Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: M. Bharath

10 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy

Abstract:

In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

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9 Comparative Study of Stone Column with and without Encasement Using Waste Aggregate

Authors: V. K. Stalin, V. Paneerselvam, M. Bharath, M. Kirithika

Abstract:

In developing countries like India due to the rapid urbanization, large amount of waste materials are produced every year. These waste materials can be utilized in the improvement of problematic soils. Stone column is one of the best methods to improve soft clay deposits. In this study, load tests were conducted to ensure the suitability of waste as column materials. The variable parameters studied are material, number of column and encasement. The materials used for the study are stone aggregate, copper slag, construction waste, for one, two and three number of columns with geotextile and geogrid encasement. It was found that the performance of waste as column material are comparable to that of conventional stone column with and without encasement. Hence, it is concluded that the copper slag and construction waste may be used as a column material in place of conventional stone aggregate to improve the soft clay advantage being utilization of waste.

Keywords: stone column, geocomposite, construction waste, copper slag

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8 First-Principles Modeling of Nanoparticle Magnetization, Chaining, and Motion

Authors: Pierce Radecki, Pulkit Malik, Bharath Ramaswamy, Ben Shapiro

Abstract:

The ability to effectively design and test magnetic nanoparticles for controlled movement has been an elusive goal in the design of these particles. Magnetic nanoparticles of various characteristics have been created for use towards therapeutic effects, however the challenge of designing for controlled movement remains unmet. A step towards design in this aspect is a first principles model that captures and predicts the behaviors of particles in a magnetic field. The model is governed by four forces acting on the particles, the magnetic gradient, the dipole-dipole forces, the steric forces, and the viscous drag force. The particles are multi-core or single core, and incorporate a preferred magnetization axis. Particles exhibit behaviors, such as chaining, in simulations that are similar to those witnessed through experimentation. Currently, experimental results are being compared to the modeling results for verification of the model, through the analysis of chaining behaviors. This modeling system will be used in designing magnetic nanoparticles for specific chaining and movement behaviors.

Keywords: controlled movement, modeling, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoparticle design

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7 Study of Interaction between Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) Material and Virgin Material

Authors: G. Bharath, K. S. Reddy, Vivek Tandon, M. Amaranatha Reddy

Abstract:

This paper presents the details of a study conducted to evaluate the interaction between recycled binder and fresh binder in Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) mixes. When RAP is mixed with virgin aggregates in the presence of fresh binder there will be partial blending in a hot mix asphalt mixture. A recent approach used by some researchers for studying the degree of blending of RAP binder with virgin binder has been adopted in this study. Dense Bituminous Macadam mix of Ministry of Road Transport of India with a nominal maximum aggregate size of 19 mm was studied. Two proportions of RAP-20% and 35% and two types of virgin binders – viscosity grade VG10 and VG30 were considered. Design binder contents were determined for all the four types of mixes (two RAP contents and two virgin binders) as per Marshall mix design procedure. The degree of blending of RAP and virgin binders was evaluated in terms of the complex modulus of the binder. Laboratory test results showed that with an increase in RAP content, the degree of blending decreases. Better blending was observed for softer grade binder (VG10).

Keywords: blending, complex modulus, recycled asphalt pavement, virgin binder

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6 Effect of On-Road Vehicular Traffic on Noise Pollution in Bhubaneswar City, Eastern India

Authors: Dudam Bharath Kumar, Harsh Kumar, Naveed Ahmed

Abstract:

Vehicular traffic on the road-side plays a significant role in affecting the noise pollution in most of the cities over the world. To assess the correlation of the road-traffic on noise pollution in the city environment, continuous measurements were carried out in an entire daytime starting from 8:00 AM IST to 6:00 PM IST at a single point for each 5 minutes (8:00-8:05, 9:00-9:05, 10:00-10:05 AM, ...) near the KIIT University campus road. Noise levels were observed using a mobile operated app of android cell phone and a handheld noise meter. Calibration analysis shows high correlation about 0.89 for the study location for the day time period. Results show diurnal variability of atmospheric noise pollution levels go hand-in and with the vehicular number which pass through a point of observation. The range of noise pollution levels in the daytime period is observed as 55 to 75 dB(A). As a day starts, sudden upsurge of noise levels is observed from 65 to 71 dB(A) in the early morning, 64 dB(A) in late morning, regains the same quantity 68-71 dB(A) in the afternoon, and rises 70 dB(A) in the early evening. Vehicular number of the corresponding noise levels exhibits 115-120, 150-160, and 140-160, respectively. However, this preliminary study suggests the importance of vehicular traffic on noise pollution levels in the urban environment and further to study population exposed to noise levels. Innovative approaches help curb the noise pollution through modelling the traffic noise pollution spatially and temporally over the city environments.

Keywords: noise pollution, vehicular traffic, urban environment, noise meter

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5 Reality of Right to Education in States of India from the Point of Stumbling to Settling the Child

Authors: Ekroop Singh Sethi, Arshnoor Kaur, M. H. Bharath

Abstract:

India is the fastest growing economy and a land of tradition, culture and realm of 19 % of the world’s children. Children are an essential part of any economy as its future GDP contributors and, therefore, it is the duty of a country to take care of its future wealth providers. Each country has its own way of child welfare. India is a developing country, has its own child welfare schemes in place, but the question is, are they really as effective as they seem? Are the schemes sufficient? And what about implementation? With 41% of the population below the age of 18, questions relating to child education and welfare require focus. Right to education is a significant act of the government of India that explains the roadmap of free and compulsory elementary education for children in India, making the India 135th country to bring education as right, involving proper support from the government to overcome the shadow of economic conditions and status which prevents children to learn and grow. But is right to education a children-centric movement? As faces the major problem of well-planned, practical curriculum and facilitators, as only 40% of grade 5 students could barely read the textbook of grade 2. Is the policy worthy of settling the child or still trapped in negative realities of the competitive environment of private VS government schools. From the steps to encouragement from the pupil's home to enlightening centers, the article focuses on level of execution, impact and difference in terms to contributing and enabling the children of India for a better tomorrow and a solution to multilayered problems of elementary education in India.

Keywords: growing economy, child welfare, right to education, elementary education, private vs government schools, pupil's home, enlightening centers, execution, impact

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4 Light Weight Fly Ash Based Composite Material for Thermal Insulation Applications

Authors: Bharath Kenchappa, Kunigal Shivakumar

Abstract:

Lightweight, low thermal conductivity and high temperature resistant materials or the system with moderate mechanical properties and capable of taking high heating rates are needed in both commercial and military applications. A single material with these attributes is very difficult to find and one needs to come with innovative ideas to make such material system using what is available. To bring down the cost of the system, one has to be conscious about the cost of basic materials. Such a material system can be called as the thermal barrier system. This paper focuses on developing, testing and characterization of material system for thermal barrier applications. The material developed is porous, low density, low thermal conductivity of 0.1062 W/m C and glass transition temperature about 310 C. Also, the thermal properties of the developed material was measured in both longitudinal and thickness direction to highlight the fact that the material shows isotropic behavior. The material is called modified Eco-Core which uses only less than 9% weight of high-char resin in the composite. The filler (reinforcing material) is a component of fly ash called Cenosphere, they are hollow micro-bubbles made of ceramic materials. Special mixing-technique is used to surface coat the fillers with a thin layer of resin to develop a point-to-point contact of particles. One could use commercial ceramic micro-bubbles instead of Cenospheres, but it is expensive. The bulk density of Cenospheres is about 0.35 g/cc and we could accomplish the composite density of about 0.4 g/cc. One percent filler weight of 3mm length standard drywall grade fibers was used to bring the added toughness. Both thermal and mechanical characterization was performed and properties are documented. For higher temperature applications (up to 1,000 C), a hybrid system was developed using an aerogel mat. Properties of combined material was characterized and documented. Thermal tests were conducted on both the bare modified Eco-Core and hybrid materials to assess the suitability of the material to a thermal barrier application. The hybrid material system was found to meet the requirement of the application.

Keywords: aerogel, fly ash, porous material, thermal barrier

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3 Autophagy Defects That Modify Human Immune Cell Metabolism and Promote Aging-Associated Inflammation

Authors: Grace McCambridge, Alanna Keady, Madhur Agrawal, Dequina Nicholas Alvarado, Barbara Nikolajczyk, Leena Panneerseelan-Bharath

Abstract:

Age is a non-modifiable risk factor for the inflammation that underlies pathologies such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammation, as indicated by circulating cytokines, rises in aging, but mechanisms that promote this ‘inflammaging’ remain poorly defined. Furthermore, downstream consequences of inflammaging, including the development of an inflammatory profile that predicts comorbidities like T2DM, remain speculative. We tested the possibility that natural aging-associated changes in autophagy, a process that is compromised in both aging and T2DM, regulates inflammatory profiles in older subjects. Our data showed that circulating CD4⁺ T cells from older compared to younger subjects have (i) defects in autophagy; (ii) higher mitochondria accumulation; (iii) a failure to metabolically shift from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis upon αCD3/CD28 activation; (iv) more reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; and (v) a cytokine profile that recapitulates the Th17 profile that predicts T2DM. ROS scavenging in cells from older subjects restored mitochondrial mass and membrane potential (indicators of improved autophagy) and reduced Th17 cytokines to amounts made by T cells from younger subjects. Knock-down of the autophagy protein Atg3 in T cells from younger subjects increased mitochondrial accumulation and Th17 cytokines. To begin translating these findings to clinical practice, we showed that physiological concentrations of the diabetes drug metformin (100 µM) added in vitro enhanced autophagy, prevented mitochondria and ROS accumulation, increased anaerobic glycolysis, and decreased Th17 cytokines in activated CD4⁺ T cells from older subjects. Metformin therefore improves autophagy and multiple downstream pro-inflammatory mechanisms CD4⁺ T cells from older subjects. We conclude that autophagy improvement ameliorates the development of a T2DM-predictive Th17 profile in aging, and thus holds promise for delay or prevention of aging-associated metabolic decline.

Keywords: autophagy, mitochondrial turnover, ROS, glycolysis

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2 Modelling tyre rubber materials for high frequency FE analysis

Authors: Bharath Anantharamaiah, Tomas Bouda, Elke Deckers, Stijn Jonckheere, Wim Desmet, Juan J. Garcia

Abstract:

Automotive tyres are gaining importance recently in terms of their noise emission, not only with respect to reduction in noise, but also their perception and detection. Tyres exhibit a mechanical noise generation mechanism up to 1 kHz. However, owing to the fact that tyre is a composite of several materials, it has been difficult to model it using finite elements to predict noise at high frequencies. The currently available FE models have a reliability of about 500 Hz, the limit which, however, is not enough to perceive the roughness or sharpness of noise from tyre. These noise components are important in order to alert pedestrians on the street about passing by slow, especially electric vehicles. In order to model tyre noise behaviour up to 1 kHz, its dynamic behaviour must be accurately developed up to a 1 kHz limit using finite elements. Materials play a vital role in modelling the dynamic tyre behaviour precisely. Since tyre is a composition of several components, their precise definition in finite element simulations is necessary. However, during the tyre manufacturing process, these components are subjected to various pressures and temperatures, due to which these properties could change. Hence, material definitions are better described based on the tyre responses. In this work, the hyperelasticity of tyre component rubbers is calibrated, using the design of experiments technique from the tyre characteristic responses that are measured on a stiffness measurement machine. The viscoelasticity of rubbers are defined by the Prony series for rubbers, which are determined from the loss factor relationship between the loss and storage moduli, assuming that the rubbers are excited within the linear viscoelasticity ranges. These values of loss factor are measured and theoretically expressed as a function of rubber shore hardness or hyperelasticities. From the results of the work, there exists a good correlation between test and simulation vibrational transfer function up to 1 kHz. The model also allows flexibility, i.e., the frequency limit can also be extended, if required, by calibrating the Prony parameters of rubbers corresponding to the frequency of interest. As future work, these tyre models are used for noise generation at high frequencies and thus for tyre noise perception.

Keywords: tyre dynamics, rubber materials, prony series, hyperelasticity

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1 Effects of Oxytocin on Neural Response to Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Avyarthana Dey, Naren P. Rao, Arpitha Jacob, Chaitra V. Hiremath, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Rose Dawn Bharath, Bangalore N. Gangadhar

Abstract:

Objective: Impaired facial emotion recognition is widely reported in schizophrenia. Neuropeptide oxytocin is known to modulate brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition, namely amygdala, in healthy volunteers. However, its effect on facial emotion recognition deficits seen in schizophrenia is not well explored. In this study, we examined the effect of intranasal OXT on processing facial emotions and its neural correlates in patients with schizophrenia. Method: 12 male patients (age= 31.08±7.61 years, education= 14.50±2.20 years) participated in this single-blind, counterbalanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. All participants underwent three fMRI scans; one at baseline, one each after single dose 24IU intranasal OXT and intranasal placebo. The order of administration of OXT and placebo were counterbalanced and subject was blind to the drug administered. Participants performed a facial emotion recognition task presented in a block design with six alternating blocks of faces and shapes. The faces depicted happy, angry or fearful emotions. The images were preprocessed and analyzed using SPM 12. First level contrasts comparing recognition of emotions and shapes were modelled at individual subject level. A group level analysis was performed using the contrasts generated at the first level to compare the effects of intranasal OXT and placebo. The results were thresholded at uncorrected p < 0.001 with a cluster size of 6 voxels. Neuropeptide oxytocin is known to modulate brain regions involved in facial emotion recognition, namely amygdala, in healthy volunteers. Results: Compared to placebo, intranasal OXT attenuated activity in inferior temporal, fusiform and parahippocampal gyri (BA 20), premotor cortex (BA 6), middle frontal gyrus (BA 10) and anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) and enhanced activity in the middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), inferior occipital gyrus (BA 19), and superior temporal gyrus (BA 22). There were no significant differences between the conditions on the accuracy scores of emotion recognition between baseline (77.3±18.38), oxytocin (82.63 ± 10.92) or Placebo (76.62 ± 22.67). Conclusion: Our results provide further evidence to the modulatory effect of oxytocin in patients with schizophrenia. Single dose oxytocin resulted in significant changes in activity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of long-term treatment with OXT for emotion recognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: recognition, functional connectivity, oxytocin, schizophrenia, social cognition

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