Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5789

Search results for: positive bias

5789 Positive Bias and Length Bias in Deep Neural Networks for Premises Selection

Authors: Jiaqi Huang, Yuheng Wang

Abstract:

Premises selection, the task of selecting a set of axioms for proving a given conjecture, is a major bottleneck in automated theorem proving. An array of deep-learning-based methods has been established for premises selection, but a perfect performance remains challenging. Our study examines the inaccuracy of deep neural networks in premises selection. Through training network models using encoded conjecture and axiom pairs from the Mizar Mathematical Library, two potential biases are found: the network models classify more premises as necessary than unnecessary, referred to as the ‘positive bias’, and the network models perform better in proving conjectures that paired with more axioms, referred to as ‘length bias’. The ‘positive bias’ and ‘length bias’ discovered could inform the limitation of existing deep neural networks.

Keywords: automated theorem proving, premises selection, deep learning, interpreting deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
5788 Improved Small-Signal Characteristics of Infrared 850 nm Top-Emitting Vertical-Cavity Lasers

Authors: Ahmad Al-Omari, Osama Khreis, Ahmad M. K. Dagamseh, Abdullah Ababneh, Kevin Lear

Abstract:

High-speed infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with Cu-plated heat sinks were fabricated and tested. VCSELs with 10 mm aperture diameter and 4 mm of electroplated copper demonstrated a -3dB modulation bandwidth (f-3dB) of 14 GHz and a resonance frequency (fR) of 9.5 GHz at a bias current density (Jbias) of only 4.3 kA/cm2, which corresponds to an improved f-3dB2/Jbias ratio of 44 GHz2/kA/cm2. At higher and lower bias current densities, the f-3dB2/ Jbias ratio decreased to about 30 GHz2/kA/cm2 and 18 GHz2/kA/cm2, respectively. Examination of the analogue modulation response demonstrated that the presented VCSELs displayed a steady f-3dB/ fR ratio of 1.41±10% over the whole range of the bias current (1.3Ith to 6.2Ith). The devices also demonstrated a maximum modulation bandwidth (f-3dB max) of more than 16 GHz at a bias current less than the industrial bias current standard for reliability by 25%.

Keywords: current density, high-speed VCSELs, modulation bandwidth, small-signal characteristics, thermal impedance, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
5787 An Analysis of Lexical and Grammatical Gender Bias in German Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers Networks

Authors: Freya Thießen, Johannes Schrumpf

Abstract:

Gender bias in natural language processing neural networks based on the Transformer architecture has been the focus of recent research. So far, primarily language models trained on the English language has been investigated and found to possess biased representations with regard to gender. Linguistic analysis hints at the possibility that due to semantic and grammatical differences between the German and English languages, BERT networks trained on German-language material may possess different gender bias properties than English BERT networks. This study investigates the impact of lexical and grammatical forms of gender information on bias in German-BERT, a BERT network trained for natural language processing of the German language. Through an analysis of the principal components of German-BERT embeddings, we show that gender bias exists in German-BERT in the presence of grammatical gender information and lexical gender stereotypes.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethical machine learning, gender bias, German language-specific bias, natural language processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
5786 Verb Bias in Mandarin: The Corpus Based Study of Children

Authors: Jou-An Chung

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the verb bias of the Mandarin verbs in children’s reading materials and provide the criteria for categorization. Verb bias varies cross-linguistically. As Mandarin and English are typological different, this study hopes to shed light on Mandarin verb bias with the use of corpus and provide thorough and detailed criteria for analysis. Moreover, this study focuses on children’s reading materials since it is a significant issue in understanding children’s sentence processing. Therefore, investigating verb bias of Mandarin verbs in children’s reading materials is also an important issue and can provide further insights into children’s sentence processing. The small corpus is built up for this study. The corpus consists of the collection of school textbooks and Mandarin Daily News for children. The files are then segmented and POS tagged by JiebaR (Chinese segmentation with R). For the ease of analysis, the one-word character verbs and intransitive verbs are excluded beforehand. The total of 20 high frequency verbs are hand-coded and are further categorized into one of the three types, namely DO type, SC type and other category. If the frequency of taking Other Type exceeds the threshold of 25%, the verb is excluded from the study. The results show that 10 verbs are direct object bias verbs, and six verbs are sentential complement bias verbs. The paired T-test was done to assure the statistical significance (p = 0.0001062 for DO bias verb, p=0.001149 for SC bias verb). The result has shown that in children’s reading materials, the DO biased verbs are used more than the SC bias verbs since the simplest structure of sentences is easier for children’s sentence comprehension or processing. In sum, this study not only discussed verb bias in child's reading materials but also provided basic coding criteria for verb bias analysis in Mandarin and underscored the role of context. Sentences are easier for children’s sentence comprehension or processing. In sum, this study not only discussed verb bias in child corpus, but also provided basic coding criteria for verb bias analysis in Mandarin and underscored the role of context.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, verb bias, child language, psycholinguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5785 A Comparison of Bias Among Relaxed Divisor Methods Using 3 Bias Measurements

Authors: Sumachaya Harnsukworapanich, Tetsuo Ichimori

Abstract:

The apportionment method is used by many countries, to calculate the distribution of seats in political bodies. For example, this method is used in the United States (U.S.) to distribute house seats proportionally based on the population of the electoral district. Famous apportionment methods include the divisor methods called the Adams Method, Dean Method, Hill Method, Jefferson Method and Webster Method. Sometimes the results from the implementation of these divisor methods are unfair and include errors. Therefore, it is important to examine the optimization of this method by using a bias measurement to figure out precise and fair results. In this research we investigate the bias of divisor methods in the U.S. Houses of Representatives toward large and small states by applying the Stolarsky Mean Method. We compare the bias of the apportionment method by using two famous bias measurements: The Balinski and Young measurement and the Ernst measurement. Both measurements have a formula for large and small states. The Third measurement however, which was created by the researchers, did not factor in the element of large and small states into the formula. All three measurements are compared and the results show that our measurement produces similar results to the other two famous measurements.

Keywords: apportionment, bias, divisor, fair, measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5784 Exploring Gender Bias in Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

Authors: Katie Strong, Brian P. O'Connor, Jacqueline M. Kanippayoor

Abstract:

To date, self-report measures of psychopathy have largely been conceptualized with a male-focused understanding of the disorder, with the presumption that psychopathy expression is uniform across genders. However, generalizing this understanding to the female population may be misleading. The objective of this research was to explore gender differences in the expression of psychopathy and to assess current self-report psychopathy measures for gender bias. It was hypothesized that some items in commonly used measures of psychopathy may show gender bias and that existing measures may not contain enough items that are relevant to the manifestation of psychopathy in women. An exploratory investigation was conducted on statistical bias in common measures of psychopathy, and novel, relevant, but previously neglected items and measures were included in a new data collection. The participant pool included a sample of 403 university students and 354 participants recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Item Response Theory methods - including Differential Item Functioning - were used to assess for the item- and test- level bias across several common self-report measures of psychopathy. Analyses indicated occasional and modest levels of item-level bias, and that some additional female-relevant items merit consideration for inclusion in measures of psychopathy. These findings suggest that current self-report measures of psychopathy may be demonstrating gender-bias and warrant further examination.

Keywords: gender, measurement bias, personality, psychopathy

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
5783 Implicit Bias as One Obstacle to Gender Equity

Authors: Kellina Craig-Henderson

Abstract:

Today, there is increased attention to the role of social perceptions in the selection, hiring, and management of employees and the evaluation and promotion of students. In some contexts, where women or members of certain social groups have been historically underrepresented there is evidence that these perceptions reflect the implicit biases people harbor. Research in the social and psychological sciences reveals that implicit biases against women unfairly disadvantage them in academic and work settings. This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on an implicit bias as well as the problems associated with it. How employers, educators and other evaluators can inoculate themselves from the pernicious effects of these biases will be considered.

Keywords: gender equity, implicit bias, social psychology, unconscious bias

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
5782 Identity Conflict between Social and Business Entrepreneurs: The Challenge of Constructing a Novel Social Identity

Authors: Rui G. Serôdio, Carina Martins, Alexandra Serra, José A. Lima, Luísa Catita, Paula Lopes

Abstract:

Building on social identity approach, we tested the impact of social categorization and comparison in the psychosocial process by which social entrepreneurs define their group identity. Specifically, we address how both differentiation and assimilation processes are set of in the context of constructing a novel, distinctive and socially salient – social entrepreneurs. As part of a larger research line, a quasi-experimental study with Social and Business Entrepreneurs, as well as “Lay People” provided evidence consistent with our predictions: (1) Social Entrepreneurs, in contrast with Lay People and Business Entrepreneurs, value more strongly social identity than personal identity, and the later is the only group that values Personal Differentiation; (2) unlike Entrepreneurs, Social Entrepreneurs display an ingroup bias across group evaluations; (3) Lay People, display a self-serving bias, although, overall, they allocate a more positive image to the target groups; (4) combining own vs. others evaluations across all groups, Social Entrepreneurs receive the more positive value. From the standpoint of social identity and self-categorization theories and their approach to group process, we discuss the processes of intergroup comparison and differentiation as core processes in the construction of a positive social identity. We illustrate it within the context of social entrepreneurship, a political and social “wave” that flows across Europe at this time.

Keywords: group processes, social entrepreneurship, social identity, business entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 533
5781 The Aspect of the Human Bias in Decision Making within Quality Management Systems and LEAN Theory

Authors: Adriana Avila Zuniga Nordfjeld

Abstract:

This paper provides a literature review to document the state of the art with respect to handling 'human bias' in decision making within the established quality management systems (QMS) and LEAN theory, in the context of shipbuilding. Previous research shows that in shipbuilding there is a huge deviation from the planned man-hours under the project management to the actual man-hours used because of errors in planning and reworks caused by human bias in the information flows among others. This reduces the efficiency and increases operational costs. Thus, the research question is how QMS and LEAN handle biases. The findings show the gap in studying the integration of methods to handle human bias in decision making into QMS and lean, not only within shipbuilding but also in general. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed for researchers and practitioners in the areas of decision making QMS, LEAN, and future research is suggested.

Keywords: human bias, decision making, LEAN shipbuilding, quality management systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
5780 Biases in Numerically Invariant Joint Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan

Abstract:

This paper illustrates that numerically invariant joint signatures suffer biases in the resulting signatures. Next, we classify the arising biases as Bias Type 1 and Bias Type 2 and show how they can be removed.

Keywords: Euclidean and affine geometries, differential invariant signature curves, numerically invariant joint signatures, numerical analysis, numerical bias, curve analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
5779 Bit Error Rate Monitoring for Automatic Bias Control of Quadrature Amplitude Modulators

Authors: Naji Ali Albakay, Abdulrahman Alothaim, Isa Barshushi

Abstract:

The most common quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM) applies two Mach-Zehnder Modulators (MZM) and one phase shifter to generate high order modulation format. The bias of MZM changes over time due to temperature, vibration, and aging factors. The change in the biasing causes distortion to the generated QAM signal which leads to deterioration of bit error rate (BER) performance. Therefore, it is critical to be able to lock MZM’s Q point to the required operating point for good performance. We propose a technique for automatic bias control (ABC) of QAM transmitter using BER measurements and gradient descent optimization algorithm. The proposed technique is attractive because it uses the pertinent metric, BER, which compensates for bias drifting independently from other system variations such as laser source output power. The proposed scheme performance and its operating principles are simulated using OptiSystem simulation software for 4-QAM and 16-QAM transmitters.

Keywords: automatic bias control, optical fiber communication, optical modulation, optical devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
5778 The Development of Local-Global Perceptual Bias across Cultures: Examining the Effects of Gender, Education, and Urbanisation

Authors: Helen J. Spray, Karina J. Linnell

Abstract:

Local-global bias in adulthood is strongly dependent on environmental factors and a global bias is not the universal characteristic of adult perception it was once thought to be: whilst Western adults typically demonstrate a global bias, Namibian adults living in traditional villages possess a strong local bias. Furthermore, environmental effects on local-global bias have been shown to be highly gender-specific; whereas urbanisation promoted a global bias in urbanised Namibian women but not men, education promoted a global bias in urbanised Namibian men but not women. Adult populations, however, provide only a snapshot of the gene-environment interactions which shape perceptual bias. Yet, to date, there has been little work on the development of local-global bias across environmental settings. In the current study, local-global bias was assessed using a similarity-matching task with Navon figures in children aged between 4 and 15 years from across three populations: traditional Namibians, urban Namibians, and urban British. For the two Namibian groups, measures of urbanisation and education were obtained. Data were subjected to both between-group and within-group analyses. Between-group analyses compared developmental trajectories across population and gender. These analyses revealed a global bias from even as early as 4 in the British sample, and showed that the developmental onset of a global bias is not fixed. Urbanised Namibian children ultimately developed a global bias that was indistinguishable from British children; however, a global bias did not emerge until much later in development. For all populations, the greatest developmental effects were observed directly following the onset of formal education. No overall gender effects were observed; however, there was a significant gender by age interaction which was difficult to reconcile with existing biological-level accounts of gender differences in the development of local-global bias. Within-group analyses compared the effects of urbanisation and education on local-global bias for traditional and urban Namibian boys and girls separately. For both traditional and urban boys, education mediated all effects of age and urbanisation; however, this was not the case for girls. Traditional Namibian girls retained a local bias regardless of age, education, or urbanisation, and in urbanised girls, the development of a global bias was not attributable to any one factor specifically. These results are broadly consistent with aforementioned findings that education promoted a global bias in urbanised Namibian men but not women. The development of local-global bias does not follow a fixed trajectory but is subject to environmental control. Understanding how variability in the development of local-global bias might arise, particularly in the context of gender, may have far-reaching implications. For example, a number of educationally important cognitive functions (e.g., spatial ability) are known to show consistent gender differences in childhood and local-global bias may mediate some of these effects. With education becoming an increasingly prevalent force across much of the developing world it will be important to understand the processes that underpin its effects and their implications.

Keywords: cross-cultural, development, education, gender, local-global bias, perception, urbanisation, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5777 The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of a-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, K. Komatsu, S. Ohshio, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.

Keywords: negative bias voltage, a-C:H film, oxygen contamination, optical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
5776 Enhancing a Recidivism Prediction Tool with Machine Learning: Effectiveness and Algorithmic Fairness

Authors: Marzieh Karimihaghighi, Carlos Castillo

Abstract:

This work studies how Machine Learning (ML) may be used to increase the effectiveness of a criminal recidivism risk assessment tool, RisCanvi. The two key dimensions of this analysis are predictive accuracy and algorithmic fairness. ML-based prediction models obtained in this study are more accurate at predicting criminal recidivism than the manually-created formula used in RisCanvi, achieving an AUC of 0.76 and 0.73 in predicting violent and general recidivism respectively. However, the improvements are small, and it is noticed that algorithmic discrimination can easily be introduced between groups such as national vs foreigner, or young vs old. It is described how effectiveness and algorithmic fairness objectives can be balanced, applying a method in which a single error disparity in terms of generalized false positive rate is minimized, while calibration is maintained across groups. Obtained results show that this bias mitigation procedure can substantially reduce generalized false positive rate disparities across multiple groups. Based on these results, it is proposed that ML-based criminal recidivism risk prediction should not be introduced without applying algorithmic bias mitigation procedures.

Keywords: algorithmic fairness, criminal risk assessment, equalized odds, recidivism

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
5775 A Comparative Study on Optimized Bias Current Density Performance of Cubic ZnB-GaN with Hexagonal 4H-SiC Based Impatts

Authors: Arnab Majumdar, Srimani Sen

Abstract:

In this paper, a vivid simulated study has been made on 35 GHz Ka-band window frequency in order to judge and compare the DC and high frequency properties of cubic ZnB-GaN with the existing hexagonal 4H-SiC. A flat profile p+pnn+ DDR structure of impatt is chosen and is optimized at a particular bias current density with respect to efficiency and output power taking into consideration the effect of mobile space charge also. The simulated results obtained reveals the strong potentiality of impatts based on both cubic ZnB-GaN and hexagonal 4H-SiC. The DC-to-millimeter wave conversion efficiency for cubic ZnB-GaN impatt obtained is 50% with an estimated output power of 2.83 W at an optimized bias current density of 2.5×108 A/m2. The conversion efficiency and estimated output power in case of hexagonal 4H-SiC impatt obtained is 22.34% and 40 W respectively at an optimum bias current density of 0.06×108 A/m2.

Keywords: cubic ZnB-GaN, hexagonal 4H-SiC, double drift impatt diode, millimetre wave, optimised bias current density, wide band gap semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
5774 Reducing Uncertainty in Climate Projections over Uganda by Numerical Models Using Bias Correction

Authors: Isaac Mugume

Abstract:

Since the beginning of the 21st century, climate change has been an issue due to the reported rise in global temperature and changes in the frequency as well as severity of extreme weather and climatic events. The changing climate has been attributed to rising concentrations of greenhouse gases, including environmental changes such as ecosystems and land-uses. Climatic projections have been carried out under the auspices of the intergovernmental panel on climate change where a couple of models have been run to inform us about the likelihood of future climates. Since one of the major forcings informing the changing climate is emission of greenhouse gases, different scenarios have been proposed and future climates for different periods presented. The global climate models project different areas to experience different impacts. While regional modeling is being carried out for high impact studies, bias correction is less documented. Yet, the regional climate models suffer bias which introduces uncertainty. This is addressed in this study by bias correcting the regional models. This study uses the Weather Research and Forecasting model under different representative concentration pathways and correcting the products of these models using observed climatic data. This study notes that bias correction (e.g., the running-mean bias correction; the best easy systematic estimator method; the simple linear regression method, nearest neighborhood, weighted mean) improves the climatic projection skill and therefore reduce the uncertainty inherent in the climatic projections.

Keywords: bias correction, climatic projections, numerical models, representative concentration pathways

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
5773 The Withdrawal of African States from the International Criminal Court

Authors: Allwell Uwazuruike

Abstract:

With the withdrawal, in 2016, of 3 African states from the ICC, the discourse took an interesting twist. African states, or at least some of them, had now shown their resolve to part ways with the ICC and, by implication, focus on further enthroning regional control and governance through an improved continental justice system. A range of views has been expressed over the years on the allegations of bias by some African states and the continued membership of the ICC. While there may be a split on the merits of the allegations of bias, academic analysts have generally not opposed African states’ membership of the ICC nor been particularly optimistic about the prospects of an African criminal court. There is also a degree of ambivalence on whether there are positives to be taken from African states’ withdrawal from the ICC. This article examines the recent developments with the ICC and analyses whether these could be viewed from the positive (or, at least, alternative) spectrum of the AU’s spirited march towards regional sovereignty or entirely negatively from the point of view of African Heads-of-State seeking to enthrone an era of authoritarianism and non-accountability.

Keywords: international criminal court, Africa, regionalism, criminal justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
5772 Evidence of a Negativity Bias in the Keywords of Scientific Papers

Authors: Kseniia Zviagintseva, Brett Buttliere

Abstract:

Science is fundamentally a problem-solving enterprise, and scientists pay more attention to the negative things, that cause them dissonance and negative affective state of uncertainty or contradiction. While this is agreed upon by philosophers of science, there are few empirical demonstrations. Here we examine the keywords from those papers published by PLoS in 2014 and show with several sentiment analyzers that negative keywords are studied more than positive keywords. Our dataset is the 927,406 keywords of 32,870 scientific articles in all fields published in 2014 by the journal PLOS ONE (collected from Altmetric.com). Counting how often the 47,415 unique keywords are used, we can examine whether those negative topics are studied more than positive. In order to find the sentiment of the keywords, we utilized two sentiment analysis tools, Hu and Liu (2004) and SentiStrength (2014). The results below are for Hu and Liu as these are the less convincing results. The average keyword was utilized 19.56 times, with half of the keywords being utilized only 1 time and the maximum number of uses being 18,589 times. The keywords identified as negative were utilized 37.39 times, on average, with the positive keywords being utilized 14.72 times and the neutral keywords - 19.29, on average. This difference is only marginally significant, with an F value of 2.82, with a p of .05, but one must keep in mind that more than half of the keywords are utilized only 1 time, artificially increasing the variance and driving the effect size down. To examine more closely, we looked at those top 25 most utilized keywords that have a sentiment. Among the top 25, there are only two positive words, ‘care’ and ‘dynamics’, in position numbers 5 and 13 respectively, with all the rest being identified as negative. ‘Diseases’ is the most studied keyword with 8,790 uses, with ‘cancer’ and ‘infectious’ being the second and fourth most utilized sentiment-laden keywords. The sentiment analysis is not perfect though, as the words ‘diseases’ and ‘disease’ are split by taking 1st and 3rd positions. Combining them, they remain as the most common sentiment-laden keyword, being utilized 13,236 times. More than just splitting the words, the sentiment analyzer logs ‘regression’ and ‘rat’ as negative, and these should probably be considered false positives. Despite these potential problems, the effect is apparent, as even the positive keywords like ‘care’ could or should be considered negative, since this word is most commonly utilized as a part of ‘health care’, ‘critical care’ or ‘quality of care’ and generally associated with how to improve it. All in all, the results suggest that negative concepts are studied more, also providing support for the notion that science is most generally a problem-solving enterprise. The results also provide evidence that negativity and contradiction are related to greater productivity and positive outcomes.

Keywords: bibliometrics, keywords analysis, negativity bias, positive and negative words, scientific papers, scientometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
5771 Bias Minimization in Construction Project Dispute Resolution

Authors: Keyao Li, Sai On Cheung

Abstract:

Incorporation of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanism has been the main feature of current trend of construction project dispute resolution (CPDR). ADR approaches have been identified as efficient mechanisms and are suitable alternatives to litigation and arbitration. Moreover, the use of ADR in this multi-tiered dispute resolution process often leads to repeated evaluations of a same dispute. Multi-tiered CPDR may become a breeding ground for cognitive biases. When completed knowledge is not available at the early tier of construction dispute resolution, disputing parties may form preconception of the dispute matter or the counterpart. This preconception would influence their information processing in the subsequent tier. Disputing parties tend to search and interpret further information in a self-defensive way to confirm their early positions. Their imbalanced information collection would boost their confidence in the held assessments. Their attitudes would be hardened and difficult to compromise. The occurrence of cognitive bias, therefore, impedes efficient dispute settlement. This study aims to explore ways to minimize bias in CPDR. Based on a comprehensive literature review, three types of bias minimizing approaches were collected: strategy-based, attitude-based and process-based. These approaches were further operationalized into bias minimizing measures. To verify the usefulness and practicability of these bias minimizing measures, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten CPDR third party neutral professionals. All of the interviewees have at least twenty years of experience in facilitating settlement of construction dispute. The usefulness, as well as the implications of the bias minimizing measures, were validated and suggested by these experts. There are few studies on cognitive bias in construction management in general and in CPDR in particular. This study would be the first of its type to enhance the efficiency of construction dispute resolution by highlighting strategies to minimize the biases therein.

Keywords: bias, construction project dispute resolution, minimization, multi-tiered, semi-structured interview

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
5770 Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit

Authors: Guiheng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jun Fu, Yudong Wang

Abstract:

A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.

Keywords: high gain power amplifier, linearization bias circuit, SiGe HBT model, Volterra series

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5769 Earnings-Related Information, Cognitive Bias, and the Disposition Effect

Authors: Chih-Hsiang Chang, Pei-Shan Kao

Abstract:

This paper discusses the reaction of investors in the Taiwan stock market to the most probable unknown earnings-related information and the most probable known earnings-related information. As compared with the previous literature regarding the effect of an official announcement of earnings forecast revision, this paper further analyzes investors’ cognitive bias toward the unknown and known earnings-related information, and the role of media during the investors' reactions to the foresaid information shocks. The empirical results show that both the unknown and known earnings-related information provides useful information content for a stock market. In addition, cognitive bias and disposition effect are the behavioral pitfalls that commonly occur in the process of the investors' reactions to the earnings-related information. Finally, media coverage has a remarkable influence upon the investors' trading decisions.

Keywords: cognitive bias, role of media, disposition effect, earnings-related information, behavioral pitfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
5768 Forecast Dispersion, Investor Sentiment and the Cross Section of Stock Returns

Authors: Guoyu Lin

Abstract:

This paper explores the role investor sentiment plays in the relationship between analyst forecast dispersion and stock returns. With short sale constraints, stock prices are determined by the optimistic investors. During the high sentiment periods when investors suffer more from psychological bias, there are more optimistic investors. This is the first paper to document that following the high sentiment periods, stocks with the most analyst forecast dispersion are overpriced, earning significantly negative returns, while those with the least analyst forecast dispersion are not overpriced as the degree of belief dispersion is low. However, following the low sentiment periods, both are not overpriced. A portfolio which longs the least dispersed stocks and shorts the most dispersed stocks yields significantly positive returns only following the high sentiment periods. My findings can potentially reconcile the puzzling risk effect and mispricing effect in the literature. The risk (mispricing) effect suggests a positive (negative) relation between analyst forecast dispersion and future stock returns. Presumably, the magnitude of the mispricing effect depends on the proportion of irrational investors and their bias, which is positively related to investor sentiment. During the high sentiment period, the mispricing effect takes over and the overall effect is negative. During the low sentiment period, the percentage of irrational investors is mediate, and the mispricing effect and the risk effect counter each other, leading to insignificant relation.

Keywords: analyst forecast dispersion, short-sale constraints, investor sentiment, stock returns

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
5767 Bias Optimization of Mach-Zehnder Modulator Considering RF Gain on OFDM Radio-Over-Fiber System

Authors: Ghazi Al Sukkar, Yazid Khattabi, Shifen Zhong

Abstract:

Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.

Keywords: OFDM, Mach Zehnder bias voltage, switching voltage, radio-over-fiber, RF gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
5766 Status Quo Bias: A Paradigm Shift in Policy Making

Authors: Divyansh Goel, Varun Jain

Abstract:

Classical economics works on the principle that people are rational and analytical in their decision making and their choices fall in line with the most suitable option according to the dominant strategy in a standard game theory model. This model has failed at many occasions in estimating the behavior and dealings of rational people, giving proof of some other underlying heuristics and cognitive biases at work. This paper probes into the study of these factors, which fall under the umbrella of behavioral economics and through their medium explore the solution to a problem which a lot of nations presently face. There has long been a wide disparity in the number of people holding favorable views on organ donation and the actual number of people signing up for the same. This paper, in its entirety, is an attempt to shape the public policy which leads to an increase the number of organ donations that take place and close the gap in the statistics of the people who believe in signing up for organ donation and the ones who actually do. The key assumption here is that in cases of cognitive dissonance, where people have an inconsistency due to conflicting views, people have a tendency to go with the default choice. This tendency is a well-documented cognitive bias known as the status quo bias. The research in this project involves an assay of mandated choice models of organ donation with two case studies. The first of an opt-in system of Germany (where people have to explicitly sign up for organ donation) and the second of an opt-out system of Austria (every citizen at the time of their birth is an organ donor and has to explicitly sign up for refusal). Additionally, there has also been presented a detailed analysis of the experiment performed by Eric J. Johnson and Daniel G. Goldstein. Their research as well as many other independent experiments such as that by Tsvetelina Yordanova of the University of Sofia, both of which yield similar results. The conclusion being that the general population has by and large no rigid stand on organ donation and are gullible to status quo bias, which in turn can determine whether a large majority of people will consent to organ donation or not. Thus, in our paper, we throw light on how governments can use status quo bias to drive positive social change by making policies in which everyone by default is marked an organ donor, which will, in turn, save the lives of people who succumb on organ transplantation waitlists and save the economy countless hours of economic productivity.

Keywords: behavioral economics, game theory, organ donation, status quo bias

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5765 An Investigation of Item Bias in Free Boarding and Scholarship Examination in Turkey

Authors: Yeşim Özer Özkan, Fatma Büşra Fincan

Abstract:

Biased sample is a regression of an observation, design process and all of the specifications lead to tendency of a side or the situation of leaving from the objectivity. It is expected that, test items are answered by the students who come from different social groups and the same ability not to be different from each other. The importance of the expectation increases especially during student selection and placement examinations. For example, all of the test items should not be beneficial for just a male or female group. The aim of the research is an investigation of item bias whether or not the exam included in 2014 free boarding and scholarship examination in terms of gender variable. Data which belong to 5th, 6th, and 7th grade the secondary education students were obtained by the General Directorate of Measurement, Evaluation and Examination Services in Turkey. 20% students were selected randomly within 192090 students. Based on 38418 students’ exam paper were examined for determination item bias. Winsteps 3.8.1 package program was used to determine bias in analysis of data, according to Rasch Model in respect to gender variable. Mathematics items tests were examined in terms of gender bias. Firstly, confirmatory factor analysis was applied twenty-five math questions. After that, NFI, TLI, CFI, IFI, RFI, GFI, RMSEA, and SRMR were examined in order to be validity and values of goodness of fit. Modification index values of confirmatory factor analysis were examined and then some of the items were omitted because these items gave an error in terms of model conformity and conceptual. The analysis shows that in 2014 free boarding and scholarship examination exam does not include bias. This is an indication of the gender of the examination to be made in favor of or against different groups of students.

Keywords: gender, item bias, placement test, Rasch model

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
5764 Power Reduction of Hall-Effect Sensor by Pulse Width Modulation of Spinning-Current

Authors: Hyungil Chae

Abstract:

This work presents a method to reduce spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor for low-power magnetic sensor applications. Spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor changes the direction of bias current periodically and can separate signals from DC-offset. The bias current is proportional to the sensor sensitivity but also increases the power consumption. To achieve both high sensitivity and low power consumption, the bias current can be pulse-width modulated. When the bias current duration Tb is reduced by a factor of N compared to the spinning current period of Tₛ/2, the total power consumption can be saved by N times. N can be large as long as the Hall-effect sensor settles down within Tb. The proposed scheme is implemented and simulated in a 0.18um CMOS process, and the power saving factor is 9.6 when N is 10. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (20160001360022003, Development of Hall Semi-conductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: chopper stabilization, Hall-effect sensor, pulse width modulation, spinning current

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
5763 A Survey on Positive Real and Strictly Positive Real Scalar Transfer Functions

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions are important concepts in the control theory. In this paper, the results of researches in these areas are summarized. Definitions together with their graphical interpretations are mentioned. The equivalent conditions in the frequency domain and state space representations are reviewed. Their equivalent electrical networks are explained. Also, a comprehensive discussion about a difference between behavior of real part of positive real and strictly positive real transfer functions in high frequencies is presented. Furthermore, several illustrative examples are given.

Keywords: real rational transfer functions, positive realness property, strictly positive realness property, equivalent conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
5762 A Survey on Linear Time Invariant Multivariable Positive Real Systems

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Positive realness as the most important property of driving point impedance of passive electrical networks appears in the control systems stability theory in 1960’s. There are three important subsets of positive real (PR) systems are introduced by researchers, that is, loos-less positive real (LLPR) systems, weakly strictly positive real (WSPR) systems and strictly positive real (SPR) systems. In this paper, definitions, properties, lemmas, and theorems related to family of positive real systems are summarized. Properties in both frequency domain and state space representation of system are explained. Also, several illustrative examples are presented.

Keywords: real rational matrix transfer functions, positive realness property, strictly positive realness property, Hermitian form asymptotic property, pole-zero properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
5761 Virtual Reality as a Method in Transformative Learning: A Strategy to Reduce Implicit Bias

Authors: Cory A. Logston

Abstract:

It is imperative researchers continue to explore every transformative strategy to increase empathy and awareness of racial bias. Racism is a social and political concept that uses stereotypical ideology to highlight racial inequities. Everyone has biases they may not be aware of toward disparate out-groups. There is some form of racism in every profession; doctors, lawyers, and teachers are not immune. There have been numerous successful and unsuccessful strategies to motivate and transform an individual’s unconscious biased attitudes. One method designed to induce a transformative experience and identify implicit bias is virtual reality (VR). VR is a technology designed to transport the user to a three-dimensional environment. In a virtual reality simulation, the viewer is immersed in a realistic interactive video taking on the perspective of a Black man. The viewer as the character experiences discrimination in various life circumstances growing up as a child into adulthood. For instance, the prejudice felt in school, as an adolescent encountering the police and false accusations in the workplace. Current research suggests that an immersive VR simulation can enhance self-awareness and become a transformative learning experience. This study uses virtual reality immersion and transformative learning theory to create empathy and identify any unintentional racial bias. Participants, White teachers, will experience a VR immersion to create awareness and identify implicit biases regarding Black students. The desired outcome provides a springboard to reconceptualize their own implicit bias. Virtual reality is gaining traction in the research world and promises to be an effective tool in the transformative learning process.

Keywords: empathy, implicit bias, transformative learning, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
5760 A Comparative Study on Electrical Characteristics of Au/n-SiC structure, with and Without Zn-Doped PVA Interfacial Layer at Room Temperature

Authors: M. H. Aldahrob, A. Kokce, S. Altindal, H. E. Lapa

Abstract:

In order to obtain the detailed information about the effect of (Zn-doped PVA) interfacial layer, surface states (Nss) and series resistance (Rs) on electrical characteristics, both Au/n- type 4H-SiC (MS) with and without (Zn doped PVA) interfacial layer were fabricated to compare. The main electrical parameters of them were investigated using forward and reverse bias current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance –voltage (G/W –V) measurements were performed at room temperature. Experimental results show that the value of ideality factor (n), zero –bias barrier height (ΦBo), Rs, rectifier rate (RR=IF/IR) and the density of Nss are strong functions interfacial layer and applied bias voltage. The energy distribution profile of Nss was obtained from forward bias I-V data by taking into account voltage dependent effective BH (ΦBo) and ideality factor (n(V)). Voltage dependent profile of Rs was also obtained both by using Ohm’s law and Nicollian and Brew methods. The other main diode parameters such as the concentration of doping donor atom (ND), Fermi energy level (EF).BH (ΦBo), depletion layer with (WD) were obtained by using the intercept and slope of the reverse bias C-2 vs V plots. It was found that (Zn-doped PVA) interfacial layer lead to a quite decrease in the values Nss, Rs and leakage current and increase in shunt resistance (Rsh) and RR. Therefore, we can say that the use of thin (Zn-doped PVA) interfacial layer can quite improved the performance of MS structure.

Keywords: interfacial polymer layer, thickness dependence, electric and dielectric properties, series resistance, interface state

Procedia PDF Downloads 156