Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 496

Search results for: electrode

496 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad

Abstract:

A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: gold electrode, electroanalysis, electrocatalysis, monolayers, self-assembly, cysteine, dopamine, ascorbic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
495 An Automated Sensor System for Cochlear Implants Electrode Array Insertion

Authors: Lei Hou, Xinli Du, Nikolaos Boulgouris

Abstract:

A cochlear implant, referred to as a CI, is a small electronic device that can provide direct electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. During cochlear implant surgery, atraumatic electrode array insertion is considered to be a crucial step. However, during implantation, the mechanical behaviour of an electrode array inside the cochlea is not known. The behaviour of an electrode array inside of the cochlea is hardly identified by regular methods. In this study, a CI electrode array capacitive sensor system is proposed. It is able to automatically determine the array state as a result of the capacitance variations. Instead of applying sensors to the electrode array, the capacitance information from the electrodes will be gathered and analysed. Results reveal that this sensing method is capable of recognising different states when fed into a pre-shaped model.

Keywords: cochlear implant, electrode, hearing preservation, insertion force, capacitive sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
494 Study of Parameters Affecting the Electrostatic Attractions Force

Authors: Vahid Sabermand, Yousef Hojjat, Majid Hasanzadeh

Abstract:

This paper contains two main parts. In the first part of paper we simulated and studied three type of electrode patterns used in various industries for suspension and handling of the semiconductor and glass and we selected the best pattern by evaluating the electrostatic force, which was comb pattern electrode. In the second part, we investigated the parameters affecting the amount of electrostatic force such as the gap between surface and electrode (g), the electrode width (w), the gap between electrodes (t), the surface permittivity and electrode Length and methods of improvement of adhesion force by changing these values.

Keywords: electrostatic force, electrostatic adhesion, electrostatic chuck, electrostatic application in industry, electroadhesive grippers

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
493 Mathematical Modeling of Switching Processes in Magnetically Controlled MEMS Switches

Authors: Sergey M. Karabanov, Dmitry V. Suvorov, Dmitry Yu. Tarabrin

Abstract:

The operating principle of magnetically controlled microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is based on controlling the beam movement under the influence of a magnetic field. Currently, there is a MEMS switch design with a flexible ferromagnetic electrode in the form of a fixed-terminal beam, with an electrode fastened on a straight or cranked anchor. The basic performance characteristics of magnetically controlled MEMS switches (service life, sensitivity, contact resistance, fast response) are largely determined by the flexible electrode design. To ensure the stable and controlled motion of the flexible electrode, it is necessary to provide the optimal design of a flexible electrode.

Keywords: flexible electrode, magnetically controlled MEMS, mathematical modeling, mechanical stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
492 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
491 Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper (II) at the Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) MWCNT Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A highly selective and sensitive electrode for determination of trace amounts of Cu (II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was proposed. The electrode was made of the paste of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) at 100:5 (w/w). Under optimal conditions the electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu (II) and limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M Cu (II). The relative standard deviation (n = 5) of response to 1.0 × 10–6 M Cu(II) was 0.036. The interferences of cations such as Ni(II), Mg(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Hg(II), and Zn(II) (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) are negligible except from Pb (II). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favorable. Result of analysis of Cu(II) in several water samples agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The proposed electrode was then recommended as an alternative to spectroscopic technique in analyzing Cu (II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

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490 Eu³⁺ PVC Membrane Sensor Based on 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-Tetraacetic Acid

Authors: Noshin Mehrabian, Mohammad Reza Abedi, Hassan Ali Zamani

Abstract:

A highly selective poly(vinyl chloride)-based membrane sensor produced by using 1,2-Diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DAPTA) as active material is described. The electrode displays Nernstian behavior over the concentration range 1.0×10⁻⁶ to 1.0×10⁻² M. The detection limit of the electrode is 7.2×10⁻⁷ M. The best performance was obtained with the membrane containing 30% polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 65% nitrobenzene (NB), 2% sodium tetra phenyl borate (Na TPB), 3% DAPTA. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is pH independent in the range of 2.5–‎‎9.1. ‎The proposed sensor displays a fast response time 'less than 10s'. The electrode shows a good selectivity for Eu (III) ion with respect to most common cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. It was used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric ‎titration of 25 mL of a 1.0×10⁻⁴ M Eu (III) solution with a 1.0×10⁻² M EDTA solution.

Keywords: potentiometry, PVC membrane, sensor, ion-selective electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
489 Sensitive Determination of Copper(II) by Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Mohamad Idris Saidin, Mustaffa Ahmad, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A highly selective and sensitive carbon paste electrode modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and 2,6–diacetylpyridine-di-(1R)–(-)–fenchone diazine tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0) complex was used for determination of trace amounts of Cu(II) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The influences of experimental variables on the proposed electrode such as pH, supporting electrolyte, preconcentration potential and time, and square wave parameters were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the proposed electrode showed a linear relationship with concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10–10 to 1.0 × 10– 6 M Cu(II) with a limit of detection 8.0 × 10–11 M. The relative standard deviation (n = 5) for a solution containing 1.0 × 10– 6 M of Cu(II) was 0.036. The presence of various cations (in 10 and 100-folds concentration) did not interfere. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the charge transfer at the electrode-solution interface was favourable. The proposed electrode was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in several water samples. Results agreed very well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The modified electrode was then proposed as an alternative for determination of Cu(II).

Keywords: chemically modified electrode, Cu(II), square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, tetracarbonylmolybdenum(0)

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
488 A Polyimide Based Split-Ring Neural Interface Electrode for Neural Signal Recording

Authors: Ning Xue, Srinivas Merugu, Ignacio Delgado Martinez, Tao Sun, John Tsang, Shih-Cheng Yen

Abstract:

We have developed a polyimide based neural interface electrode to record nerve signals from the sciatic nerve of a rat. The neural interface electrode has a split-ring shape, with four protruding gold electrodes for recording, and two reference gold electrodes around the split-ring. The split-ring electrode can be opened up to encircle the sciatic nerve. The four electrodes can be bent to sit on top of the nerve and hold the device in position, while the split-ring frame remains flat. In comparison, while traditional cuff electrodes can only fit certain sizes of the nerve, the developed device can fit a variety of rat sciatic nerve dimensions from 0.6 mm to 1.0 mm, and adapt to the chronic changes in the nerve as the electrode tips are bendable. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement was conducted. The gold electrode impedance is on the order of 10 kΩ, showing excellent charge injection capacity to record neural signals.

Keywords: impedance, neural interface, split-ring electrode, neural signal recording

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487 The Chemical Transport Mechanism of Emitter Micro-Particles in Tungsten Electrode: A Metallurgical Study

Authors: G. Singh, H.Schuster, U. Füssel

Abstract:

The stability of electric arc and durability of electrode tip used in Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding demand a metallurgical study about the chemical transport mechanism of emitter oxide particles in tungsten electrode during its real welding conditions. The tungsten electrodes doped with emitter oxides of rare earth oxides such as La₂O₃, Th₂O₃, Y₂O₃, CeO₂ and ZrO₂ feature a comparatively lower work function than tungsten and thus have superior emission characteristics due to lesser surface temperature of the cathode. The local change in concentration of these emitter particles in tungsten electrode due to high temperature diffusion (chemical transport) can change its functional properties like electrode temperature, work function, electron emission, and stability of the electrode tip shape. The resulting increment in tip surface temperature results in the electrode material loss. It was also observed that the tungsten recrystallizes to large grains at high temperature. When the shape of grain boundaries are granular in shape, the intergranular diffusion of oxide emitter particles takes more time to reach the electrode surface. In the experimental work, the microstructure of the used electrode's tip surface will be studied by scanning electron microscope and reflective X-ray technique in order to gauge the extent of the diffusion and chemical reaction of emitter particles. Besides, a simulated model is proposed to explain the effect of oxide particles diffusion on the electrode’s microstructure, electron emission characteristics, and electrode tip erosion. This model suggests metallurgical modifications in tungsten electrode to enhance its erosion resistance.

Keywords: rare-earth emitter particles, temperature-dependent diffusion, TIG welding, Tungsten electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
486 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow's urine, electrodes, non-conventional

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
485 Environmental Pb-Free Cu Front Electrode for Si-Base Solar Cell Application

Authors: Wen-Hsi Lee, C.G. Kao

Abstract:

In this study, Cu paste was prepared and printed with narrow line screen printing process on polycrystalline Si solar cell which has already finished the back Al printing and deposition of double anti-reflection coatings (DARCs). Then, two-step firing process was applied to sinter the front electrode and obtain the ohmic contact between front electrode and solar cell. The first step was in air atmosphere. In this process, PbO-based glass frit etched the DARCs and Ag recrystallized at the surface of Si, constructing the preliminary contact. The second step was in reducing atmosphere. In this process, CuO reduced to Cu and sintered. Besides, Ag nanoparticles recrystallized in the glass layer at interface due to the interactions between H2, Ag and PbO-based glass frit and the volatility of Pb, constructing the ohmic contact between electrode and solar cell. By experiment and analysis, reaction mechanism in each stage was surmised, and it was also proven that ohmic contact and good sheet resistance for front electrode could both be obtained by applying newly-invented paste and process.

Keywords: front electrode, solar cell, ohmic contact, screen printing, paste

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
484 Comparison of Transparent Nickel Doped Cobalt Sulfide and Platinum Counter Electrodes Used in Quasi-Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Dimitra Sygkridou, Dimitrios Karageorgopoulos, Elias Stathatos, Evangelos Vitoratos

Abstract:

Transparent nickel doped cobalt sulfide was fabricated on a SnO2:F electrode and tested as an efficient electrocatalyst and as an alternative to the expensive platinum counter electrode. In order to investigate how this electrode could affect the electrical characteristics of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we manufactured cells with the same TiO2 photoanode sensitized with dye (N719) and employing the same quasi-solid electrolyte, altering only the counter electrode used. The cells were electrically and electrochemically characterized and it was observed that the ones with the Ni doped CoS2 outperformed the efficiency of the cells with the Pt counter electrode (3.76% and 3.44% respectively). Particularly, the higher efficiency of the cells with the Ni doped CoS2 counter electrode (CE) is mainly because of the enhanced photocurrent density which is attributed to the enhanced electrocatalytic ability of the CE and the low charge transfer resistance at the CE/electrolyte interface.

Keywords: nickel doped cobalt sulfide, counter electrodes, dye-sensitized solar cells, quasi-solid state electrolyte, hybrid organic-inorganic materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 659
483 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, virtual electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
482 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
481 Electrochemical Behavior of Cocaine on Carbon Paste Electrode Chemically Modified with Cu(II) Trans 3-MeO Salcn Complex

Authors: Alex Soares Castro, Matheus Manoel Teles de Menezes, Larissa Silva de Azevedo, Ana Carolina Caleffi Patelli, Osmair Vital de Oliveira, Aline Thais Bruni, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira

Abstract:

Considering the problem of the seizure of illicit drugs, as well as the development of electrochemical sensors using chemically modified electrodes, this work shows the study of the electrochemical activity of cocaine in carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO salcn complex. In this context, cyclic voltammetry was performed on 0.1 mol.L⁻¹ KCl supporting electrolyte at a scan speed of 100 mV s⁻¹, using an electrochemical cell composed of three electrodes: Ag /AgCl electrode (filled KCl 3 mol.L⁻¹) from Metrohm® (reference electrode); a platinum spiral electrode, as an auxiliary electrode, and a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO complex (as working electrode). Two forms of cocaine were analyzed: cocaine hydrochloride (pH 3) and cocaine free base form (pH 8). The PM7 computational method predicted that the hydrochloride form is more stable than the free base form of cocaine, so with cyclic voltammetry, we found electrochemical signal only for cocaine in the form of hydrochloride, with an anodic peak at 1.10 V, with a linearity range between 2 and 20 μmol L⁻¹ had LD and LQ of 2.39 and 7.26x10-5 mol L⁻¹, respectively. The study also proved that cocaine is adsorbed on the surface of the working electrode, where through an irreversible process, where only anode peaks are observed, we have the oxidation of cocaine, which occurs in the hydrophilic region due to the loss of two electrons. The mechanism of this reaction was confirmed by the ab-inito quantum method.

Keywords: ab-initio computational method, analytical method, cocaine, Schiff base complex, voltammetry

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480 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Tze-Sian Pui, Aung Than, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe

Abstract:

A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: dopamine, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor, carbon nanotube

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
479 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi

Abstract:

This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
478 Electrospinning in situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Copper Indium Disulfide Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Lidan Wang, Shuyuan Zhao, Jianxin He

Abstract:

In this paper, graphene-doped copper indium disulfide (rGO+CuInS2) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), copper dichloride (CuCl2), indium trichloride (InCl3), thiourea (C2H5NS) and graphene oxide nanosheets (Go) as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The average diameter of rGO+CuInS2 nanofibers were about 100 nm, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanocrystals 8-15 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The DSSC with a rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.93%; better than the corresponding values for a DSSC with a CuInS2 counter electrode, and comparable to that of a reference DSSC with a Pt counter electrode. The excellent photoelectric performance of the rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode was attributed to its high specific surface area, which facilitated permeation of the liquid electrolytes, promoted electron and ion transfer and provided numerous catalytically active sites for the oxidation reaction of the electrolytic (I- /I3-).

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, counter electrode, electrospinning, graphene

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
477 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman

Abstract:

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutans, pharmaceuticals

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476 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: bioheat transfer, electrode, neuroprosthetics, TENS, transcutaneous stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
475 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide – 3 (4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashima

Abstract:

A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl)propionate nanocomposite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1x10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury(II).

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, mercury(II), modified carbon paste electrode, nanocomposite

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474 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide-3(4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl) propionate nano composite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1 x 10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury.

Keywords: Cyclic voltammetry, Mercury(II), Modified carbon paste electrode, Nanocomposite

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473 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: graphene, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction, solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
472 An Exploitation of Electrical Sensors in Monitoring Pool Chlorination

Authors: Fahad Alamoudi, Yaser Miaji

Abstract:

The growing popularity of swimming pools and other activities in the water for sport, fitness, therapy or just enjoyable relaxation have led to the increased use of swimming pools and the establishment of a variety of specific-use pools such as spa pools, water slides, and more recently, hydrotherapy and wave pools. In this research, a few simple equipment is used for test, detect and alert for detection of water cleanness and pollution. YSI Photometer Systems, TDSTestr High model, Rio 12HF and Electrode A1. The researchers used electrolysis as a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. The results which use 41 experiments show the higher the salt concentration, the more efficient the electrode and the smaller the gap between the plates, the lower the electrode voltage. Furthermore, it is proved that the larger the surface area, the lower the cell voltage and the higher current used the more chlorine produced.

Keywords: photometer, electrode, electrolysis, swimming pool chlorination

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471 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Mahendran Samykano, Ram Mohan, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: anodic alumina oxide, electrodeposition, nanowires, nickel

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470 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Binder-free Trimetallic Phosphate Nanosheets

Authors: Iftikhar Hussain, Muhammad Ahmad, Xi Chen, Li Yuxiang

Abstract:

Transition metal phosphides and phosphates are newly emerged electrode material candidates in energy storage devices. For the first time, we report uniformly distributed, interconnected, and well-aligned two-dimensional nanosheets made from trimetallic Zn-Co-Ga phosphate (ZCGP) electrode materials with preserved crystal phase. It is found that the ZCGP electrode material exhibits about 2.85 and 1.66 times higher specific capacity than mono- and bimetallic phosphate electrode materials at the same current density. The trimetallic ZCGP electrode exhibits superior conductivity, lower internal resistance (IR) drop, and high Coulombic efficiency compared to mono- and bimetallic phosphate. The charge storage mechanism is studied for mono- bi- and trimetallic electrode materials, which illustrate the diffusion-dominated battery-type behavior. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ZCGP shows superior metallic conductivity due to the modified exchange splitting originating from 3d-orbitals of Co atoms in the presence of Zn and Ga. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor (ZCGP//rGO) device is engineered, which delivered a high energy density (ED) of 40 W h kg⁻¹ and a high-power density (PD) of 7,745 W kg⁻¹, lighting 5 different colors of light emitting diodes (LEDs). These outstanding results confirm the promising battery-type electrode materials for energy storage applications.

Keywords: trimetallic phosphate, nanosheets, DFT calculations, hybrid supercapacitor, binder-free, synergistic effect

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469 Swimming Pool Water Chlorination Detection System Utilizing TDSTestr

Authors: Fahad Alamoudi, Yaser Miaji, Fawzy Jalalah

Abstract:

The growing popularity of swimming pools and other activities in the water for sport, fitness, therapy or just enjoyable relaxation have led to the increased use of swimming pools and the establishment of a variety of specific-use pools such as spa pools, Waterslides and more recently, hydrotherapy and wave pools. In this research a few simple equipments are used for test, Detect and alert for detection of water cleanness and pollution. YSI Photometer Systems, TDSTestr High model, rio 12HF, and Electrode A1. The researchers used electrolysis as a method of separating bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. The results which use 41 experiments show the higher the salt concentration, the more efficient the electrode and the smaller the gap between the plates and The lower the electrode voltage. Furthermore, it is proved that the larger the surface area, the lower the cell voltage and the higher current used the more chlorine produced.

Keywords: photometer, electrode, electrolysis, swimming pool chlorination

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468 An Electrochemical Study on Ethanol Oxidation with Pt/Pd Composite Electrodes in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

Authors: Yu-Chen Luo, Wan-Tzu Yen, I-Ping Liu, Po-Hsuan Yeh, Yuh-Lang Lee

Abstract:

The use of a Pt electrode leads to high catalytic efficiency in the ethanol electro-oxidation. However, the carbon monoxide (CO) released in the reaction will poison the Pt surfaces, lowering the electrocatalytic activity. In this study, composite electrodes are prepared to overcome the poisoning issue, and the related electro-oxidation behaviors are studied by surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). An electroless plating method is utilized to deposit Pt catalytic layers on the Pd film-coated FTO substrates. According to the SEIRAS spectra, the carbon dioxide signal of the Pt/Pd composite electrode is larger than that of the Pt one, whereas the CO signal of the composite electrode is relatively smaller. This result suggests that the studied Pt/Pd electrode has a better ability against CO poisoning. The CV analyses are conducted in alkaline environments, and current densities related to the ethanol oxidation in the forward scan (If) and to the CO poisoning in the backward scan (Ib) are measured. A higher ratio of If to Ib (If/Ib) usually represents a better ability against the poisoning effect. The If/Ib values are 2.53 and 2.07 for the Pt and Pt/Pd electrodes, respectively, which is possibly attributed to the increasing ability of CO adsorption of Pt electrode. Despite the lower If/Ib, the Pt/Pd composite electrode shows a higher ethanol oxidation performance in the alkaline system than the Pt does. Furthermore, its stability is also superior.

Keywords: cyclic voltammogram, electroless deposition, ethanol electro-oxidation, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

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467 Optimized Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Natural Dye and Counter Electrode from Robusta Coffee Beans Peel Waste

Authors: Tomi Setiawan, Wahyu Y. Subekti, Siti S. Nur'Adya, Khusnul Ilmiah

Abstract:

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is one type of solar cell, where solar cells function to convert light energy become the electrical energy. DSSC has two important parts of dye and counter electrode. Anthocyanin compounds in the coffee beans peel can be potential as natural dye and also counter electrodes as activated carbon in the DSSC system. The purpose of this research is to find out how to isolate Anthocyanin, manufacture of counter electrode, and to know the efficiency of counter electrode produced from the coffee pulp waste in DSSC prototype. In this research we used 2 x 2 cm FTO glass coated carbon paste with a thickness variation of 100 μL, 200 μL and 300 μL as counter electrode and other FTO glass coated with TiO₂ paste as work electrode, then two FTO glasses are connected to form a sandwich-liked structure and add Triiodide electrolyte solution in its gap, thus forming a DSSC prototype. The results showed that coffee pulp waste contains anthocyanin of 12.23 mL/80gr and it can produce activated carbon. The characterization performed shows that the UV-Vis Anthocyanin result is at wavelength of ultra violet area that is 219,50 nm with absorbance value equal to 1,469, and maximum wavelength at visible area is 720,00 nm with absorbance value equal to 0,013. The functional groups contained in the anthocyanin are O-H groups at wave numbers 3385.60 cm⁻¹, C = O groups at wave numbers 1618.63 cm⁻¹, and C-O-C groups at 1065.40 cm⁻¹ wave numbers. Morphological characterization using the SEM shows the activated carbon surface area becomes larger and evenly distributed. Voltage obtained on Counter Electrode 100 μL variation of 395mV, 200 μL of 334mV 100 μL of 254mV.

Keywords: DSSC, anthocyanin, counter electrode, solar cell, coffee pulp

Procedia PDF Downloads 110