Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1540

Search results for: duplex stainless steel

1540 Corrosion Behavior of Induced Stress Duplex Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Serge Mudinga Lemika, Samuel Olukayode Akinwamide, Aribo Sunday, Babatunde Abiodun Obadele, Peter Apata Olubambi

Abstract:

Use of Duplex stainless steel has become predominant in applications where excellent corrosion resistance is of utmost importance. Corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel induced with varying stress in a chloride media were studied. Characterization of as received 2205 duplex stainless steels were carried out to reveal its structure and properties tensile sample produced from duplex stainless steel was initially subjected to tensile test to obtain the yield strength. Stresses obtained by various percentages (20, 40, 60 and 80%) of the yield strength was induced in DSS samples. Corrosion tests were carried out in magnesium chloride solution at room temperature. Morphologies of cracks observed with optical and scanning electron microscope showed that samples induced with higher stress had its austenite and ferrite grains affected by pitting.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, hardness, nanoceramics, spark plasma sintering

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1539 The Influence of C Element on the Phase Transformation in Weldment of Complex Stainless Steels 2507/316/316L

Authors: LIN Dong-Yih, Yang S.-M., Huang B.-W., Lian J.-A.

Abstract:

Super duplex stainless steel has excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. It becomes important structural material as its application has been extended to the fields such as renewable energy and the chemical industry because of its excellent properties. As examples are offshore wind power, solar cell machinery, and pipes in the chemical industry. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel can be eliminated by welding due to the precipitation of the hard and brittle σ phase, which is rich of chromium, and molybdenum elements. This paper studies the influence of carbon element on the phase transformation of -ferrite and σ phase in 2507 super duplex stainless steel. The 2507 will be under argon gas protection welded with 316 and 316L extra low carbon stainless steel separately. The microstructural phases of stainless steels before and after welding, in fusion, heat affected zones, and base material will be studied via X-ray, OM, SEM, EPMA i.e. their quantity, size, distribution, and morphology. The influences of diffusion by carbon element will be compared according to the microstructures, hardness, and corrosion tests.

Keywords: complex stainless steel, welding, phase formation, carbon element, sigma phase, delta ferrite

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1538 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel

Authors: Altoumi Alndalusi

Abstract:

The work examines the aqueous corrosion behavior of grades of stain less steel which are used as corrosion resistant castings for applications such as valve and pump bodies. The corrosion behavior of steels in the as-cast condition has been examined using potentiostatic studies to illustrate the need for correct thermal treatment. A metallurgical examination and chemical analysis were carried out to establish the morphology of the steel structure. Heat treatment was carried out in order to compare damage in relation to microstructure. Optical and scanning electron microscopy examinations confirmed that the austenitic steels suffers from severe localized inter-dendritic pitting attack, while non homogenized castings highly alloyed duplex steels gave inferior corrosion resistance. Through the heat treatment conditions a significant of phase transformation of the duplex steel C were occurred (from ferrite to austenite and sigma plus carbides) and were gave reduction resistance.

Keywords: cast, corrosion, duplex stainless, heat treatment, material, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1537 Determination of Stress-Strain Curve of Duplex Stainless Steel Welds

Authors: Carolina Payares-Asprino

Abstract:

Dual-phase duplex stainless steel comprised of ferrite and austenite has shown high strength and corrosion resistance in many aggressive environments. Joining duplex alloys is challenging due to several embrittling precipitates and metallurgical changes during the welding process. The welding parameters strongly influence the quality of a weld joint. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the weld bead’s integral properties as a function of welding parameters, especially when part of the weld bead is removed through a machining process due to aesthetic reasons or to couple the elements in the in-service structure. The present study uses the existing stress-strain model to predict the stress-strain curves for duplex stainless-steel welds under different welding conditions. Having mathematical expressions that predict the shape of the stress-strain curve is advantageous since it reduces the experimental work in obtaining the tensile test. In analysis and design, such stress-strain modeling simplifies the time of operations by being integrated into calculation tools, such as the finite element program codes. The elastic zone and the plastic zone of the curve can be defined by specific parameters, generating expressions that simulate the curve with great precision. There are empirical equations that describe the stress-strain curves. However, they only refer to the stress-strain curve for the stainless steel, but not when the material is under the welding process. It is a significant contribution to the applications of duplex stainless steel welds. For this study, a 3x3 matrix with a low, medium, and high level for each of the welding parameters were applied, giving a total of 27 weld bead plates. Two tensile specimens were manufactured from each welded plate, resulting in 54 tensile specimens for testing. When evaluating the four models used to predict the stress-strain curve in the welded specimens, only one model (Rasmussen) presented a good correlation in predicting the strain stress curve.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, modeling, stress-stress curve, tensile test, welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
1536 The Austenite Role in Duplex Stainless Steel Performance

Authors: Farej Ahmed Emhmmed Alhegagi

Abstract:

Duplex stainless steels are attractive material for apparatus working with sea water, petroleum, refineries, chemical plants,vessels, and pipes operating at high temperatures and/or pressures. The role of austenite phase in duplex stainless steels performance was investigated. Zeron 100, stainless steels with 50/50 ferrite / austenite %, specimens were tested for strength, toughness, embrittlement susceptibility, and assisted environmental cracking (AEC) resistance. Specimens were heat treated at 475°C for different times and loaded to well- selected values of load. The load values were chosen to be within the range of higher / lower than the expected toughness. Sodium chloride solution 3.5wt% environment with polarity of -900mV / SCE was used to investigate the material susceptibility to (AEC). Results showed important effect of austenite on specimens overall mechanical properties. Strength was affected by the ductile nature of austenite phase leading to plastic deformation accommodated by austenite slip system. Austenite embrittlement, either by decomposition or nucleation and growth process, was not observed to take place during specimens heat treatment. Cracking due to (AEC) took place in the ferrite grains and avoided the austenite phase. Specimens showed the austenite to act as a crack arrestor during (AEC) of duplex stainless steels.

Keywords: austenite phase, mechanical properties, embrittlement susceptibility, duplex stainless steels

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1535 Analysis of Rectangular Concrete-Filled Double Skin Tubular Short Columns with External Stainless Steel Tubes

Authors: Omnia F. Kharoob, Nashwa M. Yossef

Abstract:

Concrete-filled double skin steel tubular (CFDST) columns could be utilized in structures such as bridges, high-rise buildings, viaducts, and electricity transmission towers due to its great structural performance. Alternatively, lean duplex stainless steel has recently gained significant interest for its high structural performance, similar corrosion resistance and lower cost compared to the austenitic steel grade. Hence, this paper presents the nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis, behaviour and design of rectangular outer lean duplex stainless steel (EN 1.4162) CFDST short columns under compression. All classes of the outer rectangular hollow section according to the depth-to-thickness (D/t) ratios were considered. The results showed that the axial ultimate strength of rectangular CFDST short columns increased linearly by increasing the concrete compressive strength, while it does not influence when changing the hollow ratios. Finally, the axial capacities were compared with the available design methods, and recommendations were conducted for the design strength of this type of column.

Keywords: concrete-filled double skin columns, compressive strength, finite element analysis, lean duplex stainless steel, ultimate axial strength, short columns

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1534 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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1533 Investigation of Optimal Parameter Settings in Super Duplex Stainless Steel Welding Welding

Authors: R. M. Chandima Ratnayake, Daniel Dyakov

Abstract:

Super steel materials play vital role in construction and fabrication of structural, piping and pipeline components. They enable to minimize the life cycle costs in assuring the integrity of onshore and offshore operating systems. In this context, Duplex stainless steel (DSS) material related welding on constructions and fabrications play a significant role in maintaining and assuring integrity at an optimal expenditure over the life cycle of production and process systems as well as associated structures. In DSS welding, the factors such as gap geometry, shielding gas supply rate, welding current, and type of the welding process play a vital role on the final joint performance. Hence, an experimental investigation has been performed using engineering robust design approach (ERDA) to investigate the optimal settings that generate optimal super DSS (i.e. UNS S32750) joint performance. This manuscript illustrates the mathematical approach and experimental design, optimal parameter settings and results of verification experiment.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel welding, engineering robust design, mathematical framework, optimal parameter settings

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1532 Aging Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Jeonho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of Si, Al, Ti, Zr, and Nb addition on the microstructure and hot workability of cast M42 tool steels, basically consisting of 1.0 C, 0.2 Mn, 3.8 Cr, 1.5 W, 8.5 Co, 9.2 Mo, and 1.0 V in weight percent has been investigated. Tool steels containing Si of 0.25 and 0.5 wt.%, Al of 0.06 and 0.12 wt.%, Ti of 0.3 wt.%, Zr of 0.3 wt.%, and Nb of 0.3wt.% were cast into ingots of 140 mm x 140 mm x 330 mm by vacuum induction melting. After solution treatment at 1150 °C for 1.5 hr followed by furnace cooling, hot rolling at 1180 °C was conducted on the ingots. Addition of titanium, zirconium and niobium was found to retard the decomposition of the eutectic carbides and result in the deterioration of hot workability of the tool steels, while addition of aluminum and silicon showed relatively well decomposed carbide structure and resulted in sound hot rolled plates.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, alloying elements, eutectic carbides, microstructure, hot workability

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
1531 Austenite Transformation in Duplex Stainless Steels under Fast Cooling Rates

Authors: L. O. Luengas, E. V. Morales, L. F. G. De Souza, I. S. Bott

Abstract:

Duplex Stainless Steels are well known for its good mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. However, when submitted to heating, these features can be lost since the good properties are strongly dependent on the austenite-ferrite phase ratio which has to be approximately 1:1 to keep the phase balance. In a welded joint, the transformation kinetics at the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a function of the cooling rates applied which in turn are dependent on the heat input. The HAZ is usually ferritized at these temperatures, and it has been argued that small variations of the chemical composition can play a role in the solid state transformation sequence of ferrite to austenite during cooling. The δ → γ transformation has been reported to be massive and diffusionless due to the fast cooling rate, but it is also considered a diffusion controlled transformation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different heat inputs on the HAZ of two duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and S32750, obtained by physical simulation.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, HAZ, microstructural characterization, physical simulation

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1530 Effect of Variation of Temperature Distribution on Mechanical Properties of Shield Metal Arc Welded Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: Arvind Mittal, Rajesh Gupta

Abstract:

Influence of heat input on the micro structure and mechanical properties of shield metal arc welded of duplex stainless steel UNSNO.S-31803 has been investigated. Three heat input combinations designated as low heat (0.675 KJ/mm), medium heat (0.860 KJ/mm) and high heat (1.094 KJ/mm) and weld joints made using these combinations were subjected to micro structural evaluations and tensile and impact testing so as to analyze the effect of thermal arc energy on the micro structure and mechanical properties of these joints. The result of this investigation shows that the joints made using low heat input exhibited higher tensile strength than those welded with medium and high heat input. Heat affected zone of welded joint made with medium heat input has austenitic ferritic grain structure with some patchy austenite provide high toughness. Significant grain coarsening was observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of medium and high heat input welded joints, whereas low heat input welded joint shows the fine grain structure in the heat affected zone with small amount of dendritic formation and equiaxed grain structure where inner zone indicates slowly cooled grains in the direction of heat dissipation. This is the main reason for the observable changes of tensile properties of weld joints welded with different arc energy inputs.

Keywords: microstructure, mechanical properties, shield metal arc welded, duplex stainless steel

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1529 Process Optimization for 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel by Laser Metal Deposition

Authors: Siri Marthe Arbo, Afaf Saai, Sture Sørli, Mette Nedreberg

Abstract:

This work aims to establish a reliable approach for optimizing a Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process for a critical maritime component, based on the material properties and structural performance required by the maritime industry. The component of interest is a water jet impeller, for which specific requirements for material properties are defined. The developed approach is based on the assessment of the effects of LMD process parameters on microstructure and material performance of standard AM 2205 duplex stainless steel powder. Duplex stainless steel offers attractive properties for maritime applications, combining high strength, enhanced ductility and excellent corrosion resistance due to the specific amounts of ferrite and austenite. These properties are strongly affected by the microstructural characteristics in addition to microstructural defects such as porosity and welding defects, all strongly influenced by the chosen LMD process parameters. In this study, the influence of deposition speed and heat input was evaluated. First, the influences of deposition speed and heat input on the microstructure characteristics, including ferrite/austenite fraction, amount of porosity and welding defects, were evaluated. Then, the achieved mechanical properties were evaluated by standard testing methods, measuring the hardness, tensile strength and elongation, bending force and impact energy. The measured properties were compared to the requirements of the water jet impeller. The results show that the required amounts of ferrite and austenite can be achieved directly by the LMD process without post-weld heat treatments. No intermetallic phases were observed in the material produced by the investigated process parameters. A high deposition speed was found to reduce the ductility due to the formation of welding defects. An increased heat input was associated with reduced strength due to the coarsening of the ferrite/austenite microstructure. The microstructure characterizations and measured mechanical performance demonstrate the great potential of the LMD process and generate a valuable database for the optimization of the LMD process for duplex stainless steels.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, laser metal deposition, process optimization, microstructure, mechanical properties

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1528 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release for Stainless Steel between Artificial Saliva and Breadfruit Leaf Extracts

Authors: Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is the leaves of breadfruit. The method used for this research using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric test. The results showed that the difference of chromium ion releases on soaking in saliva and breadfruit leaf extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statically calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed the significant difference. The conclusion of this study shows that breadfruit leaf extract can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, breadfruit leaf

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1527 Finite Element Modeling of Two-Phase Microstructure during Metal Cutting

Authors: Junior Nomani

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach to modelling the metal cutting of duplex stainless steels, a two-phase alloy regarded as a difficult-to-machine material. Calculation and control of shear strain and stresses during cutting are essential to achievement of ideal cutting conditions. Too low or too high leads to higher required cutting force or excessive heat generation causing premature tool wear failure. A 2D finite element cutting model was created based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data imagery of duplex microstructure. A mesh was generated using ‘object-oriented’ software OOF2 version V2.1.11, converting microstructural images to quadrilateral elements. A virtual workpiece was created on ABAQUS modelling software where a rigid body toolpiece advanced towards workpiece simulating chip formation, generating serrated edge chip formation cutting. Model results found calculated stress strain contour plots correlated well with similar finite element models tied with austenite stainless steel alloys. Virtual chip form profile is also similar compared experimental frozen machining chip samples. The output model data provides new insight description of strain behavior of two phase material on how it transitions from workpiece into the chip.

Keywords: Duplex stainless steel, ABAQUS, OOF2, Chip formation

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1526 Fabrication of a Continuous Flow System for Biofilm Studies

Authors: Mohammed Jibrin Ndejiko

Abstract:

Modern and current models such as flow cell technology which enhances a non-destructive growth and inspection of the sessile microbial communities revealed a great understanding of biofilms. A continuous flow system was designed to evaluate possibility of biofilm formation by Escherichia coli DH5α on the stainless steel (type 304) under continuous nutrient supply. The result of the colony forming unit (CFU) count shows that bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation on stainless steel coupons with average surface roughness of 1.5 ± 1.8 µm and 2.0 ± 0.09 µm were both significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of the stainless steel coupon with lower surface roughness of 0.38 ± 1.5 µm. These observations support the hypothesis that surface profile is one of the factors that influence biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces. The SEM and FESEM micrographs of the stainless steel coupons also revealed the attached Escherichia coli DH5α biofilm and dehydrated extracellular polymeric substance on the stainless steel surfaces. Thus, the fabricated flow system represented a very useful tool to study biofilm formation under continuous nutrient supply.

Keywords: biofilm, flowcell, stainless steel, coupon

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1525 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

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1524 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein

Abstract:

Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

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1523 The Effects of Gas Metal Arc Welding Parameters on the Corrosion Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel Immersed in Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide

Authors: I. M. B. Omiogbemi, D. S. Yawas, I. M. Dagwa, F. G. Okibe

Abstract:

This work present the effects of some gas metal arc welding parameters on the corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel, exposed to 0.5M sodium hydroxide at ambient temperatures (298K) using conventional weight loss determination, together with surface morphology evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and the application of factorial design of experiment to determine welding conditions which enhance the integrity of the welded stainless steel. The welding variables evaluated include speed, voltage and current. Different samples of the welded stainless steels were immersed in the corrosion environment for 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 days and weight loss determined. From the results, it was found that increase in welding current and speed at constant voltage gave the optimum performance of the austenitic stainless steel in the environment. At a of speed 40cm/min, 110Amp current and voltage of 230 volt the welded stainless steel showed only a 0.0015mg loss in weight after 40 days. Pit-like openings were observed on the surface of the metals indicating corrosion but were minimal at the optimum conditions. It was concluded from the research that relatively high welding speed and current at a constant voltage gives a good welded austenitic stainless steel with better integrity.

Keywords: welding, current, speed, austenitic stainless steel, sodium hydroxide

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1522 Static Strain Aging in Ferritic and Austenitic Stainless Steels

Authors: Songul Kurucay, Mustafa Acarer, Harun Sepet

Abstract:

Static strain aging occurs when metallic materials are subjected to deformation and then heat treated at low temperatures such as 150-200oC. Static strain aging occurs in BCC metals and results and increasing in yield and tensile strength and decreasing ductility due to carbon and/or nitrogen atoms locking dislocations. The locked dislocations increase yield and tensile strength. In this study, static strain aging behaviors of ferritic and austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Ferritic stainless steel was prestained at %5, %10 and %15 and then aged at 150oC and 200oC for 30 minutes. Austenitic stainless steel was also prestained at %20 and %30 and then heat treated at 200, 400 and 600oC for 30 minutes. After the heat treatment, the tensile test was performed to determine the effect of prestain and heat treatment on the steels. Hardness measurements and detailed microstructure characterization were also done. While AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel sample which was prestained at 15% and aged at 200oC, showed the highest increasing in the yield strength, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel which was prestained at 30% and aged at 600oC, has the highest yield strength. Microstructure photographs also support the mechanical test results.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, static strain aging, tensile strength

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1521 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju

Abstract:

316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

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1520 Liquid Phase Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Zih-Jie Lin

Abstract:

Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a feasible means for decreasing the porosity of powder metallurgy (PM) Fe-based material without substantially increase the production cost. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 0.6 wt% boron on the densification of PM 304L stainless steel by LPS. The results indicated that the increase in the sintered density of 304L+0.6B steel is obvious after 1250 ºC sintering, and eutectic structures with borides are observed at the interfaces of the raw steel powders. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results show that liquid is generated at 1244ºC during sintering. The boride in the eutectic structure is rich in boron and chromium atoms and is deficient in nickel atoms, as identified by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Furthermore, the sintered densities of 304L and 304L+0.6B steels sintered at 1300 ºC are 6.99 g/cm3 and 7.69 g/cm3, respectively, indicating that boron is a suitable alloying element for facilitating LPS of PM 304L stainless steel.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, boron, microstructure

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1519 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: austenite, ferrite, grain size, hardness, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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1518 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao

Abstract:

Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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1517 Effects of Tensile Pre-Stresses on Corrosion Behavior of AISI 304 Stainless Steel in 1N H2SO4

Authors: Sami Ibrahim Jafar, Israa Abud Alkadir, Samah Abdul Kareem Khashin

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to assess the influence of tensile pre-stresses on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the AISI304 stainless steel in 1N H2SO4 austenitic stainless steel. Samples of this stainless steel either with pre-stresses, corresponding to [255, 305, 355, 405, 455, 505, 555, 605 and σf] MPa induced by tensile tests, or without pre-stresses (as received), were characterized regarding their microstructure to investigate the pre-tensile stress effects on the corrosion behavior. The results showed that the corrosion rate of elastic pre-stresses 304 stainless steel was very little increased compared with that of as received specimens. The corrosion rate increases after applying pre-stress between (σ255 - σ 455) MPa. The microstructure showed that the austenitic grains begin to deform in the direction of applied pre-stresses. The maximum hardness at this region was (229.2) Hv, but at higher pre-stress (σ455 – σ 605) MPa unanticipated occurrence, the corrosion rate decreases. The microstructure inspection shows the deformed austenitic grain and ά-martensitic phase needle are appeared inside austenitic grains and the hardness reached the maximum value (332.433) Hv. The results showed that the corrosion rate increases at the values of pre-stresses between (σ605 – σf) MPa., which is inspected the result. The necking of gauge length of specimens occurs in specimens and this leads to deterioration in original properties and the corrosion rate reaches the maximum value.

Keywords: tensile pre-stresses, corrosion rate, austenitic stainless steel, hardness

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1516 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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1515 Investigation of the Effect of Nickel Electrodes as a Stainless Steel Buffer Layer on the Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Authors: Meisam Akbari, Seyed Hossein Elahi, Mohammad Mashadgarmeh

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nickel-electrode as a stainless steel buffer layer is considered. Then, the effect of dilution of the last layer of welding on two samples of steel plate A516 Gr70 (C-Mn-Si) with SMAW welding process was investigated. Then, in a sample, the ENI-cl nickel electrode was welded as the buffer layer and the E316L-16 electrode as the last layer of welding and another sample with an E316L-16 electrode in two layers. The chemical composition of the latter layer was determined by spectrophotometry method. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the latter layer is different and the lowest dilution rate is obtained using the nickel electrode.

Keywords: degree of dilution, C-Mn-Si, spectrometry, nickel electrode, stainless steel

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1514 Investigation into Black Oxide Coating of 410 Grade Surgical Stainless Steel Using Alkaline Bath Treatment

Authors: K. K. Saju, A. R. Reghuraj

Abstract:

High reflectance of surgical instruments under bright light hinders the visual clarity during laparoscopic surgical procedures leading to loss of precision and device control and creates strain and undesired difficulties to surgeons. Majority of the surgical instruments are made of surgical grade steel. Instruments with a non reflective surface can enhance the visual clarity during precision surgeries. A conversion coating of black oxide has been successfully developed 410 grade surgical stainless steel .The characteristics of the developed coating suggests the application of this technique for developing 410 grade surgical instruments with minimal reflectance.

Keywords: conversion coatings, 410 stainless steel, black oxide, reflectance

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1513 Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Yu-Jin Tsai, Ching-Huai Chang

Abstract:

Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).

Keywords: powder metallurgy, liquid phase sintering, stainless steel, martensite, boron, microstructure

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1512 Effect of Nitriding and Shot Peening on Corrosion Behavior and Surface Properties of Austenite Stainless Steel 316L

Authors: Khiaira S. Hassan, Abbas S. Alwan, Muna K. Abbass

Abstract:

This research aims to study the effect of the liquid nitriding and shot peening on the hardness, surface roughness, residual stress, microstructure and corrosion behavior of austenite stainless steel 316 L. Chemical surface heat treatment by liquid nitriding process was carried out at 500 °C for 1 h and followed by shot peening with using ball steel diameter of 1.25 mm in different exposure time of 10 and 20 min. Electrochemical corrosion test was applied in sea water (3.5% NaCl solution) by using potentostat instrument. The results showed that the nitride layer consists of a compound layer (white layer) and diffusion zone immediately below the alloy layer. It has been found that the mechanical treatment (shot peening) has led to the formation of compressive residual stresses in layer surface that increased the hardness of stainless steel surface. All surface treatment (nitriding and shot peening) processes have led to the formation of carbide of CrN in hard surface layer. It was shown that both processes caused an increase in surface hardness and roughness which increases with shot peening time. Also, the corrosion results showed that the liquid nitriding and shot peening processes increase the corrosion rate to values more than that of not treated stainless steel.

Keywords: stainless steel 316L, shot peening, nitriding, corrosion, hardness

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1511 Load Relaxation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High-temperature deformation behavior of ferritic stainless steels such as STS 409L, STS 430J1L, and STS 429EM has been investigated in this study. Specimens with fully annealed microstructure were obtained by heat treatment. A series of load relaxation tests has been conducted on these samples at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900oC to construct flow curves in the strain rate range from 10-6 s-1 to 10-3 s-1. Strain hardening was not observed at high temperatures above 800oC in any stainless steels. Load relaxation behavior at the temperature was closely related with high-temperature mechanical properties such as the thermal fatigue and tensile behaviors. Load drop ratio of 436L stainless steel was much higher than that of the other steels. With increasing temperature, strength and load drop ratio of ferritic stainless steels showed entirely different trends.

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, high temperature deformation, load relaxation, microstructure, strain rate sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 270