Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 53

Search results for: intermetallic

53 First Principal Calculation of Structural, Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Yttrium-Copper Intermetallic Compound

Authors: Ammar Benamrani


This work investigates the equation of state parameters, elastic constants, and several other physical properties of (B2-type) Yttrium-Copper (YCu) rare earth intermetallic compound using the projected augmented wave (PAW) pseudopotentials method as implemented in the Quantum Espresso code. Using both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the finding of this research on the lattice parameter of YCu intermetallic compound agree very well with the experimental ones. The obtained results of the elastic constants and the Debye temperature are also in general in good agreement compared to the theoretical ones reported previously in literature. Furthermore, several thermodynamic properties of YCu intermetallic compound have been studied using quasi-harmonic approximations (QHA). The calculated data on the thermodynamic properties shows that the free energy and both isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli decrease gradually with increasing of the temperature, while all other thermodynamic quantities increase with the temperature.

Keywords: Yttrium-Copper intermetallic compound, thermo_pw package, elastic constants, thermodynamic properties

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52 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina


The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound, composition, morphology

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51 In-situ Fabrication of a Metal-Intermetallic Composite: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Response

Authors: Monireh Azimi, Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Leo A. I. Kestens


The role of different metallic and intermetallic reinforcements on the microstructure and the associated mechanical response of a composite is of crucial importance. To investigate this issue, a multiphase metal-intermetallic composite was in-situ fabricated through reactive annealing and accumulative roll bonding (ARB) processes. EBSD results indicated that the lamellar grain structure of the Al matrix after the first cycle has evolved with increasing strain to a mixed structure consisting of equiaxed and lamellar grains, whereby the steady-state did not occur after the 3rd (last) cycle—applying a strain of 6.1 in the Al phase, the length and thickness of the grains reduced by 92.2% and 97.3%, respectively, compared to the annealed state. Intermetallic phases together with the metallic reinforcement of Ni influence grain fragmentation of the Al matrix and give rise to a specific texture evolution by creating heterogeneity in the strain and flow patterns. Mechanical properties of the multiphase composite demonstrated the yield and ultimate tensile strengths of 217.9 MPa and 340.1 MPa, respectively, compared to 48.7 MPa and 55.4 MPa in the metal-intermetallic laminated (MIL) sandwich before applying the ARB process, which corresponds to an increase of 347% and 514% of yield and tensile strength, respectively.

Keywords: accumulative roll bonding, mechanical properties, metal-intermetallic composite, severe plastic deformation, texture

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50 The Structural, Elastic, Thermal, Electronic, and Magnetic Properties of Intermetallic rmn₂ge₂ (R=CA, Y, ND)

Authors: I. Benkaddour, Y. Benkaddour, A. Benk Addour


The structural, elastic, Thermal, electronic, and magnetic properties of intermetallic RMn₂Ge₂ (R= Ca, Y, Nd) are investigated by density functional theory (DFT), using the full potential –linearised augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW). In this approach, the local-density approximation (LDA) is used for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. The equilibrium lattice constant and magnetic moment agree well with the experiment. The density of states shows that these phases are conductors, with contribution predominantly from the R and Mn d states. We have determined the elastic constants C₁₁, C₁₂, C₁₃, C₄₄, C₃₃, andC₆₆ at ambient conditions in, which have not been established neither experimentally nor theoretically. Thermal properties, including the relative expansion coefficients and the heat capacity, have been estimated using a quasi-harmonic Debye model.

Keywords: RMn₂Ge₂, intermetallic, first-principles, density of states, mechanical properties

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49 Structural Evolution of Electrodeposited Ni Coating on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy during Heat Treatment

Authors: M. Abdoos, A. Amadeh, M. Adabi


In recent decades, the use of titanium and its alloys due to their high mechanical properties, light weight and their corrosion resistance has increased in military and industry applications. However, the poor surface properties can limit their widely usage. Many researches were carried out to improve their surface properties. The most effective technique is based on solid-state diffusion of elements that can form intermetallic compounds with the substrate. In the present work, inter-diffusion of nickel and titanium and formation of Ni-Ti intermetallic compounds in nickel-coated Ti-6Al-4V alloy have been studied. Initially, nickel was electrodeposited on the alloy using Watts bath at a current density of 20 mA/cm2 for 1 hour. The coated specimens were then heat treated in a tubular furnace under argon atmosphere at different temperatures near Ti β-transus to maximize the diffusion rate for various durations in order to improve the surface properties of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effect of temperature and time on the thickness of diffusion layer and characteristics of intermetallic phases was studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and microhardness test. The results showed that a multilayer structure was formed after heat treatment: an outer layer of remaining nickel, an area of intermetallic layers with different compositions and solid solution of Ni-Ti. Three intermetallic layers was detected by EDS analysis, namely an outer layer with about 75 at.% Ni (Ni3Ti), an intermediate layer with 50 at.% Ni (NiTi) and finally an inner layer with 36 at.% Ni (NiTi2). It was also observed that the increase in time or temperature led to the formation of thicker intermetallic layers. Meanwhile, the microhardness of heat treated samples increased with formation of Ni-Ti intermetallics; however, its value depended on heat treatment parameters.

Keywords: heat treatment, microhardness, Ni coating, Ti-6Al-4V

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48 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego


Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, intermetallics, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

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47 Wear Behavior of Intermetallic (Ni3Al) Coating at High Temperature

Authors: K. Mehmood, Muhammad Asif Rafiq, A. Nasir Khan, M. Mudassar Rauf


Air plasma spraying system was utilized to deposit Ni3Al coatings on AISI 321 steel samples. After thermal spraying, the nickel aluminide intermetallic coatings were isothermal heat treated at various temperatures. In this regard, temperatures from 500 °C to 800 °C with 100 °C increments were selected. The coatings were soaked for 10, 30, 60 and 100 hours at the mentioned temperatures. These coatings were then tested by a pin on disk method. It was observed that the coatings exposed at comparatively higher temperature experienced lower wear rate. The decrease in wear rate is due to the formation of NiO phase. Further, the as sprayed and heat treated coatings were characterized by other tools such as Microhardness testing, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction analysis. After isothermal heat treatment, NiO was observed the main phase by X-Ray diffraction technique. Moreover, the surface hardness was also determined higher than cross sectional hardness.

Keywords: air plasma spraying, Ni -20Al, tribometer, intermetallic coating, nickel aluminide

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46 Structure and Properties of Intermetallic NiAl-Based Coatings Produced by Magnetron Sputtering Technique

Authors: Tatiana S. Ogneva


Aluminum and nickel-based intermetallic compounds have attracted the attention of scientific community as promising materials for heat-resistant and wear-resistant coatings in such manufacturing areas as microelectronics, aircraft and rocket building and chemical industries. Magnetron sputtering makes possible to coat materials without formation of liquid phase and improves the mechanical and functional properties of nickel aluminides due to the possibility of nanoscale structure formation. The purpose of the study is the investigation of structure and properties of intermetallic coatings produced by magnetron sputtering technique. The feature of this work is the using of composite targets for sputtering, which were consisted of two semicircular sectors of cp-Ni and cp-Al. Plates of alumina, silicon, titanium and steel alloys were used as substrates. To estimate sputtering conditions on structure of intermetallic coatings, a series of samples were produced and studied in detail using scanning and transition electron microcopy and X-Ray diffraction. Besides, nanohardness and scratching tests were carried out. The varying parameters were the distance from the substrate to the target, the duration and the power of the sputtering. The thickness of the obtained intermetallic coatings varied from 0.05 to 0.5 mm depending on the sputtering conditions. The X-ray diffraction data indicated that the formation of intermetallic compounds occurred after sputtering without additional heat treatment. Sputtering at a distance not closer than 120 mm led to the formation of NiAl phase. Increase in the power of magnetron from 300 to 900 W promoted the increase of heterogeneity of the phase composition and the appearance of intermetallic phases NiAl, Ni₂Al₃, NiAl₃, and Al under the aluminum side, and NiAl, Ni₃Al, and Ni under the nickel side of the target. A similar trend is observed with increasing the distance of sputtering from 100 to 60 mm. The change in the phase composition correlates with the changing of the atomic composition of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the coatings have a nanoscale grain structure. In this case, the substrate material and the distance from the substrate to the magnetron have a significant effect on the structure formation process. The size of nanograins differs from 10 to 83 nm and depends not only on the sputtering modes but also on material of a substrate. Nanostructure of the material influences the level of mechanical properties. The highest level of nanohardness of the coatings deposited during 30 minutes on metallic substrates at a distance of 100 mm reached 12 GPa. It was shown that nanohardness depends on the grain size of the intermetallic compound. Scratching tests of the coatings showed a high level of adhesion of the coating to substrate without any delamination and cracking. The results of the study showed that magnetron sputtering of composite targets consisting of nickel and aluminum semicircles makes it possible to form intermetallic coatings with good mechanical properties directly in the process of sputtering without additional heat treatment.

Keywords: intermetallic coatings, magnetron sputtering, mechanical properties, structure

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45 Combined Synchrotron Radiography and Diffraction for in Situ Study of Reactive Infiltration of Aluminum into Iron Porous Preform

Authors: S. Djaziri, F. Sket, A. Hynowska, S. Milenkovic


The use of Fe-Al based intermetallics as an alternative to Cr/Ni based stainless steels is very promising for industrial applications that use critical raw materials parts under extreme conditions. However, the development of advanced Fe-Al based intermetallics with appropriate mechanical properties presents several challenges that involve appropriate processing and microstructure control. A processing strategy is being developed which aims at producing a net-shape porous Fe-based preform that is infiltrated with molten Al or Al-alloy. In the present work, porous Fe-based preforms produced by two different methods (selective laser melting (SLM) and Kochanek-process (KE)) are studied during infiltration with molten aluminum. In the objective to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the formation of Fe-Al intermetallic phases during infiltration, an in-house furnace has been designed for in situ observation of infiltration at synchrotron facilities combining x-ray radiography (XR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated, and information about the melt flow front propagation has been obtained. In addition, reactive infiltration has been achieved where a bi-phased intermetallic layer has been identified to be formed between the solid Fe and liquid Al. In particular, a tongue-like Fe₂Al₅ phase adhering to the Fe and a needle-like Fe₄Al₁₃ phase adhering to the Al were observed. The growth of the intermetallic compound was found to be dependent on the temperature gradient present along the preform as well as on the reaction time which will be discussed in view of the different obtained results.

Keywords: combined synchrotron radiography and diffraction, Fe-Al intermetallic compounds, in-situ molten Al infiltration, porous solid Fe preforms

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44 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa


The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic, microstructure, mechanical properties

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43 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®, microstructure, mechanical properties

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42 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy, phase equilibrium, rolling, microstructure, hardness

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41 Characterization of Sintered Fe-Cr-Mn Powder Mixtures Containing Intermetallics

Authors: A. Yonetken, A. Erol, M. Cakmakkaya


Intermetallic materials are among advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 900-1300°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Fe ,Cr and Mn have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition %88Ni-%10Cr and %2Mn at 1300°C suggest that the best properties as 138,80HV and 6,269/cm3 density were obtained at 1300°C.

Keywords: composite, high temperature, intermetallic, sintering

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40 Influence of Mandrel’s Surface on the Properties of Joints Produced by Magnetic Pulse Welding

Authors: Ines Oliveira, Ana Reis


Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) is a cold solid-state welding process, accomplished by the electromagnetically driven, high-speed and low-angle impact between two metallic surfaces. It has the same working principle of Explosive Welding (EXW), i.e. is based on the collision of two parts at high impact speed, in this case, propelled by electromagnetic force. Under proper conditions, i.e., flyer velocity and collision point angle, a permanent metallurgical bond can be achieved between widely dissimilar metals. MPW has been considered a promising alternative to the conventional welding processes and advantageous when compared to other impact processes. Nevertheless, MPW current applications are mostly academic. Despite the existing knowledge, the lack of consensus regarding several aspects of the process calls for further investigation. As a result, the mechanical resistance, morphology and structure of the weld interface in MPW of Al/Cu dissimilar pair were investigated. The effect of process parameters, namely gap, standoff distance and energy, were studied. It was shown that welding only takes place if the process parameters are within an optimal range. Additionally, the formation of intermetallic phases cannot be completely avoided in the weld of Al/Cu dissimilar pair by MPW. Depending on the process parameters, the intermetallic compounds can appear as continuous layer or small pockets. The thickness and the composition of the intermetallic layer depend on the processing parameters. Different intermetallic phases can be identified, meaning that different temperature-time regimes can occur during the process. It is also found that lower pulse energies are preferred. The relationship between energy increase and melting is possibly related to multiple sources of heating. Higher values of pulse energy are associated with higher induced currents in the part, meaning that more Joule heating will be generated. In addition, more energy means higher flyer velocity, the air existing in the gap between the parts to be welded is expelled, and this aerodynamic drag (fluid friction) is proportional to the square of the velocity, further contributing to the generation of heat. As the kinetic energy also increases with the square of velocity, the dissipation of this energy through plastic work and jet generation will also contribute to an increase in temperature. To reduce intermetallic phases, porosity, and melt pockets, pulse energy should be minimized. The bond formation is affected not only by the gap, standoff distance, and energy but also by the mandrel’s surface conditions. No correlation was clearly identified between surface roughness/scratch orientation and joint strength. Nevertheless, the aspect of the interface (thickness of the intermetallic layer, porosity, presence of macro/microcracks) is clearly affected by the surface topology. Welding was not established on oil contaminated surfaces, meaning that the jet action is not enough to completely clean the surface.

Keywords: bonding mechanisms, impact welding, intermetallic compounds, magnetic pulse welding, wave formation

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39 Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Bypass-Current MIG Welding-Brazed Dissimilar Al/Ti Joints

Authors: Bintao Wu, Xiangfang Xu, Yugang Miao,Duanfeng Han


Joining of 1 mm thick aluminum 6061 to titanium TC4 was conducted using Bypass-current MIG welding-brazed, and stable welding process and good bead appearance were obtained. The Joint profile and microstructure of Ti/Al joints were observed by optical microscopy and SEM and then the structure of the interfacial reaction layers were analyzed in details. It was found that the intermetallic compound layer at the interfacial top is in the form of columnar crystal, which is in short and dense state. A mount of AlTi were observed at the interfacial layer near the Ti base metal while intermetallic compound like Al3Ti、TiSi3 were formed near the Al base metal, and the Al11Ti5 transition phase was found in the center of the interface layer due to the uneven distribution inside the weld pool during the welding process. Tensile test results show that the average tensile strength of joints is up to 182.6 MPa, which reaches about 97.6% of aluminum base metal. Fracture is prone to occur in the base metal with a certain amount of necking.

Keywords: bypass-current MIG welding-brazed, Al alloy, Ti alloy, joint characteristics, mechanical properties

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38 Tensile Properties of Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium High Entropy Alloys

Authors: Sefiu A. Bello, Nasirudeen K. Raji, Jeleel A. Adebisi, Sadiq A. Raji


Pure metals are not used in most cases for structural applications because of their limited properties. Presently, high entropy alloys (HEAs) are emerging by mixing comparative proportions of metals with the aim of maximizing the entropy leading to enhancement in structural and mechanical properties. Aluminum Silicon Nickel Iron Vanadium (AlSiNiFeV) alloy was developed using stir cast technique and analysed. Results obtained show that the alloy grade G0 contains 44 percentage by weight (wt%) Al, 32 wt% Si, 9 wt% Ni, 4 wt% Fe, 3 wt% V and 8 wt% for minor elements with tensile strength and elongation of 106 Nmm-2 and 2.68%, respectively. X-ray diffraction confirmed intermetallic compounds having hexagonal closed packed (HCP), orthorhombic and cubic structures in cubic dendritic matrix. This affirmed transformation from the cubic structures of elemental constituents of the HEAs to the precipitated structures of the intermetallic compounds. A maximum tensile strength of 188 Nmm-2 with 4% elongation was noticed at 10wt% of silica addition to the G0. An increase in tensile strength with an increment in silica content could be attributed to different phases and crystal geometries characterizing each HEA.

Keywords: HEAs, phases model, aluminium, silicon, tensile strength, model

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37 Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Microstructure and Properties of Chromium Coatings on Zircaloy-4 Substrate

Authors: Alexia Wu, Joel Ribis, Jean-Christophe Brachet, Emmanuel Clouet, Benoit Arnal, Elodie Rouesne, Stéphane Urvoy, Justine Roubaud, Yves Serruys, Frederic Lepretre


To enhance the safety of Light Water Reactor, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) claddings materials are under development. In the framework of CEA-AREVA-EDF collaborative program on ATF cladding materials, CEA has engaged specific studies on chromium coated zirconium alloys. Especially for Loss-of-Coolant-Accident situations, chromium coated claddings have shown some additional 'coping' time before achieving full embrittlement of the oxidized cladding, when compared to uncoated references – both tested in steam environment up to 1300°C. Nevertheless, the behavior of chromium coatings and the stability of the Zr-Cr interface under neutron irradiation remain unknown. Two main points are addressed: 1. Bulk Cr behavior under irradiation: Due to its BCC crystallographic structure, Cr is prone to Ductile-to-Brittle-Transition at quite high temperature. Irradiation could be responsible for a significant additional DBTT shift towards higher temperatures. 2. Zircaloy/Cr interface behavior under irradiation: Preliminary TEM examinations of un-irradiated samples revealed a singular Zircaloy-4/Cr interface with nanometric intermetallic phase layers. Such particular interfaces highlight questions of how they would behave under irradiation - intermetallic zirconium phases are known to be more or less stable under irradiations. Another concern is a potential enhancement of chromium diffusion into the zirconium-alpha based substrate. The purpose of this study is then to determine the behavior of such coatings after ion irradiations, as a surrogate to neutron irradiation. Ion irradiations were performed at the Jannus-Saclay facility (France). 20 MeV Kr8+ ions at 400°C with a flux of 2.8x1011 were used to irradiate chromium coatings of 1-2 µm thick on Zircaloy-4 sheets substrate. At the interface, the calculated damage is close to 10 dpa (SRIM, Quick Calculation Damage mode). Thin foil samples were prepared with FIB for both as-received and irradiated coated samples. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and in-situ tensile tests in a Scanning Electron Microscope are being used to characterize the un-irradiated and irradiated materials. High Resolution TEM highlights a great complexity of the interface before irradiation since it is formed of an alternation of intermetallic phases – C14 and C15. The interfaces formed by these intermetallic phases with chromium and zirconium show semi-coherency. Chemical analysis performed before irradiation shows some iron enrichment at the interface. The chromium coating bulk microstructures and properties are also studied before and after irradiation. On-going in-situ tensile tests focus on the capacity of chromium coatings to sustain some plastic deformation when tested up to 350°C. The stability of the Cr/Zr interface is shown after ion irradiation up to 10 dpa. This observation constitutes the first result after irradiation on these new coated claddings materials.

Keywords: accident tolerant fuel, HRTEM, interface, ion-irradiation

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36 Microvoid Growth in the Interfaces during Aging

Authors: Jae-Yong Park, Gwancheol Seo, Young-Ho Kim


Microvoids, sometimes called Kikendall voids, generally form in the interfaces between Sn-based solders and Cu and degrade the mechanical and electrical properties of the solder joints. The microvoid formation is known as the rapid interdiffusion between Sn and Cu and impurity content in the Cu. Cu electroplating from the acid solutions has been widely used by microelectronic packaging industry for both printed circuit board (PCB) and integrated circuit (IC) applications. The quality of electroplated Cu that can be optimized by the electroplating conditions is critical for the solder joint reliability. In this paper, the influence of electroplating conditions on the microvoid growth in the interfaces between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) solder and Cu layer was investigated during isothermal aging. The Cu layers were electroplated by controlling the additive of electroplating bath and current density to induce various microvoid densities. The electroplating bath consisted of sulfate, sulfuric acid, and additives and the current density of 5-15 mA/cm2 for each bath was used. After aging at 180 °C for up to 250 h, typical bi-layer of Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) was gradually growth at the SAC/Cu interface and microvoid density in the Cu3Sn showed disparities in the electroplating conditions. As the current density increased, the microvoid formation was accelerated in all electroplating baths. The higher current density induced, the higher impurity content in the electroplated Cu. When the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Cl- ion were mixed in an electroplating bath, the microvoid formation was the highest compared to other electroplating baths. On the other hand, the overall IMC thickness was similar in all samples irrespective of the electroplating conditions. Impurity content in electroplated Cu influenced the microvoid growth, but the IMC growth was not affected by the impurity content. In conclusion, the electroplated conditions are properly optimized to avoid the excessive microvoid formation that results in brittle fracture of solder joint under high strain rate loading.

Keywords: electroplating, additive, microvoid, intermetallic compound

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35 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas


Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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34 Intermetallic Phases in the Fusion Weld of CP Ti to Stainless Steel

Authors: Juzar Vohra, Ravish Malhotra, Tim Pasang, Mana Azizi, Yuan Tao, Masami Mizutani


In this paper, dissimilar welding of titanium to stainless steels is reported. Laser Beam Welding (LBW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) were employed to join CPTi to SS304. The welds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). FeTi, Ti2Cr and Fe2Ti dendrites are formed along with beta phase titanium matrix. The hardness values of these phases are high which makes them brittle and leading to cracking along the weld pool. However, it is believed that cracking, hence, fracturing of this weld joint is largely due to the difference in thermal properties of the two alloys.

Keywords: dissimilar metals, fusion welding, intermetallics, brittle

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33 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

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32 Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co

Authors: Laslouni Warda, M. Azzaz


The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature

Keywords: Cu-Fe-Co, Cu-Fe, nanocrystals, SEM, hysteresis loops, VSM, anisotropy theory

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31 Elastic and Thermal Behaviour of LaX (X= Cd, Hg) Intermetallics: A DFT Study

Authors: Gitanjali Pagare, Hansa Devi, S. P. Sanyal


Full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method has been employed within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local spin density approximation (LSDA) as the exchange correlation potential to investigate elastic properties of LaX (X = Cd and Hg) in their B2-type (CsCl) crystal structure. The calculated ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and pressure derivative of bulk modulus (B') agree well with the available experimental results. The second order elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) have been calculated. The ductility or brittleness of these intermetallic compounds is predicted by using Pugh’s rule B/GH and Cauchy’s pressure (C12-C44). The calculated results indicate that LaHg is the ductile whereas LaCd is brittle in nature.

Keywords: ductility/brittleness, elastic constants, equation of states, FP-LAPW method, intermetallics

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30 Characterization of Thixoformed AlSi12 Alloy with the Addition of Trace Amounts of Silver

Authors: Nursen Saklakoglu, Adnan Turker


The main objective of this study is to reveal the effect of the Thixoforming process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AlSi12 alloy with trace amounts of silver. It is concluded that Thixoforming has an important effect on the morphology of intermetallics and Si formation, as well as globular α-Al morphology. The intermetallics have been fractured during thixoforming. It is believed that the fine distribution of the intermetallics is one mechanism for the improved mechanical properties of Thixoformed alloys. The discrete Si particles have been observed during both isothermal heating to the semi-solid range and Thixoforming, also have an important effect on mechanical properties. The Thixoforming process has a greater effect on hardness than the addition of Ag does.

Keywords: AlSi alloys, intermetallic phases, mechanical properties trace element, silver, thixoforming

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29 Production of Chromium Matrix Composite Reinforced by WC by Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Ahmet Yonetken, Ayhan Erol


Intermetallic materials advanced technology materials that have outstanding mechanical and physical properties for high temperature applications. Especially creep resistance, low density and high hardness properties stand out in such intermetallics. The microstructure, mechanical properties of %80Cr-%10Ti and %10WC powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 1000-1400°C temperature. A composite consisting of ternary additions, a metallic phase, Ti,Cr and WC have been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition %80Cr-%10Ti and %10WC at 1400°C suggest that the best properties as 292HV and 5,34g/cm3 density were obtained at 1400°C.

Keywords: ceramic-metal, composites, powder metallurgy, sintering

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28 Failure Mode Analysis of a Multiple Layer Explosion Bonded Cryogenic Transition Joint

Authors: Richard Colwell, Thomas Englert


In cryogenic liquefaction processes, brazed aluminum core heat exchangers are used to minimize surface area/volume of the exchanger. Aluminum alloy (5083-H321; UNS A95083) piping must transition to higher melting point 304L stainless steel piping outside of the heat exchanger kettle or cold box for safety reasons. Since aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel cannot be directly welded to together, a transition joint consisting of 5 layers of different metals explosively bonded are used. Failures of two of these joints resulted in process shut-down and loss of revenue. Failure analyses, FEA analysis, and mock-up testing were performed by multiple teams to gain a further understanding into the failure mechanisms involved.

Keywords: explosion bonding, intermetallic compound, thermal strain, titanium-nickel Interface

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27 Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Intermetallic Dy2Ni2Pb from Computational Study

Authors: O. Arbouche, Y. Benallou, K. Amara


We report a first-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ternary plumbides (rare earth-transition metal-Plumb) Dy2Ni2Pb crystallizes with the orthorhombic structure of the Mn2AlB2 type (space group Cmmm), were studied by means of the full-relativistic version of the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, total densities of states and magnetic properties. The calculated total magnetic moment is found to be equal to 9.52 μB.

Keywords: spin-polarized, magnetic properties, Dy2Ni2Pb, Density functional theory

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26 High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Aluminized Steel by Arc Spray and Cementation Techniques

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Alireza Kiani Rashid, Abbas Afrasiabi


An aluminum coating deposited on mild steel substrate by electric arc spray and diffused to the base steel material by diffusion treatment at 800 and 900°C for 1 and 3 hours in a static air. Alloy layers formed by diffusion at both temperatures were investigated, and their features were compared with those of pack cementation aluminized steel. High-temperature oxidation tests were carried out in air at 600 °C for 145 hours. Results indicated that the aluminide coatings obtained from this process have significantly improved the high-temperature oxidation resistance in both methods due to the Al2O3 scale formation. Furthermore, it showed that the isothermal oxidation resistance of arc spray technique is better than pack cementation method. This can be attributed to voids that formed at the intermetallic layer /Al layer interface which is increased in the pack cementation method.

Keywords: electric arc spray, pack cementation, oxidation resistance, aluminized steel

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25 Production and Characterization of Implant Material Produced by Using Electroless Ni Plated Al2O3-Co-Cr-Ti Powders

Authors: Ahmet Yonetken, Ayhan Erol


The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion characteristics of Ni plated %10Al2O3-%40Co-%20Cr and %10Ti powders were investigated using specimens produced by tube furnace sintering at 800-1200°C temperature. A uniform nickel layer on Al2O3-Co-Cr and Ti powders was deposited prior to sintering using electroless plating technique. A composite consisting of quintet additions, a metallic phase, Ti,Cr and Co including a ceramic phase, alumina, within a matrix of Ni has been prepared under Ar shroud and then tube furnace sintered. XRD, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), corrosion behavior in acidic media were investigated to characterize the properties of the specimens. Experimental results carried out for composition (%10Al2O3-%40Co-%20Cr- %10Ti)20Ni at 1200°C suggest that the best properties as 312.18HV were obtained at 1200°C.

Keywords: sintering, intermetallic, Electroless nickel plating, composite

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24 Laser Micro-Welding of an Isomorphous System with Different Geometries: An Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Joint

Authors: Mahdi Amne Elahi, Marcus Koch, Peter Plapper


Due to the demand of miniaturizing in automotive industry, the application of laser welding is quite promising. The current study focused on laser micro-welding of CuSn6 bronze and nickel wire for a miniature electromechanical hybrid component. Due to the advantages of laser welding, the welding can be tailored specifically for the requirements of the part. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were implemented to study the microstructure and tensile-shear test was selected to represent the mechanical properties. Different welding sides, beam oscillations, and speeds have been investigated to optimize the tensile-shear load and microstructure. The results show that the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joint is highly under the influence of the mentioned parameters. Due to the lack of intermetallic compounds, the soundness of the joint is achievable by manipulating the geometry of the weld seam and minimize weld defects.

Keywords: bronze, laser micro-welding, microstructure, nickel, tensile shear test

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