Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2877

Search results for: wear resistance

2877 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
2876 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
2875 Effect of Zirconium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti on its Resistance to Wear: A Three-Dimensional Approach

Authors: S. M. A. Al-Qawabah, A. I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in industrial and engineering applications due to their good and useful properties e.g. high strength to weight ratio, high thermal and electrical conductivities and good resistance to corrosion. However, against these favorable properties they have the disadvantage they solidifying large grain columnar structure which negatively affects their mechanical properties and surface quality. Aluminum alloys are normally grain refined by some alloying elements, such as Ti, Ti-B or Zr. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition to Al grain refined by Ti after extrusion on its wear resistance is investigated under different loads and sliding speeds namely at 5,10 and 20 N loads and sliding speeds ranging from m/min. and m/min. the results are presented in three-dimensional wear mode. To the best the authors' knowledge, the wear of aluminum in 3-dimensions has never been tackled before. In this work, the wear resistance of by presenting the results of wear are presented and discussed on the time, load and speed plots.

Keywords: aluminum grain refined, addition of titanium, wear resistance, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2874 Synergetic Effects of Water and Sulfur Dioxide Treatments on Wear of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

Authors: Qian Qiao, Tongjin Xiao, Hongtu He, Jiaxin Yu

Abstract:

This study is focused on the synergetic effects of water and sulfur dioxide treatments (SO₂ treatments) on the mechanochemical wear of SLS glass. It is found that the wear behavior of SLS glass in humid air is very sensitive to the water and SO₂ treatment environments based on the wear test using a ball-on-flat reciprocation tribometer. When SLS glass is treated with SO₂-without, the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass in humid air becomes significantly higher compared to the pristine glass. However, when SLS glass is treated with SO₂ with the presence of water, the wear resistance of SLS glass decreases remarkably with increasing in the relative humidity (RH) from 0% to 90%. Further analyses indicate that when sodium ions are leached out of SLS glass surface via the water and SO₂ treatments, the mechanochemical properties of SLS glass surface become different depending on the RH. At lower humidity, the nano hardness of the Na⁺-leached surface is higher, and it can contribute to the enhanced wear resistance of SLS glass. In contrast, at higher humidity conditions, the SLS glass surface is more hydrophilic, and substantial wear debris can be found inside the wear track of SLS glass. Those phenomena suggest that adhesive wear and abrasive wear dominate the wear mechanism of SLS glass in humid air, causing the decreased wear resistance of SLS glass with increasing the RH. These results may not only provide a deep understanding of the wear mechanism of SLS glass but also helpful for operation process of functional and engineering glasses.

Keywords: soda lime silicate glass, wear, water, SO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2873 Wear Resistance of 20MnCr5 Steel Nitrided by Plasma

Authors: Okba Belahssen, Said Benramache

Abstract:

This paper presents wear behavior of the plasma-nitrided 20MnCr5 steel. Untreated and plasma nitrided samples were tested. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plasma nitriding behaviors of 20MnCr5 steel have been assessed by evaluating tribological properties and surface hardness by using a pin-on-disk wear machine and microhardness tester. Experimental results showed that the nitrides ε-Fe2−3N and γ′-Fe4N present in the white layer improve the wear resistance.

Keywords: plasma-nitriding, alloy 20mncr5, steel, friction, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
2872 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun

Abstract:

This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2871 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2870 Effect of Microstructure on Wear Resistance of Polycrystalline Diamond Composite Cutter of Bit

Authors: Fanyuan Shao, Wei Liu, Deli Gao

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond composite (PDC) cutter is made of diamond powder as raw material, cobalt metal or non-metallic elements as a binder, mixed with WC cemented carbide matrix assembly, through high temperature and high-pressure sintering. PDC bits with PDC cutters are widely used in oil and gas drilling because of their high hardness, good wear resistance and excellent impact toughness. And PDC cutter is the main cutting tool of bit, which seriously affects the service of the PDC bit. The wear resistance of the PDC cutter is measured by cutting granite with a vertical turret lathe (VTL). This experiment can achieve long-distance cutting to obtain the relationship between the wear resistance of the PDC cutter and cutting distance, which is more closely to the real drilling situation. Load cell and 3D optical profiler were used to obtain the value of cutting forces and wear area, respectively, which can also characterize the damage and wear of the PDC cutter. PDC cutters were cut via electrical discharge machining (EDM) and then flattened and polished. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the distribution of binder cobalt and the size of diamond particles in a diamond PDC cutter. The cutting experimental results show that the wear area of the PDC cutter has a good linear relationship with the cutting distance. Simultaneously, the larger the wear area is and the greater the cutting forces are required to maintain the same cutting state. The size and distribution of diamond particles in the polycrystalline diamond layer have a great influence on the wear resistance of the diamond layer. And PDC cutter with fine diamond grains shows more wear resistance than that with coarse grains. The deep leaching process is helpful to reduce the effect of binder cobalt on the wear resistance of the polycrystalline diamond layer. The experimental study can provide an important basis for the application of PDC cutters in oil and gas drilling.

Keywords: polycrystalline diamond compact, scanning electron microscope, wear resistance, cutting distance

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2869 Wear Resistance and Mechanical Performance of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Influenced by Temperature Change

Authors: Juan Carlos Baena, Zhongxiao Peng

Abstract:

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is extensively used in industrial and biomedical fields. The slippery nature of UHMWPE makes this material suitable for surface bearing applications, however, the operational conditions limit the lubrication efficiency, inducing boundary and mixed lubrication in the tribological system. The lack of lubrication in a tribological system intensifies friction, contact stress and consequently, operating temperature. With temperature increase, the material’s mechanical properties are affected, and the lifespan of the component is reduced. The understanding of how mechanical properties and wear performance of UHMWPE change when the temperature is increased has not been clearly identified. The understanding of the wear and mechanical performance of UHMWPE at different temperature is important to predict and further improve the lifespan of these components. This study evaluates the effects of temperature variation in a range of 20 °C to 60 °C on the hardness and the wear resistance of UHMWPE. A reduction of the hardness and wear resistance was observed with the increase in temperature. The variation of the wear rate increased 94.8% when the temperature changed from 20 °C to 50 °C. Although hardness is regarded to be an indicator of the material wear resistance, this study found that wear resistance decreased more rapidly than hardness with the temperature increase, evidencing a low material stability of this component in a short temperature interval. The reduction of the hardness was reflected by the plastic deformation and abrasion intensity, resulting in a significant wear rate increase.

Keywords: hardness, surface bearing, tribological system, UHMWPE, wear

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2868 Novel Ti/Al-Cr-Fe Metal Matrix Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering with Excellent Wear Properties

Authors: Ruitao Li, Zhili Dong, Nay Win Khun, Khiam Aik Khor

Abstract:

In this study, microstructure and sintering mechanism as well as wear resistance properties of Ti/Al-Cr-Fe metal matrix composites (MMCs) fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) with Ti as matrix and Al-Cr-Fe as reinforcement were investigated. Phases and microstructure of the sintered samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wear resistance properties were tested by ball-on-disk method. An Al3Ti ring forms around each Al-Cr-Fe particle as the bonding layer between Ti and Al-Cr-Fe particles. The Al content in Al-Cr-Fe particles experiences a decrease from 70 at.% to 60 at.% in the sintering process. And these particles consist of quasicrystalline icosahedral AlCrFe and quasicrystal approximants γ-brass Al8(Cr,Fe)5 and Al9(Cr,Fe)4 in the sintered compact. The addition of Al-Cr-Fe particles into the Ti matrix can improve the microhardness by about 40% and the wear resistance is improved by more than 50% due to the increase in the microhardness and the change of wear mechanism.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, spark plasma sintering, phase transformation, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2867 Argon/Oxygen Plasma Surface Modification of Biopolymers for Improvement of Wettability and Wear Resistance

Authors: Binnur Sagbas

Abstract:

Artificial joint replacements such as total knee and total hip prosthesis have been applied to the patients who affected by osteoarthritis. Although different material combinations are used for these joints, biopolymers are most commonly preferred materials especially for acetabular cup and tibial component of hip and knee joints respectively. The main limitation that shortens the service life of these prostheses is wear. Wear is complicated phenomena and it must be considered with friction and lubrication. In this study, micro wave (MW) induced argon+oxygen plasma surface modification were applied on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-UHMWPE) biopolymer surfaces to improve surface wettability and wear resistance of the surfaces. Contact angel measurement method was used for determination of wettability. Ball-on-disc wear test was applied under 25% bovine serum lubrication conditions. The results show that surface wettability and wear resistance of both material samples were increased by plasma surface modification.

Keywords: artificial joints, plasma surface modification, UHMWPE, vitamin E, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
2866 Evaluation of Erosive Wear Resistance of Commercial Hard Coatings with Plasma Nitride and Without Plasma Nitride in Aluminium Die Casting

Authors: A. Mohammed, R. Lewis, M. Marshall

Abstract:

Commonly used coatings to protect tools in die casting were used. A heat treatment and then surface coating can have a large effect on erosion damage. Samples have been tested to evaluate their resistances to erosive wear and to assess how this compares with behaviour seen for untreated material. Five commercial (PN + TiN), (PN + TiAlCN), (TiN X 2), (TiN), and (TiAlCN) coatings have been evaluated for their wear resistance. The objective was to permit an optimized selection of coatings to be used to give good resistance to erosive wear. A test-Rig has been developed to study the erosive wear in aluminium die casting and provide an environment similar to industrial operation that is more practical than using actual machines. These surfaces were analysed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Optical Microscopes each with a different level of resolution. Examination of coating materials revealed an important parameter associated with the failure of the coating materials.This was adhesion of the coating material to the substrate surface. A well-adhered coating withstands wear much better compared to the poorest-adhering coating.

Keywords: solid particle erosion, PVD-coatings, steel, erosion testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2865 Tribological Properties of Different Mass Ratio High Velocity Oxygen Fuel-Sprayed Al₂O₃-TiO₂ Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

Authors: Mehmet Fahri Sarac, Gokcen Akgun

Abstract:

Ti–6Al–4V alloys are widely used in biomedical industries because of its attractive mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, they have poor wear resistance. High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) coatings were investigated as a way to improve the wear resistance of this alloy. In this paper, different mass ratio of Al₂O₃-TiO₂ powders (60/40, 87/13 and 97/3) was employed to enhance the tribological properties of Ti–6Al–4V. The tribological behavior was investigated by wear tests using ball-on-disc and pin-on-disc tribometer. The microstructures of the contact surfaces were determined by a scanning electron microscopy before and after the test to study the wear mechanism. Uncoated and coated surfaces after wear test are also subjected to micro-hardness tests. The tribological test results showed that the microhardness, friction and wear resistance of coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys increases by increasing TiO₂ content in the powder composite when other experimental conditions were constant. Finally, Al₂O₃-TiO₂ powder composites for the investigated conditions, both coating samples had satisfactory values of friction and wear resistance, and they could be suitable candidates for Ti–6Al–4V material.

Keywords: HVOF (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel), Al₂O₃-TiO₂, Ti-6Al-4V, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
2864 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhua, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.

Keywords: surfacing, stellite 21, dilution, SMAW, frictional wear, micro-hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2863 Effect of Zr Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti+B on Its Wear Resistance after Extrusion Condition

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Safwan M. A. Alqawabah

Abstract:

Review of the available literature on grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys reveals that little work is published on the effect of refiners on mechanical characteristics and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zr to Al grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical, mechanical characteristics and wear resistance both in the as cast and after extrusion condition are presented and discussed. It was found that Addition of Zr to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical strength and hardness, whereas it resulted in improvement of both of them when added to Al grain refined by Ti+B. Furthermore it was found that the direct extrusion process resulted in further increase of the mechanical strength and hardness of Al and its micro-alloys. Also it resulted in increase of their work hardening index, n, i.e. improved their formability, hence it reduces the number of stages required for forming at large strains in excess of the plastic instability before Zr addition.

Keywords: aluminum, grain refinement, titanium + boron, zirconium, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance, direct extrusion

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2862 Novel Development on Orthopedic Prosthesis by Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite Coated on 316 L Stainless Steel

Authors: Neriman Ozada, Ebrahim Karamian, Amirsalar Khandan, Sina Ghafoorpoor Yazdi

Abstract:

Natural hydroxyapatite, NHA, coatings on the surface of 316 L stainless steel implants has been widely employed in order to achieve better osteoconductivity. For coating, the plasma spraying method is generally used because they ensure adhesion between the coating and the 316 L stainless steel (SS) surface. Some compounds such as zircon (ZrSiO4) is employed as an additive in an attempt to improve HA’s mechanical properties such as wear resistance and hardness. In this study wear resistance has been carried out in different chemical compositions of coating. Therefore, nanocomposites based on NHA containing of 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon were used as a coating on the SS implants. The samples consisted of NHA, derived from calf heated at 850 °C for 3 h. The composite mixture was coated on SS by plasma spray method. The results were estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were utilized to characterize the shape and size of NHA powder. Disc wear test and Vickers hardness were utilized to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The prepared NHA powder had nano-scale morphological structure with the mean crystallite size of 30-50 nm in diameter. The wear resistance are almost 320, 380, 415, and 395 m/g and hardness are approximately 376, 391, 420, 410 VHN in ceramic composite materials containing ZrSiO4. The results have been shown that the best wear resistance and hardness occurred in the sample coated by NHA/ZrSiO4 containing of 10 wt.% of zircon.

Keywords: zircon, 316 L stainless steel, wear resistance, orthopedic applications, plasma spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
2861 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan

Abstract:

In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

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2860 Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost

Authors: Antônio P. de Araújo Neto, Ruy D. A. da Silva Neto, Juliana R. de Souza, Salete K. P. de Medeiros, João T. N. de Medeiros

Abstract:

The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%, and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation, normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.

Keywords: microcomposites, microparticles tailings of scheelite, PTFE, tribology

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2859 Tribocorrosion Behavior of Austempered Ductile Iron Microalloyed with Boron

Authors: S. Gvazava, N. Khidasheli, G. Gordeziani, A. DL. Batako

Abstract:

The work presented in this paper studied the tribological characteristics (wear resistance, friction coefficient) of austempered ductile iron (ADI) with different combinations of structural composition (upper bainite, lower bainite, retained austenite) in dry sliding friction. A range of structural states of the metal matrix was obtained by changing the regimes of isothermal quenching of high-strength cast iron. The tribological tests were carried out using two sets of isothermal quenched cast irons. After austenitization at 900°С for 60 minutes, the specimens from the first group were isothermally quenched at the 300°С temperature and the specimens from the second set – at 400°С. The investigations showed that the isothermal quenching increases the friction coefficient of high-strength cast irons. The friction coefficient was found to be in the range from 0.4 to 0.55 for cast irons, depending on the structures of the metal matrix. The quenched cast irons having lower bainite demonstrate higher wear resistance in dry friction conditions. The dependence of wear resistance on the amount of retained austenite in isothermal quenched cast irons has a nonlinear characteristic and reaches its maximum value when the content of retained austenite is about 15-22%. The boron micro-additives allowed to reduce the friction coefficient of ADI and increase their wear resistance by 1.5-1.7 times.

Keywords: wear resistance, dry sliding, austempering, ADI, friction coefficient, retained austenite, isothermal quenching

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2858 Wear Behavior of Grey Cast Iron Coated with Al2O3-13TiO2 and Ni20Cr Using Detonation Spray Process

Authors: Harjot Singh Gill, Neelkanth Grover, Jwala Parshad Singla

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work is to present the effect of coating on two different grades of grey cast iron using detonation spray method. Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed using detonation gun onto GI250 and GIHC substrates and the results as well as coating surface morphology of the coating is studied by XRD and SEM/EDAX analysis. The wear resistance of Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 has been investigated on pin-on-disc tribometer using ASTM G99 standards. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (µ) were calculated under three normal load of 30N, 40N, 50N at constant sliding velocity of 1m/s. Worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM/EDAX. The results show significant resistance to wear with Al2O3-13TiO2 coating as compared to Ni20Cr and bare substrates. SEM/EDAX analysis and cumulative wear loss bar charts clearly explain the wear behavior of coated as well as bare sample of GI250 and GIHC.

Keywords: detonation spray, grey cast iron, wear rate, coefficient of friction

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2857 Influence of Aluminum Content on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of TiAlN Coatings for Using in Dental and Surgical Instrumentation

Authors: Hernan D. Mejia, Gilberto B. Gaitan, Mauricio A. Franco

Abstract:

420 steel is normally used in the manufacture of dental and surgical instrumentation, as well as parts in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, among others, where they must withstand heavy loads and often be in contact with corrosive environments, which leads to wear and deterioration of these steels in relatively short times. In the case of medical applications, the instruments made of this steel also suffer wear and corrosion during the repetitive sterilization processes due to the relatively low achievable hardness of just 50 HRC and its hardly acceptable resistance to corrosion. In order to improve the wear resistance of 420 steel, TiAlN coatings were deposited, increasing the aluminum content in the alloy by varying the power applied to the aluminum target of 900, 1100, and 1300 W. Evaluations using XRD, Micro Raman, XPS, AFM, SEM, and TEM showed a columnar growth crystal structure with an average thickness of 2 microns and consisting of the TiN and TiAlN phases, whose roughness and grain size decrease with a higher Al content. The AlN phase also appears in the sample deposited at 1300W. The hardness, determined by nanoindentation, initially increases with the aluminum content from 9.7 GPa to 17.1 GPa, but then decreases to 15.4 GPa for the sample with the highest aluminum content due to the appearance of hexagonal AlN and a decrease of harder TiN and TiAlN phases. It was observed that the wear coefficient had a contrary behavior, which took values of 2.7; 1.7 and 6.6x10⁻⁶ mm³/N.m, respectively. All the coated samples significantly improved the wear resistance of the uncoated 420 steel.

Keywords: hard coatings, magnetron sputtering, TiAlN coatings, surgical instruments, wear resistance

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2856 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema

Abstract:

A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
2855 Using Fly Ash as a Reinforcement to Increase Wear Resistance of Pure Magnesium

Authors: E. Karakulak, R. Yamanoğlu, M. Zeren

Abstract:

In the current study, fly ash obtained from a thermal power plant was used as reinforcement in pure magnesium. The composite materials with different fly ash contents were produced with powder metallurgical methods. Powder mixtures were sintered at 540oC under 30 MPa pressure for 15 minutes in a vacuum assisted hot press. Results showed that increasing ash content continuously increases hardness of the composite. On the other hand, minimum wear damage was obtained at 2 wt. % ash content. Addition of higher level of fly ash results with formation of cracks in the matrix and increases wear damage of the material.

Keywords: Mg composite, fly ash, wear, powder metallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
2854 Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Wear Parameters on Al/Sic/Gr: Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite by Taguchi Method

Authors: Rachit Marwaha, Rahul Dev Gupta, Vivek Jain, Krishan Kant Sharma

Abstract:

Metal matrix hybrid composites (MMHCs) are now gaining their usage in aerospace, automotive and other industries because of their inherent properties like high strength to weight ratio, hardness and wear resistance, good creep behaviour, light weight, design flexibility and low wear rate etc. Al alloy base matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (10%) and graphite (5%) particles was fabricated by stir casting process. The wear and frictional properties of metal matrix hybrid composites were studied by performing dry sliding wear test using pin on disc wear test apparatus. Experiments were conducted based on the plan of experiments generated through Taguchi’s technique. A L9 Orthogonal array was selected for analysis of data. Investigation to find the influence of applied load, sliding speed and track diameter on wear rate as well as coefficient of friction during wearing process was carried out using ANOVA. Objective of the model was chosen as smaller the better characteristics to analyse the dry sliding wear resistance. Results show that track diameter has highest influence followed by load and sliding speed.

Keywords: Taguchi method, orthogonal array, ANOVA, metal matrix hybrid composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2853 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
2852 Investigation on Dry Sliding Wear for Laser Cladding of Stellite 6 Produced on a P91 Steel Substrate

Authors: Alain Kusmoko, Druce Dunne, Huijun Li

Abstract:

Stellite 6 was deposited by laser cladding on a chromium bearing substrate (P91) with energy inputs of 1 kW (P91-1) and 1.8 kW (P91-1.8). The chemical compositions and microstructures of these coatings were characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The microhardness of the coatings was measured and the wear mechanism of the coatings was assessed using a pin-on-plate (reciprocating) wear testing machine. The results showed less cracking and pore development for Stellite 6 coatings applied to the P91 steel substrate with the lower heat input (P91-1). Further, the Stellite coating for P91-1 was significantly harder than that obtained for P91-1.8. The wear test results indicated that the weight loss for P91-1 was much lower than for P91-1.8. It is concluded that the lower hardness of the coating for P91-1.8, together with the softer underlying substrate structure, markedly reduced the wear resistance of the Stellite 6 coating.

Keywords: friction and wear, laser cladding, P91 steel, Stellite 6 coating

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2851 Study of Machinability for Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V through Chip Formation in Milling Process

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, Ahmed H. Al-Saadi

Abstract:

Most of the materials used in the industry of aero-engine components generally consist of titanium alloys. Advanced materials, because of their excellent combination of high specific strength, lightweight, and general corrosion resistance. In fact, chemical wear resistance of aero-engine alloy provide a serious challenge for cutting tool material during the machining process. The reduction in cutting temperature distributions leads to an increase in tool life and a decrease in wear rate. Hence, the chip morphology and segmentation play a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining process. The result of low thermal conductivity and diffusivity of this alloy in the concentration of high temperatures at the tool-work-piece and tool-chip interface. Consequently, the chip morphology is very important in the study of machinability of metals as well as the study of cutting tool wear. Otherwise, the result will be accelerating tool wear, increasing manufacturing cost and time consuming.

Keywords: machinability, titanium alloy (ti-6al-4v), chip formation, milling process

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
2850 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan

Abstract:

Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2849 Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Ti3SiC2 and the Effect of TiC on Its

Authors: Bendaoudi Seif-Eddine, Bounazef Mokhtar

Abstract:

Wear behaviour of Ti3SiC2 coating in contact sliding under dry condition have been investigated on different pressures (0.1-0.8 MPa) at various speeds from 5 to 60 m/s. The ball-on-disc sliding-wear test was performed in ambient air with a relative humidity of 20%. An equation has been proposed to predict wear rates and describe sliding wear caused by Corundum ball on the studied material. The results show how the wear rate, measured by mass loss, varies in the range of (0.6 – 3.8 x E-6 mm3/Nm) with normal sliding distance under various test conditions; it increases with increasing load and rapidly with speed. The influence of TiC impurities on the wear behaviours was also investigated.

Keywords: ball-on-disc, dry-sliding, Ti3SiC2, wear

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2848 Determining Which Material Properties Resist the Tool Wear When Machining Pre-Sintered Zirconia

Authors: David Robert Irvine

Abstract:

In the dental restoration sector, there has been a shift to using zirconia. With the ever increasing need to decrease lead times to deliver restorations faster the zirconia is machined in its pre-sintered state instead of grinding the very hard sintered state. As with all machining, there is tool wear and while investigating the tooling used to machine pre-sintered zirconia it became apparent that the wear rate is based more on material build up and abrasion than it is on plastic deformation like conventional metal machining. It also came to light that the tool material can currently not be selected based on wear resistance, as there is no data. Different works have analysed the effect of the individual wear mechanism separately using similar if not the same material. In this work, the testing method used to analyse the wear was a modified from ISO 8688:1989 to use the pre-sintered zirconia and the cutting conditions used in dental to machine it. This understanding was developed through a series of tests based in machining operations, to give the best representation of the multiple wear factors that can occur in machining of pre-sintered zirconia such as 3 body abrasion, material build up, surface welding, plastic deformation, tool vibration and thermal cracking. From the testing, it found that carbide grades with low trans-granular rupture toughness would fail due to abrasion while those with high trans-granular rupture toughness failed due to edge chipping from build up or thermal properties. The results gained can assist the development of these tools and the restorative dental process. This work was completed with the aim of assisting in the selection of tool material for future tools along with a deeper understanding of the properties that assist in abrasive wear resistance and material build up.

Keywords: abrasive wear, cemented carbide, pre-sintered zirconia, tool wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 75