Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: Azam Shakeel

63 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

Abstract:

Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: inulin, fat replacer, yoghurt, sensory evaluation, low fat

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
62 Costume Portrayal In K. Asif’s Mughal E Azam

Authors: Anketa Kumar, Rajantheran Al Muniandy, Rishabh Kumar

Abstract:

For centuries, Indian costumes are admired for their great aesthetics, functional and narrative qualities. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of costumes as visual narratives in Hindi Cinema as Filmmaking is simply one of the most recent manifestations of the human desire to tell stories in which costume acts as a tool to be read as an Intertext by the viewers watching the films. The problem that promoted this study arose when clothes become an interesting topic when examined within the social structures in which they are worn. It is this visual image of dress worn by the character that is investigated in this research through Hindi Cinema of the 1960s, which was a reflection of the society in the realistic form. This research intends to integrate the application of Roland Barthes Semiotic theory in analyzing main movie characters in the National Award-Winning Hindi movie Mughal e Azam (1960). The research helps in filling the gap between the singular level of interpretation and another level that offers a solution towards bridging the gap in viewers' manifold interpretation of a particular movie product. This study focuses on how visual appearance communicates for building up of perception and can relate to notions of realism, defining cultural identity and status in the society. The research methodology is subjected analytical technique that employs in this research is qualitative and descriptive in nature with the use of the Freeze frame technique. The portrayal of costumes is explained with Barthes' principles of Semiotics. The freeze-frame technique stops the motion of the film on a single frame and allows the chosen image to be read as a still photograph. The finding during this research into costume portrayal in the movie was that freezing the frame in midst of running the films attracted attention towards intricate costume details, leading to record the nuanced observations of this minutiae during the movie. Given that during the application of interpretation while watching K Asif’s Mughal e Azam focused on certain aspects of costumes of the king. On the same idea, further research can be employed to strengthen the relation between costumes and visual narration.

Keywords: character portrayal, costumes, Indian cinema, semiotics, visual significance

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
61 Optimization of Machining Parameters by Using Cryogenic Media

Authors: Shafqat Wahab, Waseem Tahir, Manzoor Ahmad, Sarfraz Khan, M. Azam

Abstract:

Optimization and analysis of tool flank wear width and surface finish of alloy steel rods are studied in the presence of cryogenic media (LN2) by using Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404- WF 4215). Robust design concept of Taguchi L9(34) method and ANOVA is applied to determine the contribution of key cutting parameters and their optimum conditions. Through analysis, it revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear width while surface finish is mostly dependent on feed rate.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic fluid, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface roughness, taguchi

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
60 Garment Industry Development in South East Asia and Competitiveness

Authors: P. Nayak, Shakeel Shaikh

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyse the apparel export performance of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in the world market. The study covers the 2003-2012 period at the sector as well as product levels (6 digit HS) and analysis is based HS 2002 nomenclature. We measure export similarity among Southeast Asian nations for the apparel sector (two digit HS-61 & 62), besides analysing the products performance in the world through Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) technique. Coupled with RCA, the price as a factor of competitiveness was examined from the available Unit Value Realizations (UVR). Further to this, the resource availability or outsourced from the region was considered as an extension to the analysis of competitiveness between the nations. With the help of these methodologies, we examine the degree of competition between the exports of southeast nations in the world market. Our results show that Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam are well performing states within ASEAN. The paper further delves into sustainability of the export performing countries within ASEAN.

Keywords: export competitiveness, export similarity index, revealed comparative advantage, unit value realisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
59 Determination of Antibiotic Residues in Carcasses of Cows Slaughtered in Amol City by Four-Plate-Test Method

Authors: Arezou Ghadi, Nasrollah Vahedi, Azam Sinkakarimi

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For determination of antibiotic residues in slaughtered cow carcasses of Amol city in Iran, sampling has done from 100 heads of cow. For this purpose, the microbiological F.P.T (Four-Plate Test) method was used. Basis of this method, a clear zone is creating around the leachate on the plate that already has cultured a uniform layer of under test bacteria on agar plate. In this study from 100 heads of cow carcasses, at least 75 cases (75%) in one of the tested organs (muscle-liver-kidney) have been antibiotic residues. Also, it has been found that kidney have the most positive cases (60%) than other organs (liver and muscle), then the liver (58%) and finally are muscles (51%).

Keywords: antibiotic residues, agar plate test, cow carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
58 Measuring Energy Efficiency Performance of Mena Countries

Authors: Azam Mohammadbagheri, Bahram Fathi

Abstract:

DEA has become a very popular method of performance measure, but it still suffers from some shortcomings. One of these shortcomings is the issue of having multiple optimal solutions to weights for efficient DMUs. The cross efficiency evaluation as an extension of DEA is proposed to avoid this problem. Lam (2010) is also proposed a mixed-integer linear programming formulation based on linear discriminate analysis and super efficiency method (MILP model) to avoid having multiple optimal solutions to weights. In this study, we modified MILP model to determine more suitable weight sets and also evaluate the energy efficiency of MENA countries as an application of the proposed model.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, discriminate analysis, cross efficiency, MILP model

Procedia PDF Downloads 588
57 Improvement in Tool Life Through Optimizing Cutting Parameters Using Cryogenic Media in Machining of Aerospace Alloy Steel

Authors: Waseem Tahir, Syed Hussain Imran Jaffery, Mohammad Azam

Abstract:

In this research work, liquid nitrogen gas (LN2) is used as a cryogenic media to optimize the cutting parameters for evaluation of tool flank wear width of Tungsten Carbide Insert (CNMG 120404-WF 4215) while turning a high strength alloy steel. Robust design concept of Taguchi L9 (34) method is applied to determine the optimum conditions. The analysis is revealed that cryogenic impact is more significant in reduction of the tool flank wear. However, High Speed Machining is shown most significant as compare to cooling media on work piece surface roughness.

Keywords: turning, cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen, flank wear, surface finish

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
56 Fuzzy Logic Based Sliding Mode Controller for a New Soft Switching Boost Converter

Authors: Azam Salimi, Majid Delshad

Abstract:

This paper presents a modified design of a sliding mode controller based on fuzzy logic for a New ZVThigh step up DC-DC Converter . Here a proportional - integral (PI)-type current mode control is employed and a sliding mode controller is designed utilizing fuzzy algorithm. Sliding mode controller guarantees robustness against all variations and fuzzy logic helps to reduce chattering phenomenon due to sliding controller, in that way efficiency increases and error, voltage and current ripples decreases. The proposed system is simulated using MATLAB / SIMULINK. This model is tested under variations of input and reference voltages and it was found that in comparison with conventional sliding mode controllers they perform better.

Keywords: switching mode power supplies, DC-DC converters, sliding mode control, robustness, fuzzy control, current mode control, non-linear behavior

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55 Developing Variable Repetitive Group Sampling Control Chart Using Regression Estimator

Authors: Liaquat Ahmad, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Azam

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In this article, we propose a control chart based on repetitive group sampling scheme for the location parameter. This charting scheme is based on the regression estimator; an estimator that capitalize the relationship between the variables of interest to provide more sensitive control than the commonly used individual variables. The control limit coefficients have been estimated for different sample sizes for less and highly correlated variables. The monitoring of the production process is constructed by adopting the procedure of the Shewhart’s x-bar control chart. Its performance is verified by the average run length calculations when the shift occurs in the average value of the estimator. It has been observed that the less correlated variables have rapid false alarm rate.

Keywords: average run length, control charts, process shift, regression estimators, repetitive group sampling

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54 Evaluation of Iranian Standard for Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Cohesionless Soils Based on SPT

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayad, Azam Kouhpeyma

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In-situ testing is preferred to evaluate the liquefaction potential in cohesionless soils due to high disturbance during sampling. Although new in-situ methods with high accuracy have been developed, standard penetration test, the simplest and the oldest in-situ test, is still used due to the profusion of the recorded data. This paper reviews the Iranian standard of evaluating liquefaction potential in soils (codes 525) and compares the liquefaction assessment methods based on SPT results on cohesionless soil in this standard with the international standards. To this, methods for assessing liquefaction potential which are presented by Cetin et al. (2004), Boulanger and Idriss (2014) are compared with what is presented in standard 525. It is found that although the procedure used in Iranian standard of evaluating the potential of liquefaction has not been updated according to the new findings, it is a conservative procedure.

Keywords: cohesionless soil, liquefaction, SPT, standard 525

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
53 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar

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Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

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52 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
51 Considering the Reliability of Measurements Issue in Distributed Adaptive Estimation Algorithms

Authors: Wael M. Bazzi, Amir Rastegarnia, Azam Khalili

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In this paper we consider the issue of reliability of measurements in distributed adaptive estimation problem. To this aim, we assume a sensor network with different observation noise variance among the sensors and propose new estimation method based on incremental distributed least mean-square (IDLMS) algorithm. The proposed method contains two phases: I) Estimation of each sensors observation noise variance, and II) Estimation of the desired parameter using the estimated observation variances. To deal with the reliability of measurements, in the second phase of the proposed algorithm, the step-size parameter is adjusted for each sensor according to its observation noise variance. As our simulation results show, the proposed algorithm considerably improves the performance of the IDLMS algorithm in the same condition.

Keywords: adaptive filter, distributed estimation, sensor network, IDLMS algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 522
50 An Electronic and Performance Test for the Applicants to Faculty of Education for Early Childhood in Egypt for Measuring the Skills of Teacher Students

Authors: Ahmed Amin Mousa, Gehan Azam

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The current study presents an electronic test to measure teaching skills. This test is a part of the admission system of the Faculty of Education for Early Childhood, Cairo University. The test has been prepared to evaluate university students who apply for admission the Faculty. It measures some social and physiological skills which are important for successful teachers, such as emotional adjustment and problem solving; moreover, the extent of their love for children and their capability to interact with them. The test has been approved by 13 experts. Finally, it has been introduced to 1,100 students during the admission system of the academic year 2016/2017. The results showed that most of the applicants have an auditory learning style. In addition, 97% of them have the minimum requirement skills for teaching children.

Keywords: electronic test, performance, early childhood, skills, teacher student

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
49 Nutrition Bio-Shield Superfood: Healthy and Live Herbal Supplement for Immune System Enhancement

Authors: Azam Bayat, Aref Khalkhali, Ali Reza Mahjoub

Abstract:

Healthy and viable herbal supplement were prepared from wheat by a green route. This organic biomaterial was named Nutrition Bio-shield Superfood (NBS). The NBS supplement had various vitamins, macro and micro molecules, and ingredients. In this study, 20 small Balb/C labile specimens were used in a weighing 30 ± 5 range. The samples were randomly divided into different groups, then the groups were divided into 5 groups. According to the results of this study, the mean number of white blood cells and neutrophil percentage in the experimental group receiving healthy and live dietary supplement showed a significant increase at the 5% probability level in all three groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/ kg body weight of the mouse compared to the control group. In general, the dietary supplement increases the level of immunity.

Keywords: healthy and live herbal supplement, biomaterial, immune system, enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
48 Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Dissolved in Concentrated Acetic Acid

Authors: Kooshina Koosha, Sima Habibi, Azam Talebian

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Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and widely accepted technique to produce ultra-fine fibers ranging from nanometer to micron. Recently there has been great interest in developing this technique to produce nanofibers with novel properties and functionalities. The electrospinning field is extremely broad, and consequently there have been many useful reviews discussing various aspects from detailed fiber formation mechanism to the formation of nanofibers and to discussion on a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the focus of this study is quite narrow, highlighting electrospinning parameters. This work will briefly cover the solution and processing parameters (for instance; concentration, solvent type, voltage, flow rate, distance between the collector and the tip of the needle) impacting the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, such as diameter. In this paper, a comprehensive work would be presented on the research of producing nanofibers from natural polymer entitled Gelatin.

Keywords: electrospinning, solution parameters, process parameters, natural fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
47 Indoor and Outdoor Concentration of PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ in Residential Building and Evaluation of Negative Air Ions (NAIs) in Indoor PM Removal

Authors: Hossein Arfaeinia, Azam Nadali, Zahra Asadgol, Mohammad Fahiminia

Abstract:

Indoor and outdoor particulate matters (PM) were monitored in 20 residential buildings in a two-part study. In part I, the levels of indoor and outdoor PM₁₀, PM₂.₅ and PM₁ was measured using real time GRIMM dust monitors. In part II, the effect of negative air ions (NAIs) method was investigated on the reduction of indoor concentration of PM in these residential buildings. Hourly average concentration and standard deviation (SD) of PM₁₀ in indoor and outdoor at residential buildings were 90.1 ± 33.5 and 63.5 ± 27.4 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM₂.₅ in residential buildings were 49.5 ± 18.2 and 39.4± 18.1 µg/ m3 and for PM₁ the concentrations were 6.5 ± 10.1and 4.3 ± 7.7 µg/ m3, respectively. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios and concentrations of all size fractions of PM were strongly correlated with wind speed and temperature whereas a good relationship was not observed between humidity and I/O ratios of PM. We estimated that nearly 71.47 % of PM₁₀, 79.86 % of PM₂.₅ and of 61.25 % of PM₁ in indoor of residential buildings can be removed by negative air ions.

Keywords: particle matter (PM), indoor air, negative air ions (NAIs), residential building

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
46 A Novel Method For Non-Invasive Diagnosis Of Hepatitis C Virus Using Electromagnetic Signal Detection: A Multicenter International Study

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Waleed Samir, Zahid Azam, Premashis Kar, Saeed Hamid, Shiv Sarin

Abstract:

A simple, rapid and non-invasive electromagnetic sensor (C-FAST device) was- patented; for diagnosis of HCV RNA. Aim: To test the validity of the device compared to standard HCV PCR. Subjects and Methods: The first phase was done as pilot in Egypt on 79 participants; the second phase was done in five centers: one center from Egypt, two centers from Pakistan and two centers from India (800, 92 and 113 subjects respectively). The third phase was done nationally as multicenter study on (1600) participants for ensuring its representativeness. Results: When compared to PCR technique, C-FAST device revealed sensitivity 95% to 100%, specificity 95.5% to 100%, PPV 89.5% to 100%, NPV 95% to 100% and positive likelihood ratios 21.8% to 38.5%. Conclusion: It is practical evidence that HCV nucleotides emit electromagnetic signals that can be used for its identification. As compared to PCR, C-FAST is an accurate, valid and non-invasive device.

Keywords: C-FAST- a valid and reliable device, distant cellular interaction, electromagnetic signal detection, non-invasive diagnosis of HCV

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45 In-Vivo Study of Annacardium occidentale L. Emulgel Extract Using Non-Invasive Probes

Authors: Akhtar Naveed, Kanwal Shahla, Khan HMS, Rasool Fatima, Ijaz Shakeel

Abstract:

The focus of the study was to design, develop and characterize in vivo, a stable Emulgel formulation containing Anacardium occidentale L.(cashew extract) as an active ingredient. The formulation was prepared and kept at 8ºC, 25 ºC, 40ºC and 40ºC±RH for a period of 28 days. During this time period, stability, pH values, conductivity, organoleptic features (color, liquefaction, phase separation) were conducted at the intervals of day 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 7th, 14th and 28th days. In In vivo studies, the test formulation (5% Anacardium occidentale L, extract) and a base formulation (without cashew extract) were prepared and both were applied on cheek areas of healthy human female volunteers, after the skin sensitivity test of each volunteer, for a study period of 8 weeks after getting consent from them. Various parameters of skin like Melanin level, Erythema level, and skin elasticity were measured at regular time intervals. Results of the study were analyzed by statistical techniques i.e. Two Way ANOVA and paired sample t-test. The result showed significant results as the p ≤ 0.05. Findings of paired sample t-test explained that test formulation have profound effects on skin parameters when compared with control formulation.

Keywords: Anacardium occientale L., anti-oxidant, cashew nut, emulgel

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
44 Impact of Meaning in Life on Stress and Psychological Well-Being

Authors: Aisha Bano, Rizwan Nazir

Abstract:

The present study aimed at exploring the impact of meaning in life on psychological well-being and stress among university students. Victor Frankl's paradigm provided the theoretical foundation for this study. A sample of 560 university students was drawn from Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad. The sample was drawn using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected using Existence Scale, Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-Being Scale, and Stress Scale. Results of linear regression analysis reveals that high perception of meaning in life will lead to high psychological well-being and low stress among university students. Non-significant differences are found on meaning in life variable with regard to gender in the sample using t-test. Together these results suggest that meaning in life independent of gender, is a significant predictor of the levels of stress and psychological well-being being directly related to psychological well-being and inversely related to stress levels.

Keywords: existential meaning in life, psychological well-being, stress, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
43 Comparative Demography of Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with Respect to Different Aphid Species

Authors: Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad R. Shahid, M. Shakeel, A. Iftikhar, M. Sagheer, Riaz A. Kainth

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Comparative demography of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied with respect to four host aphid species viz; Rhopalosiphum padi, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Sitobion avenae, and Shizaphis graminum under laboratory conditions using Two-sex Age-stage life table instead of traditional age specific life table which considers only female. Results revealed that developmental period from egg to adult of C. septempunctata were shorter on R. padi (16.49 days) whereas longer on R. maidis (22.83 days). Net reproductive rate varied from 110.01 offspring on R. maidis to 288.78 offspring on R. padi. Mean generation time (T) ranged from 29.02 d on R. padi to 39.788 d on R. maidis. Highest to lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were recorded on R. padi, S. graminum, S. avenae, and R. maidis (0.194, 0.143, 0.140 and 0.117 d⁻¹, respectively). Highest finite rate of increase was observed on R. padi (1.214 d⁻¹) followed by S. graminum (1.154 d⁻¹) whereas lowest values were obtained on R. maidis and S. avenae (1.124 and 1.150 d⁻¹, respectively). In this study, the data on the life table of both predator and prey provide useful information in the mass rearing and practical application of a natural agent to biological control systems.

Keywords: C. septempunctata, two-sex age-stage life table, population parameters, aphid species

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
42 The Effect of Intrathecal Adenosine in Control of Neuropathic Pain after Lumbar Discectomy in One Level

Authors: Dawood Aghamohammadi, Mahmoud Eidi, Alireza Pishgahi, Azam Esmaeilnejad

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Adenosine has an analgesic and anti-inflammatory role and its injections are used for peri-operative pain management. We want to study efficacy of intrathecal injection of adenosine for post operative radicular pain after lumbar discectomy. 40 patients with unilevel lumbar discectomy who had radicular lower limb pain were treated by 1000 micrograms of intrathecal injection of adenosine. Pain severity, pain killer consumption per day and sleep quality were assessed during a 3 months follow up period. Radicular pain severity was significantly reduced in 3 month follow-up period in comparison to the baseline (F=19760, DF=2.53, p-value<0.001). Further painkiller medication consumption rate in average during 3 month follow-up period after injection was significantly lower in comparison to baseline (F= 19.244, df= 1.98, p-value<0.001). This study suggests that intrathecal injection of adenosine is a safe method in order to reduce postoperative pain after lumbar discectomy.

Keywords: adenosine, intrathecal injection, discectomy, neuropathic pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
41 The Approach of Male and Female Spectators about the Presence of Female Spectators in Sport Stadiums of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh, Seyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Azam Fazli Darzi

Abstract:

The issue of female presence in Iran stadiums has long been considered and debated by governmental experts and authorities, however, no conclusion is yielded yet. Thus, the present study has been done with the aim of investigating the approach of male and female spectators about the presence of female spectators in Iranian stadiums. The statistical population of the study includes all male and female spectators who have not experienced the live watching of male championship matches in stadiums. 224 subjects from the statistical population have selected through stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. For data collection, researcher-made questionnaire has been used whose validity has been confirmed by the university professors and its reliability has been studied and confirmed through an preliminary study. (r= 0.81). Data analysis has been done using descriptive and referential statistics in P< 0.05. The results of the study showed that male and female were meaningfully agreed with the female presence in stadiums and there is no meaningful difference between male and female approaches concerning the female spectators’ presence in sport stadiums of Iran (sig= 0.867).

Keywords: male, female spectators, Iran, sport stadiums, population

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
40 Prognosis, Clinical Outcomes and Short Term Survival Analyses of Patients with Cutaneous Melanomas

Authors: Osama Shakeel

Abstract:

The objective of the paper is to study the clinic-pathological factors, survival analyses, recurrence rate, metastatic rate, risk factors and the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center. Methodology: From 2014 to 2017, all patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) were included in the study. Demographic variables were collected. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data were entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 28 patients were included in the study. Median age was 46.5 +/-15.9 years. There were 16 male and 12 female patients. The family history of melanoma was present in 7.1% (n=2) of the patients. All patients had a mean survival of 13.43+/- 9.09 months. Lower limb was the commonest site among all which constitutes 46.4%(n=13). On histopathological analyses, ulceration was seen in 53.6% (n=15) patients. Unclassified tumor type was present in 75%(n=21) of the patients followed by nodular 21.4% (n=6) and superficial spreading 3.5%(n=1). Clark level IV was the commonest presentation constituting 46.4%(n=13). Metastases were seen in 50%(n=14) of the patients. Local recurrence was observed in 60.7%(n=17). 64.3%(n=18) lived after one year of treatment. Conclusion: CMM is a fatal disease. Although its disease of fair skin individuals, however, the incidence of CMM is also rising in this part of the world. Management includes early diagnoses and prompt management. However, mortality associated with this disease is still not favorable.

Keywords: malignant cancer of skin, cutaneous malignant melanoma, skin cancer, survival analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
39 Data Analysis to Uncover Terrorist Attacks Using Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Saima Nazir, Mustansar Ali Ghazanfar, Sanay Muhammad Umar Saeed, Muhammad Awais Azam, Saad Ali Alahmari

Abstract:

Terrorism is an important and challenging concern. The entire world is threatened by only few sophisticated terrorist groups and especially in Gulf Region and Pakistan, it has become extremely destructive phenomena in recent years. Predicting the pattern of attack type, attack group and target type is an intricate task. This study offers new insight on terrorist group’s attack type and its chosen target. This research paper proposes a framework for prediction of terrorist attacks using the historical data and making an association between terrorist group, their attack type and target. Analysis shows that the number of attacks per year will keep on increasing, and Al-Harmayan in Saudi Arabia, Al-Qai’da in Gulf Region and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan will remain responsible for many future terrorist attacks. Top main targets of each group will be private citizen & property, police, government and military sector under constant circumstances.

Keywords: data mining, counter terrorism, machine learning, SVM

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38 Rescue Emergency Drone for Fast Response to Medical Emergencies Due to Traffic Accidents

Authors: Anders S. Kristensen, Dewan Ahsan, Saqib Mehmood, Shakeel Ahmed

Abstract:

Traffic accidents are a result of the convergence of hazards, malfunctioning of vehicles and human negligence that have adverse economic and health impacts and effects. Unfortunately, avoiding them completely is very difficult, but with quick response to rescue and first aid, the mortality rate of inflicted persons can be reduced significantly. Smart and innovative technologies can play a pivotal role to respond faster to traffic crash emergencies comparing conventional means of transportation. For instance, Rescue Emergency Drone (RED) can provide faster and real-time crash site risk assessment to emergency medical services, thereby helping them to quickly and accurately assess a situation, dispatch the right equipment and assist bystanders to treat inflicted person properly. To conduct a research in this regard, the case of a traffic roundabout that is prone to frequent traffic accidents on the outskirts of Esbjerg, a town located on western coast of Denmark is hypothetically considered. Along with manual calculations, Emergency Disaster Management Simulation (EDMSIM) has been used to verify the response time of RED from a fire station of the town to the presumed crash site. The results of the study demonstrate the robustness of RED into emergency services to help save lives. 

Keywords: automated external defibrillator, medical emergency, response time, unmanned aerial system

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
37 Control HVAC Parameters by Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC)

Authors: Javad Abdi, Azam Famil Khalili

Abstract:

Modeling emotions have attracted much attention in recent years, both in cognitive psychology and design of artificial systems. However, it is a negative factor in decision-making; emotions have shown to be a strong faculty for making fast satisfying decisions. In this paper, we have adapted a computational model based on the limbic system in the mammalian brain for control engineering applications. Learning in this model based on Temporal Difference (TD) Learning, we applied the proposed controller (termed BELBIC) for a simple model of a submarine. The model was supposed to reach the desired depth underwater. Our results demonstrate excellent control action, disturbance handling, and system parameter robustness for TDBELBIC. The proposal method, regarding the present conditions, the system action in the part and the controlling aims, can control the system in a way that these objectives are attained in the least amount of time and the best way.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, temporal difference, brain emotional learning based intelligent controller, heating- ventilating and air conditioning

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36 Post-Structural Study of Gender in Shakespearean Othello from Butlerian Perspective

Authors: Muhammad Shakeel Rehman Hissam

Abstract:

This study aims at analyzing gender in Othello by applying Judith Butler’s Post-Structural theory of gender and gender performance. The analysis of the play provides us context by which we can examine what kinds of effects the drama have on understanding of the researchers regarding gender identity. The study sets out to examine that, is there any evidence or ground in Shakespearean selected work which leads to challenge the patriarchal taken for granted prescribed roles of gender? This would be the focal point in study of Othello that actions and performances of characters determine their gender identity rather than their sexuality. It argues that gender of Shakespearean characters has no constant, fixed and structural impression. On the contrary, they undergo consistent variations in their behavior and performance which impart fluidity and volatility to them. The focal point of the present study is Butler’s prominent work; Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity and her post structural theory of Gender performativity as the theoretical underpinning of the text. It analyzes the selected play in Post-Structural gender perspective. The gender-centric plot of the play is riddled with fluidity of gender. The most fascinating aspect of the play is the transformations of genders on the basis of performances by different characters and through these transformations; gender identity is revealed and determined. The study reconstructs the accepted gender norms by challenging the traditional concept of gender that is based on sexual differences of characters.

Keywords: post structural, gender, performativity, socio-cultural gender norms, binaries, Othello, Butler, identity

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35 Extrapulmonary Gastrointestinal Small Cell Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience of 14 Patients from a Low Middle Income Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Faizan Ullah, Abdul Wahid Anwer

Abstract:

Introduction: To study the clinic-pathological factors, diagnostic factors and survival of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma. Methodology: From 1995 to 2017 all patients with a diagnosis of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma were included in the study. Demographic variables and clinic-pathological factors were collected. Management of disease was recorded. Short and long term oncological outcomes were recorded. All data was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 14 patients were included in the study. Median age was 53.42 +/- 16.1 years. There were 5 male and 9 female patients. Most common presentation was dysphagia in 16 patient among esophageal small cell carcinoma and while other patient had pain in abdomen. Mean duration of symptoms was 4.23+/-2.91 months .Most common site is esophagus (n=6) followed by gall bladder(n=3). Almost all of the patients received chemo-radiotherapy. Majority of the patient presented with extensive disease. Five patients (35.7%) died during the follow up period, two (14.3%) were alive and rest of the patients were lost to follow up. Mean follow up period was 22.92 months and median follow up was 15 months. Conclusion: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma is rare and needs to be managed aggressively. All patients should be treated with both systemic and local therapies.

Keywords: small cell carcinoma of esophagus, extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma of gall bladder, small cell carcinoma of rectum, small cell carcinoma of stomach

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34 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho

Abstract:

With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: energy, environmental impacts, renewable energy, biofuel, energy policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 398