Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6633

Search results for: Thiol-Michael addition

6633 Building in-Addition-School-Family Partnership

Authors: Lulu Sun

Abstract:

In Addition is an after-school mathematics program in which students and their parents build mathematical confidence and competence by solving problems they curious about. It is a program consists of mix-grade from 4th to 6th grade of 10 to 20 students, including math problem solving and other activities. This partnership will focus on the relationship between the In-Addition and the parents’ engagement; in this kind of partnership, it has the In-Addition program teaching and the family engagement. This partnership is purpose to building cooperation between the program and parents, strengthening the links between the program and families.

Keywords: program-family, family engagement, positive bias, partnership

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
6632 Improving Concrete Properties with Fibers Addition

Authors: E. Mello, C. Ribellato, E. Mohamedelhassan

Abstract:

This study investigated the improvement in concrete properties with addition of cellulose, steel, carbon and PET fibers. Each fiber was added at four percentages to the fresh concrete, which was moist-cured for 28-days and then tested for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Changes in strength and increases in cost were analyzed. Results showed that addition of cellulose caused a decrease between 9.8% and 16.4% in compressive strength. This range may be acceptable as cellulose fibers can significantly increase the concrete resistance to fire, and freezing and thawing cycles. Addition of steel fibers to concrete increased the compressive strength by up to 20%. Increases 121.5% and 80.7% were reported in tensile and flexural strengths respectively. Carbon fibers increased flexural and tensile strengths by up to 11% and 45%, respectively. Concrete strength properties decreased after the addition of PET fibers. Results showed that improvement in strength after addition of steel and carbon fibers may justify the extra cost of fibers.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, fibers, flexural strength, tensile strength

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6631 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa

Abstract:

The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic, microstructure, mechanical properties

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6630 Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Release in a Temperate Grassland in Northern China

Authors: Lili Yang, Jirui Gong, Qinpu Luo, Min Liu, Bo Yang, Zihe Zhang

Abstract:

Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) inputs to grassland ecosystems. Knowledge of the impact of N addition on litter decomposition is critical to understand ecosystem carbon cycling and their responses to global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N addition and litter types on litter decomposition of a semi-arid temperate grassland during growing and non-growing seasons in Inner Mongolia, northern China, and to identify the relation between litter decomposition and C: N: P stoichiometry in the litter-soil continuum. Six levels of N addition were conducted: CK, N1 (0 g Nm−2 yr−1), N2 (2 g Nm−2 yr−1), N3 (5 g Nm−2 yr−1), N4 (10 g Nm−2 yr−1) and N5 (25 g Nm−2 yr−1). Litter decomposition rates and nutrient release differed greatly among N addition gradients and litter types. N addition promoted litter decomposition of S. grandis, but exhibited no significant influence on L. chinensis litter, indicating that the S. grandis litter decomposition was more sensitive to N addition than L. chinensis. The critical threshold for N addition to promote mixed litter decomposition was 10 -25g Nm−2 yr−1. N addition altered the balance of C: N: P stoichiometry between litter, soil and microbial biomass. During decomposition progress, the L. chinensis litter N: P was higher in N2-N4 plots compared to CK, while the S. grandis litter C: N was lower in N3 and N4 plots, indicating that litter N or P content doesn’t satisfy microbial decomposers with the increasing of N addition. As a result, S. grandis litter exhibited net N immobilization, while L. chinensis litter net P immobilization. Mixed litter C: N: P stoichiometry satisfied the demand of microbial decomposers, showed net mineralization during the decomposition process. With the increasing N deposition in the future, mixed litter would potentially promote C and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystem by increasing litter decomposition and nutrient release.

Keywords: C: N: P stoichiometry, litter decomposition, nitrogen addition, nutrient release

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6629 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy

Abstract:

In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

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6628 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®, microstructure, mechanical properties

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6627 Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Improvement of the Performances of Lead–Acid Batteries

Authors: Malika Foudia, Larbi Zerroual

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to improve the electrical proprieties of lead-acid battery with the addition of additives in electrolyte and in the cured plates before oxidation. The results showed that the addition of surfactant in sulfuric acid and 3% mineral additive in the cured plates change the morphology and the crystallite size of PAM after oxidation. The discharge capacity increases with the decrease of the crystallite size and the resistance of the active mass. This shows that the addition of mineral additive and the surfactant additive to the PAM, the electrical performance and the cycle life of lead- acid battery are significantly increases.

Keywords: lead-acid battery, additives, positive plate, impedance (EIS).

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6626 The Effect of the Calcination Temperature and SiO2 Addition on the Physical Properties’ of Sol Gel TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Nour El Houda Arabi, Aicha Iratni, Talaighil Razika, Bruno Capoen, Mohamed Bouazaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the effect of the calcination temperature and SiO2 addition on structural, optical and hydrophilicity of TiO2 films deposited by deep-coating sol-gel process. XRD investigation of the structural TiO2 films with increasing the temperature calcination, reveals that rutile phase will appear for the high temperature (>1000°C). However, the addition of SiO2 relate the densification of TiO2 films. Ellipsometric and UV-visible measure show that the refractive index grow with increasing temperature, against the film thickness decreases. On the other hand, the addition of SiO2 decreases the refractive index and increases the TiO2 film thickness. Finally, the hydrophilicity is assisted by contact angle measurement. It is found that addition of 50% of SiO2 to TiO2 is most effective for reducing the contact angle of water.

Keywords: physical properties, sol, gel, TiO2/SiO2 composite films

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6625 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun

Abstract:

This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wear

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6624 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: aluminum, fatigue, grain refinement, titanium, titanium+boron, vanadium

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6623 Effects of Camel Casein Hydrolysate Addition on Rheological Properties of Yoghurt

Authors: A. A. Al-Saleh, E. A. Ismail, A. A. Metwalli

Abstract:

Effects of camel and cow casein hydrolysates by trypsin enzyme on rheological and sensory properties and growth of starter culture of the yoghurts made from cow milk have been investigated. The hydrolysates strongly decreased the fermentation and coagulation time of the yoghurts. The rate of pH decrease was higher with camel casein hydrolysate in comparison with cow casein hydrolysate at all concentrations used (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%). Viscosities of the yoghurt made with hydrolysates significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control samples. The addition of the hydrolysates significantly (p <0.05) increased the hardness and adhesiveness of the yoghurts. No significant differences in water holding capacity of control and treated samples were obsereved at 0.5 and 1.0% casein hydrolysate addition. However, increasing casein hydrolysate addition to 1.5% decreased water holding capacity of yoghurt samples. The sensory evaluation scores of the yoghurts were significantly (p<0.05) improved with the addition of casein hydrolysates.

Keywords: yoghurt, camel casein hydrolysates, cow casein hydrolysate, sensory evaluation

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6622 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound, composition, morphology

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6621 Round Addition DFA on Lightweight Block Ciphers with On-The-Fly Key Schedule

Authors: Hideki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kaminaga, Arimitsu Shikoda, Toshinori Suzuki

Abstract:

Round addition differential fault analysis (DFA) using operation bypassing for lightweight block ciphers with on-the-fly key schedule is presented. For 64-bit KLEIN and 64-bit LED, it is shown that only a pair of correct ciphertext and faulty ciphertext can derive the secret master key. For PRESENT, one correct ciphertext and two faulty ciphertexts are required to reconstruct the secret key.

Keywords: differential fault analysis (DFA), round addition, block cipher, on-the-fly key schedule

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6620 The Effect of Addition of Some Rare Earth Materials to Zinc Aluminum Alloy ZA-22

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing several parts in the automobile and aircraft industries. The effect of grain refinement of these alloys by rare earth elements on their mechanical characteristics is scarce. The equal channel angular pressing is relatively recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials subjected to it resulting in refinement of their structure and enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. The phase diagram of these alloys indicates that large dendrites of large grain size can be formed during their solidification of the cast which tends to deteriorate their mechanical strength and surface quality. To overcome this problem they are normally grain refined by either titanium or titanium + boron to their melt prior to solidification. In this paper, comparison between the effect of adding either titanium, (Ti), titanium+boron, (Ti+B), or Molybdenum, Mo, to zinc-aluminum22, alloy, (ZA22) on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of either Ti, Ti+B, or Mo to the ZA22 alloy in the cast condition resulted in refining of their structure being more refined by the addition of Mo, then .Ti+B and less refining by Ti addition. Furthermore, the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the alloy micro structure except in case of Ti+B addition where poisoning i.e. coarsening of the grains has occurred. Regarding the addition of these element on the mechanical behavior; it was found that addition of Ti Or Ti+B resulted in little enhancement of the alloy strength factor and its flow stress at 20% true strain; whereas, the addition of resulted in deteriorating of its mechanical behavior as % decrease in the strength factor and % in its flow stress of 20%. As for the strain hardening index; addition of any of these elements resulted in decreasing the strain hardening index.

Keywords: addition, grain refinement, mechanical characteristics, microstructure, rare earth elements, ZA-22, Zinc- aluminum alloy

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6619 Nanomechanical Properties of Coconut Shell Ash Blended Cement Mortar

Authors: Kumator Taku, Bilkisu Amartey

Abstract:

This research used Grid indentation technique to investigate the effect of the addition of Coconut Shell Ash (CSA) on the nanomechanical properties of the main phases of the hydrated cement paste. Portland cement was partially replaced with 15% CSA at a water-binder ratio of 0.5 and cubes casted and cured for 28 days after which they were polished to reduce surface roughness to the barest minimum. The result of nanoindentation shows that addition of 15% CSA to cement paste transforms portlandite to C-S-H by the pozzolanic reaction. More so, there is reduced porosity and a reduction in the volume of CH by the addition of the CSA. Even though the addition of 15% CSA does not drastically change the average values of the hardness and elastic modulus of the two phases of the C-S-H, it greatly modifies their relative proportions, leading to the production of more HD C-S-H. Overall, incorporating 15%CSA to cement mortar improves the Nanomechanical properties of the four main phases of the hydrated cement paste.

Keywords: Coconut Shell Ash, Elastic Modulus, Hardness, Nanoindentation, Porosity

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6618 Using the Cluster Computing to Improve the Computational Speed of the Modular Exponentiation in RSA Cryptography System

Authors: Te-Jen Chang, Ping-Sheng Huang, Shan-Ten Cheng, Chih-Lin Lin, I-Hui Pan, Tsung- Hsien Lin

Abstract:

RSA system is a great contribution for the encryption and the decryption. It is based on the modular exponentiation. We call this system as “a large of numbers for calculation”. The operation of a large of numbers is a very heavy burden for CPU. For increasing the computational speed, in addition to improve these algorithms, such as the binary method, the sliding window method, the addition chain method, and so on, the cluster computer can be used to advance computational speed. The cluster system is composed of the computers which are installed the MPICH2 in laboratory. The parallel procedures of the modular exponentiation can be processed by combining the sliding window method with the addition chain method. It will significantly reduce the computational time of the modular exponentiation whose digits are more than 512 bits and even more than 1024 bits.

Keywords: cluster system, modular exponentiation, sliding window, addition chain

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6617 Bio-Furan Based Poly (β-Thioether Ester) Synthesized via Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerization with Tunable Structure and Properties

Authors: Daihui Zhang, Marie J. Dumont

Abstract:

A derivative of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was synthesized for the thiol-Michael addition reaction. The efficiency of the catalysts (base and nucleophiles) and side reactions during the thiol-Michael addition were investigated. Dimethylphenylphosphine efficiently initiated the thiol-Michael addition polymerization for synthesizing a series of bio-based furan polymers with different structure and properties. The benzene rings or hydroxyl groups present in the polymer chains increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of poly (β-thioether ester). Additionally, copolymers with various compositions were obtained via adding different ratio of 1,6-hexanedithiols to 1,4-benzenedithiols. 1H NMR analysis revealed that experimental ratios of two dithiols monomers matched well with theoretical ratios. The occurrence of a reversible Diels-Alder reaction between furan rings and maleimide groups allowed poly (β-thioether ester) to be dynamically crosslinked. These polymers offer the potentials to produce materials from biomass that have both practical mechanical properties and reprocessing ability.

Keywords: copolymers, Diels-Alder reaction, hydroxymethylfurfural, Thiol-Michael addition

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6616 Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

Authors: M. M. Fercan, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun

Abstract:

Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this study, the amounts of Mg, Na, Fe, and B contents in Turkish coffee are determined and effect of sugar addition is investigated for conscious consumption. The analysis of the contents of coffees was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). From the results of the experiments the Mg, Na, Fe and B contents of Turkish coffee after sugar addition were found as 19.83, 1.04, 0.02, 0.21 ppm, while without using sugar these concentrations were found 21.46, 0.81, 0.008 and 0.16 ppm. In addition, element contents were calculated for 1, 3 and 5 cups of coffee in order to investigate the health effects.

Keywords: health effect, ICP-OES, sugar, Turkish coffee

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6615 Ag (I) Catalyzed Domino Carbonyl and Alkyne Activation: A Smooth Entry to 2, 2′-Di-Substituted 3, 3′-Bisindolylarylmethanes

Authors: Swastik Karmakar, Prasanta Das, Shital K. Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

An efficient synthesis of symmetrical 2, 2′-Di-substituted 3, 3′-bisindolylarylmethanes (BIAMs) having different aryl and hetero-aryl moieties has been developed by Ag(I)-catalyzed indolyzation and a sequential deoxygenative addition involving o-alkynylanilines and aryl/hetero-aryl aldehydes as substrates. Alkyne and carbonyl units could be activated by Ag (I) simultaneously which results in a domino 5-endo-dig indole annulation, addition of C3 of this indole nucleus to the carbonyl carbon in addition to second indole annulation, and its dehydroxylative addition to the same carbonyl carbon to furnish BIAMs in excellent yield. As 3, 3′-bisindolylmethanes (BIMs) are biologically significant scaffolds, this moiety with further substitutions at the indole core could find some important use in medicinal chemistry. The methodology developed is atom-economic and involves more accessible silver salts, which could be useful for large-scale synthesis.

Keywords: alkyne, 3, 3′-Bisindolylarylmethanes, carbonyl, domino, 5-endo-dig indole annulation, silver catalyst

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6614 The Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate on the Mg and P Concentrations in Turkish Black and Green Tea

Authors: E. Moroydor Derun, T. Yalcin, O. Dere Ozdemir, S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Tea is one of the most consumed beverages all over the world. Especially, black and green teas are preferred to consume. In Turkey, some local tea houses use sodium bicarbonate (SB) to obtain more infusion by using less amount of tea. Therefore, the addition of SB to black and green teas affects element concentrations of these teas. In this study, determination of magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P) contents in black and green teas is aimed for conscious consumption, after the addition of SB. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for these analysis. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of Mg and P decreased by adding SB from 11.020, 21.915 to 10.009, 17.520 in black tea and from 12.605, 14.550 to 8.118, 9.425 in green tea, respectively. The addition of SB on analyzed teas is not recommended as it reduces intake percentages of Mg and P from the essential elements.

Keywords: elements, ICP-OES, sodium bicarbonate, tea

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6613 Alloying Effect on Hot Workability of M42 High Speed Steel

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0C, 0.2Mn, 3.8Cr, 1.5W, 8.5Co, 9.2Mo, and 1.0V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3 wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm´ 140 mm´ 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150°C for 1.5 hrs. followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminium and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.

Keywords: high speed steels, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, hot workability

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6612 Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Jeonho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0 C, 0.2 Mn, 3.8 Cr, 1.5 W, 8.5 Co, 9.2 Mo, and 1.0 V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm x 140 mm x 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150 °C for 1.5 hr followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminum and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, hot workability

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6611 Effect of Molybdenum Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Titanium Plus Boron on Its Grain Size and Mechanical Characteristics in the Cast and After Pressing by the Equal Channel Angular Pressing Conditions

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid, A. M. Attieh, S. M. A. Al Qawabah

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys solidify in columnar structure with large grain size which tends to reduce their mechanical strength and surface quality. They are, therefore, grain refined by addition of either titanium or titanium plus boron to their melt before solidification. Equal channel angular pressing, ECAP, process is a recent forming method for producing heavy plastic deformation in materials. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition to aluminum grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics are investigated in the as cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process. It was found that addition of Mo or Ti+B alone or together to aluminum resulted in grain refining of its microstructure in the as cast condition, as the average grain size was reduced from 139 micron to 46 micron when Mo and Ti+B are added together. Pressing by the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the microstructure where 32 micron of average grain size was achieved in Al and the Al-Mo microalloy. Regarding the mechanical strength, addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical behavior but resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behavior when added together, increase of 10% in flow stress was achieved at 20% strain. However, pressing by ECAP addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical strength but reduced its strength when added together.

Keywords: ECAP, aluminum, cast, mechanical characteristics, Mo grain refiner

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6610 Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delayed Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar

Authors: Faraidoon Rahmanzai, Mizuki Takigawa, Yu Bomura, Shigeyuki Date

Abstract:

To obtain the high quality and essential workability of mortar, different types of superplasticizers are used. The superplasticizers are the chemical admixture used in the mix to improve the fluidity of mortar. Many factors influenced the superplasticizer to disperse the cement particle in the mortar. Nature and amount of replaced cement by slag, mixing procedure, delayed addition time, and heat stimulation technique of superplasticizer cause the varied effect on the fluidity of the cementitious material. In this experiment, the superplasticizers were heated for 1 hour under 60 °C in a thermostatic chamber. Furthermore, the effect of delayed addition time of heat stimulated superplasticizers (SP) was also analyzed. This method was applied to two types of polycarboxylic acid based ether SP (precast type superplasticizer (SP2) and ready-mix type superplasticizer (SP1)) in combination with a partial replacement of normal Portland cement with blast furnace slag (BFS) with 30% w/c ratio. On the other hands, the fluidity, air content, fresh density, and compressive strength for 7 and 28 days were studied. The results indicate that the addition time and heat stimulation technique improved the flow and air content, decreased the density, and slightly decreased the compressive strength of mortar. Moreover, the slag improved the flow of mortar by increasing the amount of slag, and the effect of external temperature of SP on the flow of mortar was decreased. In comparison, the flow of mortar was improved on 5-minute delay for both kinds of SP, but SP1 has improved the flow in all conditions. Most importantly, the transition points in both types of SP appear to be the same, at about 5±1 min.  In addition, the optimum addition time of SP to mortar should be in this period.

Keywords: combined effect, delay addition, heat stimulation, flow of mortar

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6609 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

Abstract:

Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: inulin, fat replacer, yoghurt, sensory evaluation, low fat

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6608 Effect of Zr Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti+B on Its Wear Resistance after Extrusion Condition

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Safwan M. A. Alqawabah

Abstract:

Review of the available literature on grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys reveals that little work is published on the effect of refiners on mechanical characteristics and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zr to Al grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical, mechanical characteristics and wear resistance both in the as cast and after extrusion condition are presented and discussed. It was found that Addition of Zr to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical strength and hardness, whereas it resulted in improvement of both of them when added to Al grain refined by Ti+B. Furthermore it was found that the direct extrusion process resulted in further increase of the mechanical strength and hardness of Al and its micro-alloys. Also it resulted in increase of their work hardening index, n, i.e. improved their formability, hence it reduces the number of stages required for forming at large strains in excess of the plastic instability before Zr addition.

Keywords: aluminum, grain refinement, titanium + boron, zirconium, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance, direct extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
6607 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy, phase equilibrium, rolling, microstructure, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
6606 The Effect of Rosella Flower Flour (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Utilization in Ration on Performance of Broiler Chicken

Authors: Nurlisa Uke Dessy, Dwi Septian Erwinsyah, Zuprizal

Abstract:

This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rosella flower flour in diet on broiler chicken Performace. The materials used in this experiment were 72 broiler chickens and were divided into six treatments, those were R0 = without rosella flower flour addition, R1 = 0.5% rosella flower flour addition, R2 = 1.0% rosella flower flour addition, R3 = 1.5% rosella flower flour addition, R4 = 2.0% rosella flower flour addition, and R5 = 2.5% rosella flower flour addition. Each treatment consisted of three replications and each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. This research took 35 days to collect the data. Parameters measured were feed intake, rosella flower flour consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and mortality. The collected data were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the differences of mean were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed the average of feed consumption were 2154; 2154; 2034; 2154; 2034 and 2154 g/bird on broiler chicken that were feed respectively by 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5% rosella flower flour level. The average consumptions of rosella flower flour respectively were 0; 10.77; 20.34; 32.31; 40.68; and 53.85 g/bird. The body weight gains were 1263.33±70.40; 1422.42±36.33; 1443.75±30.00; 1387.42± 35.30; 1411.17±29.58 and 1457.08±40.75 g/bird. Feed conversion results were 1.71±0.94; 1.51±0.37; 1.47±0.62; 1.55±0.40; 1.53±0.30 and 1.48±0.40. The conclusion of the experiment was known that using rosella flower flour until 2.5% level in diet was able to increase broiler chicken performance, and also to decrease broiler chicken feed conversion.

Keywords: feed intake, consumptions rosella flower flour, broiler chickens, body weight gain, feed conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
6605 Effect of Nanoparticle Addition in the Urea-Formaldehyde Resin on the Formaldehyde Emission from MDF

Authors: Sezen Gurdag, Ayse Ebru Akin

Abstract:

There is a growing concern all over the world on the health effect of the formaldehyde emission coming from the adhesive used in the MDF production. In this research, we investigated the effect of nanoparticle addition such as nanoclay and halloysite into urea-formadehyde resin on the total emitted formaldehyde from MDF plates produced using the resin modified as such. First, the curing behavior of the resin was studied by monitoring the pH, curing time, solid content, density and viscosity of the modified resin in comparison to the reference resin with no added nanoparticle. The dosing of the nanoparticle in the dry resin was kept at 1wt%, 3wt% or 5wt%. Consecutively, the resin was used in the production of 50X50 cm MDF samples using laboratory scale press line with full automation system. Modulus of elasticity, bending strength, internal bonding strength, water absorption were also measured in addition to the main interested parameter formaldehyde emission levels which is determined via spectrometric technique following an extraction procedure. Threshold values for nanoparticle dosing levels were determined to be 5wt% for both nanoparticles. However, the reinforcing behavior was observed to be occurring at different levels in comparison to the reference plates with each nanoparticle such that the level of reinforcement with nanoclay was shown to be more favorable than the addition of halloysite due to higher surface area available with the former. In relation, formaldehyde emission levels were observed to be following a similar trend where addition of 5wt% nanoclay into the urea-formaldehyde adhesive helped decrease the formaldehyde emission up to 40% whereas addition of halloysite at its threshold level demonstrated as the same level, i.e., 5wt%, produced an improvement of 18% only.

Keywords: halloysite, nanoclay, fiberboard, urea-formaldehyde adhesive

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
6604 Utilization of Rice and Corn Bran with Dairy By-Product in Tarhana Production

Authors: Kübra Aktaş, Nihat Akin

Abstract:

Tarhana is a traditional Turkish fermented food. It is widely consumed as soup and includes many different ingredients such as wheat flour, various vegetables, and spices, yoghurt, bakery yeast. It can also be enriched by adding other ingredients. Thus, its nutritional properties can be enhanced. In this study, tarhana was supplemented with two different types of brans (rice bran and corn bran) and WPC (whey protein concentrate powder) to improve its nutritional and functional properties. Some chemical properties of tarhana containing two different brans and their levels (0, 5, 10 and 15%) and WPC (0, 5, 10%) were investigated. The results indicated that addition of WPC increased ash content in tarhanas which were fortified with rice and corn bran. The highest antioxidant and phenolic content values were obtained with addition of rice bran in tarhana formulation. Compared to tarhana with corn bran, rice bran addition gave higher oil content values. The cellulose content of tarhana samples was determined between 0.75% and 2.74% and corn bran showed an improving effect on cellulose contents of samples. In terms of protein content, addition of WPC into the tarhana raised protein content for the samples.

Keywords: corn, rice, tarhana, whey

Procedia PDF Downloads 243