05). Amnion surfaces, ePTFE and glass samples have less hemolysis induction than water considerably (p<0.001), in which no differences were detected. Platelet aggregation measurements showed that platelets were less stimulated by the amnion epithelial and mesenchymal sides, in comparison with ePTFE and glass. In addition, reduction in amount of p-selectin, as platelet activation factor, after incubation of samples with PRP indicated that amnion has less stimulatory effects on platelets than ePTFE and glass. Conclusion: Amnion as a natural biomaterial has the potential to be used in tissue engineering. Our results suggest that amnion has appropriate hemocompatibility to be employed as a vascular substitute.

Keywords: amnion, hemocompatibility, tissue engineering, biomaterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
65 Modification and Surface Characterization of the Co20Cr15W10Ni Alloy for Application as Biomaterial

Authors: Fernanda A. Vechietti, Natália O. B. Muniz, Laura C. Treccani, Kurosch. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos

Abstract:

CoCr alloys are widely used in prosthetic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties, such as good tensile strength, elastic modulus and wear resistance. Their biocompatibility and lack of corrosion are also prominent features of this alloy. One of the most effective and simple ways to protect metal’s surfaces are treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation by passivation, which is used as a protect release of metallic ions. Another useful treatment is the electropolishing, which is used to reduce the carbide concentration and protrusion at the implanted surface. Electropolishing is a cheap and effective method for treatment of implants, which generally has complex geometries. The purpose of this study is surface modification of the alloy CoCr(ASTM F90-09) by different methods: polishing, electro polishing, passivation and heat treatment for application as biomaterials. The modification of the surface was studied and characterized by SEM, profilometry, wettability and compared to the surface of the samples untreated. The heat treatment and of passivation increased roughness (0.477 µm and 0.825 µm) the samples in relation the sample electropolished and polished(0.131 µm and 0.274 µm) and were observed the improve wettability’s with the increase the roughness.

Keywords: biomaterial, CoCr, surface treatment, heat treatment, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
64 Biomaterials Solutions to Medical Problems: A Technical Review

Authors: Ashish Thakur

Abstract:

This technical paper was written in view of focusing the biomaterials and its various applications in modern industries. Author tires to elaborate not only the medical, infect plenty of application in other industries. The scope of the research area covers the wide range of physical, biological and chemical sciences that underpin the design of biomaterials and the clinical disciplines in which they are used. A biomaterial is now defined as a substance that has been engineered to take a form which, alone or as part of a complex system, is used to direct, by control of interactions with components of living systems, the course of any therapeutic or diagnostic procedure. Biomaterials are invariably in contact with living tissues. Thus, interactions between the surface of a synthetic material and biological environment must be well understood. This paper reviews the benefits and challenges associated with surface modification of the metals in biomedical applications. The paper also elaborates how the surface characteristics of metallic biomaterials, such as surface chemistry, topography, surface charge, and wettability, influence the protein adsorption and subsequent cell behavior in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation at the biomaterial–tissue interface. The chapter also highlights various techniques required for surface modification and coating of metallic biomaterials, including physicochemical and biochemical surface treatments and calcium phosphate and oxide coatings. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials. In addition to this, chapter introduces nanomedicine and the use of both natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials, focuses on specific current polymeric nanomedicine applications and research, and concludes with the challenges of nanomedicine research. Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease with a very high prevalence in humans older than 50. The main clinical consequences are bone fractures, which often lead to patient disability or even death. A number of commercial biomaterials are currently used to treat osteoporotic bone fractures, but most of these have not been specifically designed for that purpose. Many drug- or cell-loaded biomaterials have been proposed in research laboratories, but very few have received approval for commercial use. Polymeric nanomaterial-based therapeutics plays a key role in the field of medicine in treatment areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Advantages in the use of polymers over other materials for nanomedicine include increased functionality, design flexibility, improved processability, and, in some cases, biocompatibility.

Keywords: nanomedicine, tissue, infections, biomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
63 Collagen Gel in Hip Cartilage Repair: in vivo Preliminary Study

Authors: A. Bajek, J. Skopinska-Wisniewska, A. Rynkiewicz, A. Jundzill, M. Bodnar, A. Marszalek, T. Drewa

Abstract:

Traumatic injury and age-related degenerative diseases associated with cartilage are major health problems worldwide. The articular cartilage is comprised of a relatively small number of cells, which have a relatively slow rate of turnover. Therefore, damaged articular cartilage has a limited capacity for self-repair. New clinical methods have been designed to achieve better repair of injured cartilage. However, there is no treatment that enables full restoration of it. The aim of this study was to evaluate how collagen gel with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and collagen gel alone will influence on the hip cartilage repair after injury. Collagen type I was isolated from rats’ tails and cross-linked with N-hydroxysuccinimide in 24-hour process. MSCs were isolated from rats’ bone marrow. The experiments were conducted according to the guidelines for animal experiments of Ethics Committee. Fifteen 8-week-old Wistar rats were used in this study. All animals received hip joint surgery with a total of 30 created cartilage defects. Then, animals were randomly divided into three groups and filled, respectively, with collagen gel (group 1), collagen gel cultured with MSCs (group II) or left untreated as a control (control group). Immunohistochemy and radiological evaluation was carried out 11 weeks post implantation. It has been proved that the surface of the matrix is non-toxic, and its porosity promotes cell adhesion and growth. However, the in vivo regeneration process was poor. We observed the low integration rate of biomaterial. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cartilage after 11 weeks of treatment showed low II and high X collagen expression in two tested groups in comparison to the control one, in which we observed the high II collagen expression. What is more, after radiological analysis, we observed the best regeneration process in control group. The biomaterial construct and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the use of the biomaterial itself was not sufficient to regenerate the hip cartilage surfaces. These results suggest that the collagen gel based biomaterials, even with MSCs, are not satisfactory in repar of hip cartilage defect. However, additional evaluation is needed to confirm these results.

Keywords: collafen gel, MSCs, cartilage repair, hip cartilage

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
62 Preparation of Zno/Ag Nanocomposite and Coating on Polymers for Anti-Infection Biomaterial Application

Authors: Babak Sadeghi, Parisa Ghayomipour

Abstract:

ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared by chemical reduction method, for anti-infection biomaterial application. There is a growing interest in attempts in using biomolecular as the templates to grow inorganic nanocomposites in controlled morphology and structure. By optimizing the experiment conditions, we successfully fabricated high yield of ZnO/Ag nanocomposite with full coverage of high-density polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coating. More importantly, ZnO/Ag nanocomposites were shown to significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus in solution. It was further shown that ZnO/Ag nanocomposites induced thiol depletion that caused death of S. aureus. The coatings were fully characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Most importantly, compared to uncoated metals, the coatings on PVC promoted healthy antibacterial activity. Importantly, compared to ZnO-Ag -uncoated PVC, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites coated was approximately triplet more effective in preventing bacteria attachment. The result of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) indicates that, the ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are chemically stable in the temperature range from 50 to 900 ºC. This result, for the first time, demonstrates the potential of using ZnO/Ag nanocomposites as a coating material for numerous anti-bacterial applications.

Keywords: nanocomposites, antibacterial activity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
61 Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)

Authors: Fatima M. Kabbashi, Abdalla M. Abdalla, Hussam K. Hamad, Elias S. Hassan

Abstract:

This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.

Keywords: renewable energy, biogas, biomedical waste, blood, anaerobic digestion, eco-friendly disposal

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
60 Immobilizing Quorum Sensing Inhibitors on Biomaterial Surfaces

Authors: Aditi Taunk, George Iskander, Kitty Ka Kit Ho, Mark Willcox, Naresh Kumar

Abstract:

Bacterial infections on biomaterial implants and medical devices accounts for 60-70% of all hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Treatment or removal of these infected devices results in high patient mortality and morbidity along with increased hospital expenses. In addition, with no effective strategies currently available and rapid development of antibacterial resistance has made device-related infections extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, in this project we have developed biomaterial surfaces using antibacterial compounds that inhibit biofilm formation by interfering with the bacterial communication mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). This study focuses on covalent attachment of potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibiting compounds, halogenated furanones (FUs) and dihydropyrrol-2-ones (DHPs), onto glass surfaces. The FUs were attached by photoactivating the azide groups on the surface, and the acid functionalized DHPs were immobilized on amine surface via EDC/NHS coupling. The modified surfaces were tested in vitro against pathogenic organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Successful attachment of compounds on the substrates was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The antibacterial efficacy was assessed, and significant reduction in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation was observed on the FU and DHP coated surfaces. The activity of the coating was dependent upon the type of substituent present on the phenyl group of the DHP compound. For example, the ortho-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-2) exhibited 79% reduction in bacterial adhesion against S. aureus and para-fluorophenyl DHP (DHP-3) exhibited 70% reduction against P. aeruginosa. The results were found to be comparable to DHP coated surfaces prepared in earlier study via Michael addition reaction. FUs and DHPs were able to retain their in vitro antibacterial efficacy after covalent attachment via azide chemistry. This approach is a promising strategy to develop efficient antibacterial biomaterials to reduce device related infections.

Keywords: antibacterial biomaterials, biomedical device-related infections, quorum sensing, surface functionalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
59 Synthesis and Characterisation of Starch-PVP as Encapsulation Material for Drug Delivery System

Authors: Nungki Rositaningsih, Emil Budianto

Abstract:

Starch has been widely used as an encapsulation material for drug delivery system. However, starch hydrogel is very easily degraded during metabolism in human stomach. Modification of this material is needed to improve the encapsulation process in drug delivery system, especially for gastrointestinal drug. In this research, three modified starch-based hydrogels are synthesized i.e. Crosslinked starch hydrogel, Semi- and Full- Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) starch hydrogel using Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone). Non-modified starch hydrogel was also synthesized as a control. All of those samples were compared as biomaterials, floating drug delivery, and their ability in loading drug test. Biomaterial characterizations were swelling test, stereomicroscopy observation, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Buoyancy test and stereomicroscopy scanning were done for floating drug delivery characterizations. Lastly, amoxicillin was used as test drug, and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy for loading drug observation. Preliminary observation showed that Full-IPN has the most dense and elastic texture, followed by Semi-IPN, Crosslinked, and Non-modified in the last position. Semi-IPN and Crosslinked starch hydrogel have the most ideal properties and will not be degraded easily during metabolism. Therefore, both hydrogels could be considered as promising candidates for encapsulation material. Further analysis and issues will be discussed in the paper.

Keywords: biomaterial, drug delivery system, interpenetrating polymer network, poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone), starch hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
58 Bacterial Cellulose: A New Generation Antimicrobial Wound Dressing Biomaterial

Authors: Bhavana V. Mohite, Satish V. Patil

Abstract:

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative for plant cellulose (PC) that prevents global warming leads to preservation of nature. Although PC and BC have the same chemical structure, BC is superior with its properties like its size, purity, porosity, degree of polymerization, crystallinity and water holding capacity, thermal stability etc. On this background the present study focus production and applications of BC as antimicrobial wound dressing material. BC was produced by Gluconoacetobacter hansenii (strain NCIM 2529) under shaking condition and statistically enhanced upto 7.2 g/l from 3.0 g/l. BC was analyzed for its physico mechanical, structural and thermal characteristics. BC produced at shaking condition exhibits more suitable properties in support to its high performance applications. The potential of nano silver impregnated BC was determined for sustained release modern antimicrobial wound dressing material by swelling ratio, mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. BC in nanocomposite form with other synthetic polymer like PVA shows improvement in its properties such as swelling ratio (757% to 979%) and sustainable release of antibacterial agent. The high drug loading and release potential of BC was evidenced in support to its nature as antimicrobial wound dressing material. The nontoxic biocompatible nature of BC was confirmed by MTT assay on human epidermal cells with 90% cell viability that allows its application as a regenerative biomaterial. Thus, BC as a promising new generation antimicrobial wound dressing material was projected.

Keywords: agitated culture, biopolymer, gluconoacetobacter hansenii, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
57 Hyaluronic Acid as Potential Excipient for Buccal Delivery

Authors: Flavia Laffleur

Abstract:

Summary: Biomaterials have gained immense interest in the pharmaceutical research in the last decades. Hyaluronic acid a carbohydrate and mucopolysaccharide was chemically modified in order to achieve and establish a promising platform for buccal drug delivery. Aim: Novel biomaterial was tested for its potential for buccal drug delivery. Background: Polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) was chemically modified with cysteine ethyl ether (CYS). By immobilization of the thiol-bearing ligand on the polymeric backbone the thiolated bioconjugate HA-CYS was obtained. Methodology: Mucoadhesive, permeation enhancing and stability potential as well as mechanical, physicochemical properties further mucoadhesive strength, swelling index and residence time were investigated. The developed thiolated bioconjugate displayed enhanced mucoadhesiveness on buccal mucosa as well as permeation behavior and polymer stability. The near neutral pH and negative cytotoxicity studies indicated their non-irritability and biocompatible nature with biological tissues. Further, the model drug sulforhodamine 101 was incorporated to determine its drug release profiles. Results: The synthesized thiomer showed no toxicity. The mucoadhesion of thiolated hyaluronic acid on buccal mucosa was significantly improved in comparison to unmodified one. The biomaterial showed 2.5-fold higher stability in polymer structure. The release of sulforhodamine in the presence of thiolated hyaluronic acid was 2.3-fold increased compared to hyaluronic acid. Conclusion: Thus, the promising results encourage further investigations and exploitation of this versatile polysaccharide. So far, hyaluronic acid was not evaluated for buccal drug delivery.

Keywords: buccal delivery, hyaluronic acid, mucoadhesion, thiomers

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
56 Culture of Primary Cortical Neurons on Hydrophobic Nanofibers Induces the Formation of Organoid-Like Structures

Authors: Nick Weir, Robert Stevens, Alan Hargreaves, Martin McGinnity, Chris Tinsley

Abstract:

Hydrophobic materials have previously demonstrated the ability to elevate cell-cell interactions and promote the formation of neural networks whilst aligned nanofibers demonstrate the ability to induce extensive neurite outgrowth in an aligned manner. Hydrophobic materials typically elicit an immune response upon implantation and thus materials used for implantation are typically hydrophilic. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a hydrophobic, non-immunogenic, FDA approved material that can be electrospun to form aligned nanofibers. Primary rat cortical neurons cultured for 10 days on aligned PLLA nanofibers formed 3D cell clusters, approximately 800 microns in diameter. Neurites that extended from these clusters were highly aligned due to the alignment of the nanofibers they were cultured upon and fasciculation was also evident. Plasma treatment of the PLLA nanofibers prior to seeding of cells significantly reduced the hydrophobicity and abolished the cluster formation and neurite fasciculation, whilst reducing the extent and directionality of neurite outgrowth; it is proposed that hydrophobicity induces the changes to cellular behaviors. Aligned PLLA nanofibers induced the formation of a structure that mimics the grey-white matter compartmentalization that is observed in vivo and thus represents a step forward in generating organoids or biomaterial-based implants. Upon implantation into the brain, the biomaterial architectures described here may provide a useful platform for both brain repair and brain remodeling initiatives.

Keywords: hydrophobicity, nanofibers, neurite fasciculation, neurite outgrowth, PLLA

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
55 Keratin Fiber Fabrication from Biowaste for Biomedical Application

Authors: Ashmita Mukherjee, Yogesh Harishchandra Kabutare, Suritra Bandyopadhyay, Paulomi Ghosh

Abstract:

Uncontrolled bleeding in the battlefield and the operation rooms can lead to serious injuries, trauma and even be lethal. Keratin was reported to be a haemostatic material which rapidly activates thrombin followed by activation of fibrinogen leading to the formation of insoluble fibrin. Also platelets, the main initiator of haemostasis are reported to adhere to keratin. However, the major limitation of pure keratin as a biomaterial is its poor physical property and corresponding low mechanical strength. To overcome this problem, keratin was cross-linked with alginate to increase its mechanical stability. In our study, Keratin extracted from feather waste showed yield of 80.5% and protein content of 8.05 ± 0.43 mg/mL (n=3). FTIR and CD spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the essential functional groups and preservation of the secondary structures of keratin. The keratin was then cross-linked with alginate to make a dope. The dope was used to draw fibers of desired diameters in a suitable coagulation bath using a customized wet spinning setup. The resultant morphology of keratin fibers was observed under a brightfield microscope. The FT-IR analysis implied that there was a presence of both keratin and alginate peaks in the fibers. The cross-linking was confirmed in the keratin alginate fibers by a shift of the amide A and amide B peaks towards the right and disappearance of the peak for N-H stretching (1534.68 cm-1). Blood was drawn in citrate vacutainers for whole blood clotting test and blood clotting kinetics, which showed that the keratin fibers could accelerate blood coagulation compared to that of alginate fibers and tissue culture plate. Additionally, cross-linked keratin-alginate fiber was found to have lower haemolytic potential compared to alginate fiber. Thus, keratin cross-linked fibers can have potential applications to combat unrestrained bleeding.

Keywords: biomaterial, biowaste, fiber, keratin

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
54 Arothron Stellatus Fish Skin Collagen Based Composite Biosheet Incorporated with Mupirocin as a Potential Dermal Substitute for Skin Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Giriprasath Ramanathan, Sivakumar Singaravelu, M. D. Raja, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam

Abstract:

Collagen is the abundant protein found in the skin of the animal body that has been designed to provide adequate structural support for the adhesion of cells. The dressing material widely used for tissue engineering and biomedical application has to posses good swelling and biological property for the absorption of exudates and cell proliferation. Acid solubilised collagen from the fish skin of the Arothron stellatus was extracted. The collagen with hydroxypropyl and carboxy methyl cellulose has the better biological property to enhance the healing efficiency. The inter property of collagen with interesting perspectives in the tissue engineering process leads to the development of biomaterial with natural polymer with biologically derived collagen. Keeping this as an objective, the composite biomaterial was fabricated to improve the wound healing and biological properties. In this study the collagen from Arothron stellatus fish skin (ACO) was uniformly blended separately with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as biosheets. The casted biosheets were impregnated with mupirocin to get rid of infection from the microbes. Further, the results obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile studies and biocompatibility of the biosheets were assessed. The swelling, porosity and degradation of the casted biosheets were studied to make the biosheets as a suitable wound dressing material. ACO-HPMC and ACO-CMC biosheets both showed good results, but ACO-HPMC biosheet showed better results than ACO-CMC and hence it can be used as a potential dermal substitute in skin tissue engineering.

Keywords: arothron stellatus, biocompatibility, collagen, tensile strenght

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
53 Developments and Implementation of Biomaterials in Textile Coating and Finishing

Authors: David De Smet, Myriam Vanneste

Abstract:

There is a constant need for the improvement of materials applied in textile industries. Nowadays there is a tendency for “bio, eco, natural and environmental friendly” consciousness of the consumer resulting in various textile labels. Materials, totally based on CO2-neutral renewable resources (biopolymers), respond very well to this tendency. Proteins and PLA were evaluated as binders for textile coatings. Much attention is paid to the functionalization of textiles, therefore bio-additves are examined to introduce abrasion resistance, antimicrobial and flame retardant properties.

Keywords: biomaterial, textile, coating, finishing

Procedia PDF Downloads 560
52 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: biomaterials, coatings, immune system, implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
51 Characterization and Modification of the Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations

Authors: R. A. Shahmiri, O. Standard, J. Hart, C. C. Sorrell

Abstract:

Yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconium polycrystalline (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial. The strength and toughness of zirconia can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, such as crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucency of Y-TZP means that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance in polycrystalline form. To improve optical property of the Zirconia, precise evaluation of its refractive index is of significance. Zirconia`s optical properties need to be studied more in depth. Number of studies assumed, scattered light is isotropically distributed over all angles from biological media when defining optical parameters. Nevertheless, optical behaviour of real biological material depends on angular scattering of light by anisotropy material. Therefore, the average cosine of the scattering angle (which represent recovery phase function in the scattering angular distribution) usually characterized by anisotropy material. It has been identified that yttrium anti-sites present in the space charge layer have no significant role in the absorption of light in the visible range. Addition of cation dopant to polycrystalline zirconia results in segregate to grain boundaries and grain growth. Intrinsic and extrinsic properties of ZrO2 and their effect on optical properties need to be investigated. Intrinsic properties such as chemical composition, defect structure (oxygen vacancy), phase configuration (porosity, second phase) and distribution of phase need to be studied to comprehend their effect on refraction index, absorption/reflection and scattering. Extrinsic properties such as surface structure, thickness, underlying tooth structure, cement layer (type, thickness), and light source (natural, curing, artificial) of ZrO2 need to be studied to understand their effect on colour and translucency of material. This research reviewed effect of stabilization of tetragonal zirconia on optical property of zirconia for dental application.

Keywords: optical properties, zirconia dental biomaterial, chemical composition, phase composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
50 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Kızıltas Demir, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
49 Non-Cytotoxic Natural Sourced Inorganic Hydroxyapatite (HAp) Scaffold Facilitate Bone-like Mechanical Support and Cell Proliferation

Authors: Sudip Mondal, Biswanath Mondal, Sudit S. Mukhopadhyay, Apurba Dey

Abstract:

Bioactive materials improve devices for a long lifespan but have mechanical limitations. Mechanical characterization is one of the very important characteristics to evaluate the life span and functionality of the scaffold material. After implantation of scaffold material the primary stage rejection of scaffold occurs due to non biocompatible effect of host body system. The second major problems occur due to the effect of mechanical failure. The mechanical and biocompatibility failure of the scaffold materials can be overcome by the prior evaluation of the scaffold materials. In this study chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) is carried out to ensure thermal stability. The chemical composition and bond structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powder is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Fish scale derived apatite materials consists of nano-sized particles with Ca/P ratio of 1.71. The biocompatibility through cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay are carried out in MG63 osteoblast cell lines. In the cell attachment study, the cells are tightly attached with HAp scaffolds developed in the laboratory. The result clearly suggests that HAp material synthesized in this study do not have any cytotoxic effect, as well as it has a natural binding affinity for mammalian cell lines. The synthesized HAp powder further successfully used to develop porous scaffold material with suitable mechanical property of ~0.8GPa compressive stress, ~1.10 GPa a hardness and ~ 30-35% porosity which is acceptable for implantation in trauma region for animal model. The histological analysis also supports the bio-affinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface for biomedical function. This study suggests the natural sourced fish scale-derived HAp material could be used as a suitable alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering application in near future.

Keywords: biomaterials, hydroxyapatite, scaffold, mechanical property, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
48 Percentages of Alumina Phase and Different Ph on The Ha- Al2o3 Nano Composite

Authors: S. Tayyebi, F. Mirjalili, H. Samadi, A. Nemati

Abstract:

In this study, hydroxyapatite-Alumina nano composite powder, containing 15,20 and 25% weight percent of reinforced alumina were prepared by chemical precipitation from the reaction between calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate with ratio of Ca / p = 1.67 and different percentage of aluminum nitrate nona hydrate in different pH of 9,10 and 11. The microstructure and thermal stability of samples were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the presence of reinforced alumina phase reduced the degree of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite phase and increased its decomposition to tricalcium phosphate phase. Microstructural analysis showed that the hydroxyapatite-alumina nano composite powder was obtained with spherical shape and size of less than 100 nm.

Keywords: biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, alumina, nano composite, precipitation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
47 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

Abstract:

Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: biomaterials, characterization techniques, natural resource, starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
46 Biocompatibilities of Various Calcium Silicate Cements

Authors: Seok Woo Chang, Kee Yeon Kum, Kwang Shik Bae, WooCheol Lee

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the biocompatibilities and mineralization potential of ProRoot MTA and newly developed calcium phosphate based cement, Capseal. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibilities and mineralization-related gene expressions (Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN)) of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were also compared by a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. Empty rings were used as control group. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The biocompatibilities of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were equally favorable. ProRoot MTA and Capseal affected the messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteonectin. Conclusions: Based on the results, both ProRoot MTA and Capseal could be a useful biomaterial in clinical endodontics.

Keywords: biocompatibility, calcium silicate cement, MTT, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 272