Search results for: broiler chickens
177 A Study of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristic, Meat Quality and Association of Polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II Gene with Fat Accumulation in the Female Broiler, Thai Native and Betong Chickens (KU Line)
Authors: C. Kridtayopas, W. Danvilai, P. Sopannarath, A. Kayan, W. Loongyai
Abstract:Both Betong chicken (KU Line) and Thai Native chickens were the high quality of the meat and low carcass fat compared to broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the growth performance, carcass characteristic, meat quality and association of polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene with fat accumulation in the female broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens at 4-14 weeks. The chickens were used and reared under the same environment and management (100 chicks per breed). The results showed that body weight (BW) of broiler chickens was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01) through all the experiment. At 4-8 weeks of age, feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broiler chickens was significantly better than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01), then increased at week 8-14. The percentage of breast, abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat of broiler chickens was significantly greater than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens (P < 0.01). However, Thai Native chickens showed the highest percentage of liver (P < 0.01) when compared to other breeds. In addition, the percentage of wing of Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than broiler chickens. Meat quality was also determined and found that, pH of breast meat left from slaughter 45 minutes (pH45) and 24 hours (pH24) of broiler was significantly higher than Thai Native and Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01) whereas the percentage of drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss and shear force was not significantly different between breeds. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to genotype the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene in the broiler, Thai Native and Betong (KU line) chickens. The results found that, the polymorphism in the ApoVLDL-II gene at VLDL6 loci was not associated with fat accumulation in those studied population.
Keywords: ApoVLDL-II gene, Betong (KU line) chickens, broiler chickens, carcass characteristic, growth performance, meat quality, Thai native chickensProcedia PDF Downloads 139
176 Coping Heat Stress By Crushed Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) Seeds in Broilers: Growth, Redox Balance, and Humoral Immune Response
Authors: Adia Fatima, Naila Chand, Rifat Ullah Khan
Abstract:The goal of this study was to determine how fennel seed supplementation affected broiler growth, carcass quality, antioxidant status, and antibody titer in heat-stressed broilers. A total of 720 one-day-old broiler chickens were weighed and assigned to 28-floor pens (25 broiler chickens per pen). The broiler chickens were housed in a thermoneutral (TN) environment and were exposed to heat stress (HS). For 23 hours, the broiler chickens were kept under fluorescent lighting. For 35d, HS broiler chickens were fed a control diet and three levels of fennel seeds powder at rates of 15g/kg (Fen-15), 20 g/kg (Fen-20), and 25 g/kg (Fen-25). Overall feed intake, weight gain, and dressing % were considerably greater (P < 0.05) in Fen-25 and TN, but FCR was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the same groups. When TN, Fen-20, and Fen-25 were compared to the control, malondialdehyde (MDA), paraoxonase (PON1), and antibody titer against New Castle disease (ND) were considerably (P < 0.05) greater. Further, the linear and quadratic response was for feed intake, weight gain, FCR, MDA, PON1, and ND titer. It was concluded that Fen-20 and Fen-25 increased broiler growth, carcass quality, antioxidant status, and immunological response under HS conditions.
Keywords: heat stress, growth, antioxidant, immunityProcedia PDF Downloads 33
175 The Expression of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene with Fat Accumulations and Serum Biochemical Levels in Betong (KU Line) and Broiler Chickens
Authors: W. Loongyai, N. Saengsawang, W. Danvilai, C. Kridtayopas, P. Sopannarath, C. Bunchasak
Abstract:Betong chicken is a slow growing and a lean strain of chicken, while the rapid growth of broiler is accompanied by increased fat. We investigated the growth performance, fat accumulations, lipid serum biochemical levels and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression of female Betong (KU line) at the age of 4 and 6 weeks. A total of 80 female Betong chickens (KU line) and 80 female broiler chickens were reared under open system (each group had 4 replicates of 20 chicks per pen). The results showed that feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) of broiler chicken were significantly higher than Betong (KU line) (P < 0.01), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Betong (KU line) at week 6 were significantly lower than broiler chicken (P < 0.01) at 6 weeks. At 4 and 6 weeks, two birds per replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. Carcass weight did not significantly differ between treatments; the percentage of abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield was higher in the broiler (P < 0.01) at 4 and 6 week. Total cholesterol and LDL level of broiler were higher than Betong (KU line) at 4 and 6 weeks (P < 0.05). Abdominal fat samples were collected for total RNA extraction. The cDNA was amplified using primers specific for LPL gene expression and analysed using real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of LPL gene was not different when compared between Betong (KU line) and broiler chickens at the age of 4 and 6 weeks (P > 0.05). Our results indicated that broiler chickens had high growth rate and fat accumulation when compared with Betong (KU line) chickens, whereas LPL gene expression did not differ between breeds.
Keywords: lipoprotein lipase gene, Betong (KU line), broiler, abdominal fat, gene expressionProcedia PDF Downloads 103
174 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens
Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori
Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.
Keywords: broiler chickens, Echinacea purporea, gene expression, lipopolysaccharideProcedia PDF Downloads 161
173 Effects of Palm Kernel Expeller Processing on the Ileal Populations of Lactobacilli and Escherichia Coli in Broiler Chickens
Authors: B. Navidshad
Abstract:The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of enzymatic treatment and shell content of palm kernel expeller (PKE) on the ileal Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli populations in broiler chickens. At the finisher phase, one hundred male broiler chickens (Cobb-500) were fed a control diet or the diets containing 200 g/kg of normal PKE (70 g/kg shell), low shell PKE (30 g/kg shell), enzymatic treated PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE. The quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the ileal bacteria populations. The lowest ileal Lactobacilli population was found in the chickens fed the low shell PKE diet. Dietary normal PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE decreased the Escherichia coli population compared to the control diet. The results suggested that PKE could be included up to 200 g/kg in the finisher diet, however, any screening practice to reduce the shell content of PKE without enzymatic degradation of β-mannan, decrease ileal Lactobacilli population.
Keywords: palm kernel expeller, exogenous enzyme, shell content, ileum bacteria, broiler chickensProcedia PDF Downloads 288
172 Impact of Dietary L-Threonine Supplementation on Performance and Health of Broiler Chickens, a Review
Authors: Mandana Hoseini
Abstract:During last decades, intensive selection for higher growth rate in broiler chickens has accelerated daily body weight gain, which this has changed/increased the trends and amounts of nutrient requirements in the diet. As a result, considerable studies have been focused on the better determination of protein/amino acids requirements in modern broiler diets. One approach to minimize dietary crude protein inclusion levels is substitution of some of the dietary crude protein with synthetic amino acids. In addition, using synthetic forms of limiting essential amino acids in the diet could help better coincidence of dietary protein with ideal protein concept, which this in turn, minimizes nitrogen dissipation and environmental pollution. Threonine is usually considered as the third limiting amino acid in broiler diets. Recent studies have been demonstrated that dietary supplemental threonine would optimize growth performance, immune system, intestinal morphology, as well as oxidative defense in broiler chickens. In this review, threonine metabolism and its effects in relation with different aspects of broiler performance have been discussed.
Keywords: immune system, intestine, performance, requirement, threonineProcedia PDF Downloads 35
171 The Effect of Rosella Flower Flour (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Utilization in Ration on Performance of Broiler Chicken
Authors: Nurlisa Uke Dessy, Dwi Septian Erwinsyah, Zuprizal
Abstract:This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rosella flower flour in diet on broiler chicken Performace. The materials used in this experiment were 72 broiler chickens and were divided into six treatments, those were R0 = without rosella flower flour addition, R1 = 0.5% rosella flower flour addition, R2 = 1.0% rosella flower flour addition, R3 = 1.5% rosella flower flour addition, R4 = 2.0% rosella flower flour addition, and R5 = 2.5% rosella flower flour addition. Each treatment consisted of three replications and each replication consisted of four broiler chickens. This research took 35 days to collect the data. Parameters measured were feed intake, rosella flower flour consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion and mortality. The collected data were analyzed using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and the differences of mean were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The result showed the average of feed consumption were 2154; 2154; 2034; 2154; 2034 and 2154 g/bird on broiler chicken that were feed respectively by 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5% rosella flower flour level. The average consumptions of rosella flower flour respectively were 0; 10.77; 20.34; 32.31; 40.68; and 53.85 g/bird. The body weight gains were 1263.33±70.40; 1422.42±36.33; 1443.75±30.00; 1387.42± 35.30; 1411.17±29.58 and 1457.08±40.75 g/bird. Feed conversion results were 1.71±0.94; 1.51±0.37; 1.47±0.62; 1.55±0.40; 1.53±0.30 and 1.48±0.40. The conclusion of the experiment was known that using rosella flower flour until 2.5% level in diet was able to increase broiler chicken performance, and also to decrease broiler chicken feed conversion.
Keywords: feed intake, consumptions rosella flower flour, broiler chickens, body weight gain, feed conversionProcedia PDF Downloads 558
170 Bio-Equivalence of Doxycycline in Two Preparations in Broiler Chickens
Authors: Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub
Abstract:The present study was designed to investigate the bio-equivalence of doxycycline in Dolistin® and Colidox® at a dose rate of 10 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight in 48 clinically normal broiler chickens. After oral administration, plasma levels of doxycycline peaked after 2 hours post-dosing without significant differences between the two products and it could be detected therapeutically and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most micro-organisms sensitive to doxycycline for 12 hours. The disposition kinetics of doxycycline in the two products following oral administration revealed that the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax.) were 22.65 and 21.80 µg/ml and attained at (Tmax.) 2.10 and 2.20 hours, respectively. Doxycycline in both of the products was eliminated with half- lives (t0.5α) equal to 7.70 and 6.93 hours, respectively. The mean systemic bio availabilities of doxycycline in both of the products after oral administration in chickens were 80.60 and 79.70%, respectively. It was concluded that doxycycline in the form of Dolistin® and Colidox® needs a dose equivalent to 20 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight a day is better to keep the plasma concentration higher than the MIC.
Keywords: tetracyclines, doxycycline, bioavailability, broilers, chickensProcedia PDF Downloads 440
169 Do Immune Organ Weights Indicate Immunomodulation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids?
Authors: H. Al-Khalifa, A. Al-Nasser
Abstract:The main immune organs in poultry are the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. During an immune response, mature lymphocytes and other immune cells interact with antigens in these tissues. Consequently, the mass of these organs can in some cases indicate immune status. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding flaxseed on immune tissue weights. Cobb 500 broiler chickens were fed flaxseed at 15%, the control diet did not contain any flaxseed. Results showed that dietary supplementation with flaxseed did not affect the weights of the spleens of broiler chickens. However, it significantly lowered bursa weights (p<0.01), compared to the control diet. In addition, the bursae were thinner in appearance compared with bursii from chickens fed the control diets.
Keywords: bursa of fabricius, flaxseed, spleen, thymusProcedia PDF Downloads 390
168 Effect of Different Levels of Vitamin E and L-Carnitine on Performance of Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress
Authors: S. Salari, M. A. Shirali, S. Tabatabaei, M. Sari, R. Jahanian
Abstract:This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of vitamin E and L-carnitine on performance, blood parameters and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. For this purpose 396 one- day- old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly distributed between 9 treatments with 4 replicates (11 birds in each replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of three levels of vitamin E (0, 100 and 200 mg/ kg) and three levels of L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg/ kg) that was done in completely randomized design with 3X3 factorial arrangement for 42 days. During the first three weeks, chickens were reared at normal temperature. From the beginning of the fourth week, all chickens were maintenance in a temperature range from 24-38 ° C for heat stress. Performance parameters including average feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. The results showed that the levels of vitamin E had no significant effect on feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the experiment. The use of L-carnitine decreased feed intake during the experiment (P < 0/05). But did not affect average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. Also, there was not significant interaction between vitamin E and L-carnitine for performance parameters except average daily gain during the starter period. The results of this study indicate that the use of different levels of vitamin E and L-carnitine under heat stress did not affected performance parameters of broiler chickens.
Keywords: broiler, heat stress, l-carnitine, performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 418
167 Influence of Litter Materials on Organs' Relative Weights, Meat Quality, Breast and Footpad Dermatitis of Broiler Chickens under Hot Humid Climate
Authors: Oyegunle Oke, James Daramola, Oluwaseun Iyasere, Babatunde Modinat
Abstract:Wood shavings are the most common materials used as litter in commercial broiler production in many areas in Nigeria. A study was conducted to determine the effects of litter materials on organ weights, meat quality, footpad, and breast dermatitis of broiler chickens under hot humid climate. One hundred and eighty broiler chicks of marshal strains were randomly assigned to three treatments of wood shavings, maize cobs and chopped Panicum maximum as litter materials replicated four (4) times with 15 birds each in a completely randomized design. Data were collected on the relative body weights, meat quality, breast and foot pad dermatitis. The result showed that birds reared on chopped Panicum maximum had higher relative weight on the liver than those reared on wood shavings and maize cobs. Spleen and bursa of Fabricius were not significantly affected by litter materials. There was no significant effect of litter materials on meat quality. The relative weight of thigh of birds reared on chopped Panicum maximum, and Maize cobs were similar but higher than those reared on Wood shavings. Fresh breast weight of birds reared on wood shavings was higher than those reared on chopped Panicum maximum and maize cobs. It was concluded that chopped Panicum maximum could serve as a replacement for wood shavings as a litter material for broiler chickens.
Keywords: chickens, dermatitis, organs, litter materialsProcedia PDF Downloads 154
166 Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and a Zeolite (Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate) in the Amelioration of Aflatoxicosis in Broilers
Authors: Ryan Stevens, Wayne L. Bryden
Abstract:This study focused on the effects of ginger and a zeolite (toxin binder) in reducing the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens 7 to 49 days of age. The chicks were maintained normally until experimental diets were introduced on day 7 post-hatching. Nine hundred and thirty six, 7-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 18 treatment groups; each group had four replicates, each with 13 chickens. The experimental groups or diets had factorial combinations of the following; AFB1 0, 1 and 2 mg/kg diet, ginger 0 and 5g/kg diet, and zeolite 0, 15 and 30 g/kg diet. Diets were based on corn and soybean meal and a starter diet was fed from 1 to 14 days, a grower diet from15 to 28 days and a finisher diet was provided from day 29 until the end of the experiment. Both dietary levels of AFB1 decreased (P<0.05) body weight and feed conversion, and increased relative liver weights. Independent dietary inclusion of ginger or zeolite restored chick performance when diets contained 1mg/kg but not at 2mg/kg. Supplementation of zeolite together with ginger improved performance of birds fed contaminated diets. Interestingly, adding ginger to the control diet that was not contaminated with AFB1 improved (P<0.05) performance. Our results suggest that toxin binders and ginger can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB1 on performance of broiler chicks.
Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, ginger, zeoliteProcedia PDF Downloads 142
165 The Effect of Blue Lighting on Feeding Behaviour, Growth, and Corticosterone of Broiler Chickens
Authors: Sri Harimurti, Diah Reni Asih
Abstract:This study was designated to investigate the effect of intermittent and continuous blue lighting on the feeding behaviour, growth and corticosterone hormone concentration of broiler. Two thousands and seven hundreds unsexed day-old broiler were divided into three groups of lighting treatment. Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 300 birds. The treatments were ordinary lighting (C), intermittent blue lighting (IBL) and continuous blue lighting (CBL). The data were collected in the study were feeding behaviour such as feeding duration and frequency of feeding, growth rate of birds and corticosterone hormone concentration. Results showed that the CBL have significant effect (P<0,05) on duration and frequency of feeding and growth rate of birds. The CBL have the highest feeding duration, the lowest frequency of feeding that those 290.33±1.52 minutes/day, 35.58±0.50 times/day at 15 to 28 days of age.The concentration of corticosterone hormone of IBL and CBL were a significant (P<0.05) decrease. The conclusion of this study indicated that continuous blue lighting may be a good tool for improving welfare management of broiler.
Keywords: blue light, broiler chickens, corticosterone hormone, feeding behaviour, growth rateProcedia PDF Downloads 255
164 Effect of Supplemental Phytase on the Digestibility of Crude Protein and Phosphorus of Rice Husk in Broiler Chicken
Authors: Ibinabo I. Ilaboya, Eustace A. Iyayi
Abstract:Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable mineral in broiler diets. Rice husk contains phytate-P and other nutrients like protein, carbohydrates, which are poorly digested in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (BC) lacks sufficient phytase to help hydrolyse phytate-bound P. Hence excess of P is excreted by these chickens into the environment causing environmental pollution. Supplementation of such diets with microbial phytase helps to improve the digestibility of these nutrients. The study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on the digestibility of crude protein (CP) and P of rice husk in BC. Six semi-purified diets of three levels of total P (3.46, 4.91 and 6.37g/kg) without and with 1,000 units of phytase per kg were formulated. Titanium dioxide was added to the diets at the rate of 5g/kg as an indigestible marker. At 20dposthatch, 288 broilers (Abor Acre) were weighed and allotted to the diets with 6 replicates of 8 birds each in a randomized complete block design. The birds had free access to the experimental diets until day 26 post-hatch. Phytase supplementation increased (p < 0.05) digestibility of P from 75-93%. Rice husk and its interaction with phytase had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on P digestibility, whereas there was significant (p < 0.01) effect on the interaction of rice husk with phytase on CP digestibility. There were linear increases (p < 0.01) in digested P and CP with phytase supplementation. The P and CP losses from the BC was reduced with the addition of phytase. Results suggest that supplementation of rice husk-based diets with microbial phytase improved pre-caecal digestibility of P and CP in broilers.
Keywords: crude protein, phosphorus, phytase, rice huskProcedia PDF Downloads 84
163 Apparent Ileal and Excreta Digestibility of Protein Poultry By-Product Meal in 21 to 28 Days of Age Broiler Chicken
Authors: N. Mahmoudnia, M. Khormali
Abstract:This experiment was conducted to determine the apparent protein digestibility of poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) from two industrial poultry slaughter-houses on Ross 308 male broiler chickens in independent comparisons. The experiment consisted of seven dietary treatments and three replicates per treatment with three broiler chickens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control corn- soybean diet, and levels 3, 6, and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter-house 1 and levels 3, 6, and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter house 2. Chromic oxide was added to the experimental diets as an indigestible marker. The apparent protein digestibility of each diet were determined with two methods of sample collection of ileum and excreta in 21-28 d of age. The results this experiment showed that use of PBPM had no significant effect on the performance of broiler chicks during period of experiments. The apparent protein digestibility of PBPM groups was significantly higher than control group by excreta sampling procedure (P<0.05). Using of PBPM 2 significantly (P<0.05) decreased the apparent protein digestibility values based on ileum sampling procedure vs control (85.21 vs. 90.14).Based results of this experiment,it is possible to use of PBPM 1 in broiler chicken.
Keywords: poultry by-product meal, apparent protein digestibility, independed comparison, broiler chickenProcedia PDF Downloads 424
162 Comparison Ileal and Excreta Digestibility of Protein Poultry by-Product Meal in 21 to 28 Days of Age Broiler Chicken
Authors: N. Mahmoudnia, M. Khormali
Abstract:This experiment was conducted to determine the apparent protein digestibility of poultry by- product meal (PBPM) from two industrial poultry slaughter houses on Ross 308 male broiler chickens in independed comparisons. The experiment consisted of seven dietary treatments and three replicates per treatment with three broiler chickens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments consisted of a control corn- soybean diet, and levels 3, 6 and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter house 1 and levels 3, 6 and 9% PBPM produced by slaughter house 2. Chromic oxide was added to the experimental diets as indigestible marker. The apparent protein digestibility of each diet were determined with two methods of sample collection of ileum and excreta in 21-28 d of age. The results this experiment showed that use of PBPM had no significantly effect on performance of broiler chicks during period of experiments. The apparent protein digestibility of PBPM groups was significantly higher than control group by excreta sampling procedure (P<0.05). Using of PBPM 2 significantly (P<0.05) decreased the apparent protein digestibility values based on ileum sampling procedure vs control ( 85.21 vs 90.14).Based results of this experiment,it is possible to use of PBPM 1 in broiler chicken.
Keywords: poultry by-product meal, apparent protein digestibility, independed comparison, broiler chickenProcedia PDF Downloads 536
161 Effect of Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf on Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens at Finisher Phase during Hot-Dry Season
Authors: Oyegunle Emmanuel Oke, A. O. Onabajo, M. O. Abioja, F. O. Sorungbe, D. E. Oyetunji, J. A. Abiona, A. O. Ladokun, O. M. Onagbesan
Abstract:An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) on growth and physiological responses of broiler chickens during hot-dry season in Nigeria. Two hundred and forty (240) day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments having four replicates each. Each replicate had 15 birds. The levels of inclusion were 0g (Control group), 4g, 8g and 12g/Kg feed. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. The results of the study revealed that the initial body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in birds fed 12g/kg diet than those fed 0, 4, and 8g MOLP. The birds fed 0, 4 and 8g/kg diet however had similar weights. The final body weight was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the birds fed 12g MOLP than those fed 0, 4 and 8g MOLP. The final weights were similar in the birds fed 4 and 8g/kg diet but higher (P < 0.05) than those of the birds in the control group. The body weight gain was similar in birds fed 0 and 4g MOLP but significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the birds in 12g/kg diet. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the feed intake. The serum albumin of the birds fed 12g MOLP/Kg diet (48.85g/L) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mean value of those fed the control diet 0 and 8g MOLP/Kg diets having 36.05 and 37.10g/L respectively. Birds fed 12g MOLP/Kg feed recorded the lowest level of triglyceride (122.75g/L) which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the birds fed 0 and 4g/kg diet MOLP. The serum corticosterone decreased with increase in MOLP inclusion levels. The birds fed 12g MOLP had the least value. This study has shown that MOLP may contain potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating the effects of heat stress in broiler chickens with 12g MOLP inclusion.
Keywords: physiology, performance, heat stress, anti-oxidantProcedia PDF Downloads 290
160 Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on the Growth Performance, Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Gut Morphology of Broiler Chickens
Authors: Mohammad Nassiri, Farhad Ahmadi
Abstract:This research was carried out to investigate the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) on performance and gut morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-day-old male chickens (Ross-308) were randomly divided in a completely randomized design, the inclusion of 4 groups of 60 birds with 4 replicates and 15 birds in each. Experimental diets were as follow: T1 control (basal diets, without nano-CuO but contain 9.1 mg Cu/kg from CuO), T2, T3, and T4 basal diet supplementation with 30, 60, and 90 mg nano-CuO/kg, respectively. Feed intake (FI) and gain weight as weekly recorded and on d 21 feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Furthermore, at the end of the trial (21 d), four birds per treatment (one bird/replicate) randomly selected and after removed blood samples, they slaughtered and then to the analysis of gut morphological. A segment (10 cm) from the middle part of duodenum and jejunum was removed and put in the formalin 10% (pH = 7). The results revealed that nano-CuO had significantly increased body weight (P = 0.029, but feed intake (P = 0.017), and feed conversion ratio (P = 0.031) decreased in the birds that fed 90 mg nano-CuO when compared to control and the other groups. Total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.041), superoxide dismutase (P = 0.036), and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.048) were more in the birds fed diet inclusion of 60 and 90 mg nano-CuO (T4) than other treatments. The lowest malonaldehyde (MDA) level was observed in T3 (P = 0.23) and T4 (P = 0.028) decreased (P = 0.17). The villi height and villi height to crypt depth (VH/CD ratio) numerically increased (P = 0.09) in the bird fed 90 mg nano-CuO in comparison with other treatments. According to present results, it could be concluded that dietary nano-CuO improved performance parameters and antioxidant status of broiler chickens during starter period. As well, the optimum improvement observed in the birds fed diet inclusion of 90 mg nano-CuO/kg.
Keywords: antioxidant, broilers, copper, performance, nanoparticlesProcedia PDF Downloads 457
159 Effect of Peganum harmala Seeds on Blood Factors, Immune Response and Intestinal Selected Bacterial Population in Broiler Chickens
Authors: Majid Goudarzi
Abstract:This experiment was designed to study the effects of feeding different levels of Peganum harmala seeds (PHS) and antibiotic on serum biochemical parameters, immune response and intestinal microflora composition in Ross broiler chickens. A total of 240 one-d-old unsexed broiler chickens were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment groups, each with four replicate pens of 15 chicks. The dietary treatments included of control (C) - without PHS and antibiotic - the diet contains 300 mg/kg Lincomycin 0.88% (A) and the diets contain 2 g/kg (H1) and 4 g/kg (H2) PHS. The chicks were raised on floor pens and received diets and water ad libitum for six weeks. Blood samplings were performed for the determination of antibody titer against Newcastle disease on 14 and 21 days and for biochemical parameters on 42 days of age. The populations of Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli were enumerated in ileum by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Inclusion of PHS in diet resulted in a significant decrease in total cholesterol and significant increase in HDL relative to the control and antibiotic groups. Antibody titer against NDV was not affected by experimental treatments. E. coli population in birds supplemented with antibiotic and PHS was significantly lower than control, but Lactobacilli spp. population increased only by antibiotic and not by PHS. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of PHS powder seem to have a positive influence on some biochemical parameters and gastrointestinal microflora.
Keywords: antibiotic, biochemical parameters, immune system, Peganum harmalaProcedia PDF Downloads 298
158 Comparison of the Isolation Rates and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Antibiotic-Free and Conventional Chicken Meat Samples
Authors: Jin-Hyeong Park, Hong-Seok Kim, Jin-Hyeok Yim, Young-Ji Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo
Abstract:Salmonella contamination in chicken samples can cause major health problems in humans. However, not only the effects of antibiotic treatment during growth but also the impacts of poultry slaughter line on the prevalence of Salmonella in final chicken meat sold to consumers are unknown. In this study, we compared the isolation rates and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella between antibiotic-free, conventional, conventional Korean native retail chicken meat samples and clonal divergence of Salmonella isolates by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, the distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was analyzed. A total of 72 retail chicken meat samples (n = 24 antibiotic-free broiler [AFB] chickens, n = 24 conventional broiler [CB] chickens, and n = 24 conventional Korean native [CK] chickens) were collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. The isolation rates of Salmonella were 66.6% in AFB chickens, 45.8% in CB chickens, and 25% in CK chickens. By analyzing the minimum inhibitory concentrations of β -lactam antibiotics with the disc-diffusion test, we found that 81.2% of Salmonella isolates from AFB chickens, 63.6% of isolates from CB chickens, and 50% of isolates from CK chickens were ESBL producers; all ESBL-positive isolates had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Interestingly, all ESBL-producing Salmonella were revealed as ST16 by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, all CTX-M-15-positive isolates had the genetic platform of blaCTX-M gene (IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15-IS903), to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Salmonella around the world. The Salmonella ST33 strain (S. Hadar) isolated in this study has never been reported in South Korea. In conclusion, our findings showed that antibiotic-free retail chicken meat products were also largely contaminated with ESBL-producing Salmonella and that their ESBL genes and genetic platforms were the same as those isolated from conventional retail chicken meat products.
Keywords: antibiotic-free poultry, conventional poultry, multilocus sequence typing, extended-spectrum β-lactamase, antimicrobial resistanceProcedia PDF Downloads 203
157 Performance and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens to Diets Supplemented with Propolis in Breeding, to in Ovo Propolis Feeding or to Propolis Supplementation of Diets for Their Chicks
Authors: Kalbiye Konanc, Ergin Ozturk
Abstract:To examine the effects of an ethanol liquid extract obtained from raw bee propolis (PE) on fattening performance and physiology such as vaccine-antibody relationship, microbial profile, immune status and some blood parameters of broiler chickens were used a total of 600 broiler (Ross 308) chicks, obtained from eggs of 288, 38-weeks-old broiler breeding. There were 6 groups: CC (Parent-Control and Offspring-Control, CP (Parent-Control and Offspring-propolis extract, Cip (Parent-Control and Offspring-in-ovo propolis extract), Cis (Parent-Control and Chickens-in-ovo saline), PeC (Parent-propolis extract and Offspring-Control), PeP (Parent-Propolis extract and Offspring-Propolis extract). Each group was consisted of 10 replications with 10 broiler offspring, and the experiment was lasted for 6 weeks with ethanol-extracted propolis concentration is 400 ppm/kg diet. While the highest feed consumptions at 0-21 days and 0-42 days were found in PeC, the best feed conversion ratio at 0-42 days was found in CP group. The live weight gains were found not to be different among the groups. The highest alanine aminotransferase activities were found in CC and CP and aspartate aminotransferase activities in PeP and PeC groups. The highest triglyceride and total antioxidant levels were found highest in CC and the highest total oxidant level in Cip group. IgA level in hatched eggs and IgM value after slaughtering were highest in Cip group. The best immune response was obtained for 21st day Newcastle Disease vaccine in CC and Cis groups and for 28th day Infectious Bursal Disease vaccine in CP group. The highest total aerobic microorganism and the lowest total fungi count were found in PeP group. In conclusion, it was determined that in-ovo propolis ethanol extract (Cip) increased the maternal antibody levels, that had not consistent effects on blood biochemical parameters except for triglyceride, that led to decrease in E. coli counts and that it can provide strong immune response against Infectious Bursal Disease.
Keywords: bee propolis, in-ovo feeding, immune parameters, poultry, maternal antibody, microorganismsProcedia PDF Downloads 229
156 Effect of L-Dopa on Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens
Authors: B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. F. Agboola, E. A. Iyayi
Abstract:Pure form of L-Dopa is used to enhance muscular development, fat breakdown and suppress Parkinson disease in humans. However, the L-Dopa in mucuna seed, when present with other antinutritional factors, causes nutritional disorders in monogastric animals. Information on the utilisation of pure L-Dopa in monogastric animals is scanty. Therefore, effect of L-Dopa on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broiler chickens was investigated. Two hundred and forty one-day-old chicks were allotted to six treatments, which consisted of a positive control (PC) with standard energy (3100Kcal/Kg) and negative control (NC) with high energy (3500Kcal/Kg). The rest 4 diets were NC+0.1, NC+0.2, NC+0.3 and NC+0.4% L-Dopa, respectively. All treatments had 4 replicates in a completely randomized design. Body weight gain, final weight, feed intake, dressed weight and carcass characteristics were determined. Body weight gain and final weight of birds fed PC were 1791.0 and 1830.0g, NC+0.1% L-Dopa were 1827.7 and 1866.7g and NC+0.2% L-Dopa were 1871.9 and 1910.9g respectively, and the feed intake of PC (3231.5g), were better than other treatments. The dressed weight at 1375.0g and 1357.1g of birds fed NC+0.1% and NC+0.2% L-Dopa, respectively, were similar but better than other treatments. Also, the thigh (202.5g and 194.9g) and the breast meat (413.8g and 410.8g) of birds fed NC+0.1% and NC+0.2% L-Dopa, respectively, were similar but better than birds fed other treatments. The drum stick of birds fed NC+0.1% L-Dopa (220.5g) was observed to be better than birds on other diets. Meat to bone ratio and relative organ weights were not affected across treatments. L-Dopa extract, at levels tested, had no detrimental effect on broilers, rather better bird performance and carcass characteristics were observed especially at 0.1% and 0.2% L-Dopa inclusion rates. Therefore, 0.2% inclusion is recommended in diets of broiler chickens for improved performance and carcass characteristics.
Keywords: broilers, carcass characteristics, l-dopa, performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 249
155 The Effect of Some Microorganisms from Gastrointestinal Tracts on the Nutritive Value of Broiler Diets
Authors: S. Sangsoponjit, W. Suphalucksana, K. Soytong
Abstract:A 2x2 factorial experiment was carried out to determine the effects of two levels of diet supplemented with and without microorganisms in combination with and without feed sterilisation on the nutritive value of broiler diets with four replications in each treatment. Some microorganisms from the gastrointestinal tracts of chickens were supplemented in commercial broiler diets. They were bacterial (BC-NA-01), actinomycetes (BI-NA-03, BC-NA-02 and BL-NA-02), Aspergillus niger sp.(BD-PDA-01), Mucor sp.(BL-PDA-02), Rhizopus stolonifer sp.(BI-PDA-02) and Trichoderma sp.(BL-PDA-02). The results of the proximate analysis revealed that the diet supplemented with microorganisms had a higher percentage of DM and CF in the starter diet(0-3 wks), grower diet(4-5wks) and finisher diet (last period) than the diet without microorganisms (p<0.05). Also, they were higher in the percentage of CP in the starter diet and EE in both the starter diet and grower diet than the diet without microorganisms (p<0.05). The sterilised diet had a higher percentage of moisture than the non-sterilized diet (p<0.01). Also, they were higher in the percentage of CP in the starter diet and CF in both the grower diet and finisher diet than the non-sterilized diet (p<0.05). The sterilized diet supplemented with microorganisms was higher in ME than the non-sterilize diet without microorganisms in the starter diet, grower diet and finisher diet (P<0.01).
Keywords: microorganisms, gastrointestinal tract, nutritive value, broiler dietsProcedia PDF Downloads 377
154 Sound Analysis of Young Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities in Intensive Poultry Farming
Authors: Xiaoyang Zhao, Kaiying Wang
Abstract:The choice of stocking density in poultry farming is a potential way for determining welfare level of poultry. However, it is difficult to measure stocking densities in poultry farming because of a lot of variables such as species, age and weight, feeding way, house structure and geographical location in different broiler houses. A method was proposed in this paper to measure the differences of young broilers reared under different stocking densities by sound analysis. Vocalisations of broilers were recorded and analysed under different stocking densities to identify the relationship between sounds and stocking densities. Recordings were made continuously for three-week-old chickens in order to evaluate the variation of sounds emitted by the animals at the beginning. The experimental trial was carried out in an indoor reared broiler farm; the audio recording procedures lasted for 5 days. Broilers were divided into 5 groups, stocking density treatments were 8/m², 10/m², 12/m² (96birds/pen), 14/m² and 16/m², all conditions including ventilation and feed conditions were kept same except from stocking densities in every group. The recordings and analysis of sounds of chickens were made noninvasively. Sound recordings were manually analysed and labelled using sound analysis software: GoldWave Digital Audio Editor. After sound acquisition process, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) was extracted from sound data, and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as an early detector and classifier. This preliminary study, conducted in an indoor reared broiler farm shows that this method can be used to classify sounds of chickens under different densities economically (only a cheap microphone and recorder can be used), the classification accuracy is 85.7%. This method can predict the optimum stocking density of broilers with the complement of animal welfare indicators, animal productive indicators and so on.
Keywords: broiler, stocking density, poultry farming, sound monitoring, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC), Support Vector Machine (SVM)Procedia PDF Downloads 86
153 Broiler Chickens Meat Qualities and Death on Arrival (DOA) In-Transit in Brazilian Tropical Conditions
Authors: Arlan S. Freitas, Leila M. Carvalho, Adriana L. Soares, Arnoud Neto, Marta S. Madruga, Rafael H. Carvalho, Elza I. Ida, Massami Shimokomaki
Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of microclimatic profile of broiler transport trucks and holding time (340) min under commercial conditions over the breast meat quality and DOA (Dead On Arrival) in a tropical Brazilian regions as the NorthEast. In this particular region routinely the season is divided into dry and wet seasons. Three loads of 4,100 forty seven days old broiler were monitored from farm to slaughterhouse in a distance of 273 km (320 min), morning periods of August, September and October 2015 rainy days. Meat qualities were evaluated by determining the occurrence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat and DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat. The percentage of DOA per loaded truck was determined by counting the dead broiler during the hanging step at the slaughtering plant. Results showed the occurrence of 26.30% of PSE and 2.49% of DFD and 0.45% of DOA. By having PSE- and DFD- meat means that the birds were under thermal and cold stress leading as consequence to a relative high DOA index.
Keywords: animal welfare, DFD, microclimatic profile, PSEProcedia PDF Downloads 331
152 Effects of Intracerebroventricular Injection of Spexin and Its Interaction with Nitric Oxide, Serotonin, and Corticotropin Receptors on Central Food Intake Regulation in Chicken
Authors: Mohaya Farzin, Shahin Hassanpour, Morteza Zendehdel, Bita Vazir, Ahmad Asghari
Abstract:Aim: There are several differences between birds and mammals in terms of food intake regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of spexin and its interaction with nitric oxide, serotonin, and corticotropin receptors on central food intake regulation in broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: In experiment 1, chickens received ICV injection of saline, PCPA (p-chlorophenyl alanine,1.25 µg), spexin, and PCPA+spexin. In experiments 2-7, 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A agonist, 15.25 nmol), SB-242084 (5-HT2C receptor antagonist, 1.5µg), L-arginine (Precursor of nitric oxide, 200 nmol), L-NAME (nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor, 100 nmol), Astressin-B (CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist, 30 µg) and Astressin2-B (CRF2 receptor antagonist, 30 µg) were injected to chickens instead of the PCPA. Then, food intake was measured until 120 minutes after the injection. Results: Spexin significantly decreased food consumption (P<0.05). Concomitant injection of SB-242084+spexin attenuated spexin-induced hypophagia (P<0.05). Co-injection of L-arginine+spexin enhanced spexin-induced hypophagia, and this effect was reversed by L-NAME (P<0.05). Also, concomitant injection of Astressin-B + spexin or Astressin2-B + spexin enhanced spexin-induced hypophagia (P<0.05). Conclusions: Based on these observations, spexin-induced hypophagia may be mediated by nitric oxide and 5-HT2C, CRF1, and CRF2 receptors in neonatal broiler chickens.
Keywords: spexin, serotonin, corticotropin, nitric oxide, food intake, chickenProcedia PDF Downloads 1
151 Effect of Electron Beam Irradiated Cottonseed Meal on Carcass and Blood Parameters of Broiler Chickens
Authors: Somayyeh Salari, Marziyeh Nayefi, Mohsen Sari, Mehdi Behgar
Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electron beam- irradiated cottonseed meal at a dose of 30 KGy on carcass characteristics and some blood parameters of broiler chicks. Various levels of cottonseed meal (CSM) (0, 12, and 24%, radiation and no radiation) were used with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 10 birds of each for 42 days in completely randomized design. At 42 d of age, two birds per pen were randomly selected for determination of carcass characteristics and blood parameters. Relative weights of liver, gastrointestinal tract (GI), pancreatic, gizzard and abdominal fat were increased with increasing levels of CSM in the diet (p<0/05). Glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride, and phosphorous concentrations increased and LDL concentration decreased as the dietary CSM levels increased (p<0/05). But radiation had not significant effect on blood parameters. Electron irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of CSM but it seems higher dose of it was needed to improve blood parameters of chickens.
Keywords: blood parameters, carcass characteristics, cottonseed meal, electron beamProcedia PDF Downloads 423
150 Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Calpain1 Gene and Meat Tenderness Traits in Different Genotypes of Chicken: Malaysian Native and Commercial Broiler Line
Authors: Abtehal Y. Anaas, Mohd. Nazmi Bin Abd. Manap
Abstract:Meat Tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers' assessment of meat quality. Variation in meat tenderness is genetically controlled and varies among breeds, and it is also influenced by environmental factors that can affect its creation during rigor mortis and postmortem. The final postmortem meat tenderization relies on the extent of proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins caused by the endogenous activity of the proteolytic calpain system. This calpain system includes different calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, and an inhibitor, calpastatin. It is widely accepted that in farm animals including chickens, the μ-calpain gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. This study aimed to identify the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the CAPN1 gene with the tenderness of chicken breast meat from two Malaysian native and commercial broiler breed crosses. Ten, five months old native chickens and ten, 42 days commercial broilers were collected from the local market and breast muscles were removed two hours after slaughter, packed separately in plastic bags and kept at -20ºC for 24 h. The tenderness phenotype for all chickens’ breast meats was determined by Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF). Thawing and cooking losses were also measured in the same breast samples before using in WBSF determination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify the previously reported C7198A and G9950A SNPs in the CAPN1 gene and assess their associations with meat tenderness in the two breeds. The broiler breast meat showed lower shear force values and lower thawing loss rates than the native chickens (p<0.05), whereas there were similar in the rates of cooking loss. The study confirms some previous results that the markers CAPN1 C7198A and G9950A were not significantly associated with the variation in meat tenderness in chickens. Therefore, further study is needed to confirm the functional molecular mechanism of these SNPs and evaluate their associations in different chicken populations.
Keywords: CAPNl, chicken, meat tenderness, meat quality, SNPsProcedia PDF Downloads 183
149 Dietary Supplementation of Betaine and Response to Warm Weather in Broiler Chicken: A Review
Authors: Hassan Nabipour Afrouzi, Naser Mahmoudnia
Abstract:Broiler production has increased rapidly in tropical and subtropical regions in the past and sustained growth is forecast for the future. One of the greatest challenges to efficient production in these regions is reduced performance from warm and hot weather conditions. There are many ways to decrease these detrimental effects of heat on broiler chickens. One way is to supplement broiler diet with betaine added to feed or drinking water. A review of the results of this study suggest that betaine supplement was effective to significantly improve body weight and feed conversion ratio at the initial stages of growth but not in the finisher stages (P<0/05). It was also demonstrated that the use of betaine significantly reduced the percentage of abdominal meat and the percentage of breast meat (P<0/05), but had no effect on other carcass compositions. Betaine may improve the digestibility of specific nutrients. Betaine, as a methyl donor provides labile methyl groups for the synthesis of several metabolically active substances such as creatine and carnitine. Oil in a broiler diet is known to promote a response to dietary betaine supplements, that is, chicks have a higher demand for betaine with a high fat diet. This study implies that betaine supplement may stimulate protection of intestinal epithelium against osmotic disturbance, improve digestion and absorption conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and promote amended use of nutrients.
Keywords: heat stress, betaine, performance, broiler‚ growthProcedia PDF Downloads 531
148 Impact of Two Herbal Seeds Supplementation on Growth Performance and Some Biochemical Blood and Tissue Parameters of Broiler Chickens
Authors: Hamada A. Ahmed, Kadry M. Sadek, Ayman E. Taha
Abstract:The effects of basil and/or chamomile seed supplementation on the growth of Hubbard broiler chicks were evaluated. The antioxidant effects of these supplements were also assessed. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (group 1) was fed a basal diet (BD) without supplementation. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were fed the BD supplemented with 10g basil, 10g chamomile, and 5g basil plus 5g chamomile per kg of food, respectively. Basil supplementation alone or in combination with chamomile non-significantly (P≥0.05) increased final body weight (3.2% and 0.3%, respectively) and weight gain (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively) over the experimental period. Chamomile supplementation alone non-significantly (P≥0.05) reduced final body weight and weight gain over the experimental period by 1.7% and 1.7%, respectively. In comparison to the control group, herbal seed supplementation reduced feed intake and improved the feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios. In general, basil seed supplementation stimulated chicken growth and improved the feed efficiency more effectively than chamomile seed supplementation. The antioxidant activities of basil and/or chamomile supplementation were examined in the thymus, bursa, and spleen. In chickens that received supplements, the level of malondialdehyde was significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly increased (P<0.05). Supplementation of basil and/or chamomile did not affect blood protein levels, but had lipid-lowering effects as evidenced by reduced serum levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In conclusion, supplementation of basil and/or chamomile improved growth parameters in broiler chicks and had antioxidant and blood lipid-lowering effects. These beneficial effects of basil and/or chamomile supplementation resulted in economically viable production of high-quality white meat containing no harmful residues.
Keywords: herbal additives, basil, chamomile, broiler, growth performance, antioxidantProcedia PDF Downloads 485