Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10512

Search results for: physical properties

10512 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay


High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH as a sustainable material instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared, incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
10511 Characteristics of Nanosilica-Geopolymer Nanocomposites and Mixing Effect

Authors: H. Assaedi, F. U. A. Shaikh, I. M. Low


This paper presents the effects of mixing procedures on mechanical properties of flyash-based geopolymer matrices containing nanosilica (NS) at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% by wt.. Comparison is made with conventional mechanical dry-mixing of NS with flyash and wet-mixing of NS in alkaline solutions. Physical and mechanical properties are investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results show that generally the addition of NS particles enhanced the microstructure and improved flexural and compressive strengths of geopolymer nanocomposites. However, samples prepared using dry-mixing approach demonstrate better physical and mechanical properties than wet-mixing of NS.

Keywords: geopolymer, nano-silica, dry mixing, wet mixing, physical properties, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
10510 Melaleuca alternifolia Fibre Composites: Effect of Different Type of Fibre on Mechanical and Physical Properties

Authors: Sahari Japar, Rodney Jammy, M. A. Maleque


The fabrication of melaleuca alternifolia fibre reinforced thermoplastic starch composites was successfully done. This paper aims to show the effect of melaleuca alternifolia fibres on mechanical and physical properties of composites by using starch as a matrix. The fibres were extracted from three different part i.e. tea tree trunk (TTT), tea tree bunch (TTB) and tea tree leaf (TTL) and combined with tapioca starch by casting method. All composites showed superior mechanical properties in comparison to TS. The addition of 5% (v/v) fibres as a filler to TS led to the improvement in young’s modulus by 350% for TTB/TS, 282% for TTT/TS and 220% for TTL/TS. The tensile strength also increased to 34.39% for TTL/TS, 82.80% for TTB/TS and 203.18% for TTT/TS respectively. The trend can be correlated to the amount of cellulose in the fibres. For physical properties, it can be seen that, with the addition of fibres, the water absorption and swelling of composites decreased. The addition of melaleuca alternifolia fibre improved mechanical and physical properties of thermoplastic starch composites.

Keywords: melaleuca alternifolia, fibre, starch, mechanical, physical

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
10509 Relation between Physical and Mechanical Properties of Concrete Paving Stones Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

Authors: Erion Luga, Aksel Seitllari, Kemal Pervanqe


This study investigates the relation between physical and mechanical properties of concrete paving stones using neuro-fuzzy approach. For this purpose 200 samples of concrete paving stones were selected randomly from different sources. The first phase included the determination of physical properties of the samples such as water absorption capacity, porosity and unit weight. After that the indirect tensile strength test and compressive strength test of the samples were performed. İn the second phase, adaptive neuro-fuzzy approach was employed to simulate nonlinear mapping between the above mentioned physical properties and mechanical properties of paving stones. The neuro-fuzzy models uses Sugeno type fuzzy inference system. The models parameters were adapted using hybrid learning algorithm and input space was fuzzyfied by considering grid partitioning. It is concluded based on the observed data and the estimated data through ANFIS models that neuro-fuzzy system exhibits a satisfactory performance.

Keywords: paving stones, physical properties, mechanical properties, ANFIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
10508 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan / Polyacrylic Acid / Ag-nanoparticles Composite Membranes

Authors: Abdel-Mohdy, A. Abou-Okeil, S. El-Sabagh, S. M. El-Sawy


Chitosan polyacrylic acid composite membranes were prepared by a bulk polymerization method in the presence of N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide (crosslinker) and ammonium persulphate as initiator. Membranes prepared from this copolymer in presence and absence of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by measuring mechanical and physical properties, water up-take and antibacterial properties. The results obtained indicated that the prepared membranes have antibacterial properties which increases with adding Ag nanoparticles.

Keywords: Ag nanoparticles , antimicrobial, Membrane, composites, mechanical properties, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
10507 Lithium Oxide Effect on the Thermal and Physical Properties of the Ternary System Glasses (Li2O3-B2O3-Al2O3)

Authors: D. Aboutaleb, B. Safi


The borate glasses are known by their structural characterized by existence of unit’s structural composed by triangles and tetrahedrons boron in different configurations depending on the percentage of B2O3 in the glass chemical composition. In this paper, effect of lithium oxide addition on the thermal and physical properties of an alumina borate glass, was investigated. It was found that the boron abnormality has a significant effect in the change of glass properties according to the addition rate of lithium oxide.

Keywords: borate glasses, triangles and tetrahedrons boron, lithium oxide, boron anomaly, thermal properties, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
10506 Red Clay Properties and Application for Ceramic Production

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath


This research aimed at surveying the local red clay raw material sources in Samut Songkram province, Thailand to test the physical and chemical properties of the local red clay, including to find the approach to develop the local red clay properties for ceramic production. The findings of this research would be brought to apply in the ceramic production industry of the country all at the upstream level which was the community in the raw material source, at the mid water level which was the ceramic producer and at the downstream level which was the distributor and the consumer as well as the community producer who would apply them to their identity and need of the community business.

Keywords: chemical properties of red clay, physical properties of red clay, ceramic production, red clay product

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
10505 Physical Properties of Uranium Dinitride UN2 by Using Density Functional Theory (DFT and DFT+U)

Authors: T. Zergoug, S. E. H. Abaidia, A. Nedjar, M. Y. Mokeddem


Physical properties of uranium di-nitride (UN2) were investigated in detail using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. To treat the strong correlation effects caused by 5f Uranium valence electrons, on-site Coulomb interaction correction via the Hubbard-like term, U (DFT+U) was employed. The UN2 structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties were calculated within DFT and Various U of DFT+U approach. The Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE.5.2) version of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to describe the exchange-correlation with the projector-augmented wave (PAW) pseudo potentials. A comparative study shows that results are improved by using the Hubbard formalism for a certain U value correction like the structural parameter. For some physical properties the variation versus Hubbard U is strong like Young modulus but for others it is weakly noticeable such as the density of state (DOS) or bulk modulus. We noticed also that up from U=7.5 eV, elastic results become not conform to the cubic cell elastic criteria since the C44 values turn out to be negative.

Keywords: uranium diNitride, UN2, DFT+U, elastic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
10504 Correlations Between Electrical Resistivity and Some Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. M. Abu-Heleika, M. A. Hassan, A. E. Sidhom


Application of electrical measurements to evaluate engineering properties of soils has gained a wide, promising field of research in recent years. So, understanding of the relation between in-situ electrical resistivity of clay soil, and their mechanical and physical properties consider a promising field of research. This would assist in introducing a new technique for the determination of soil properties based on electrical resistivity. In this work soil physical and mechanical properties of clayey soil have been determined by experimental tests and correlated with the in-situ electrical resistivity. The research program was conducted through measuring fifteen vertical electrical sounding stations along with fifteen selected boreholes. These samples were analyzed and subjected to experimental tests such as physical tests namely bulk density, water content, specific gravity, and grain size distribution, and Attereberg limits tests. Mechanical test was also conducted such as direct shear test. The electrical resistivity data were interpreted and correlated with each one of the measured experimental parameters. Based on this study mathematical relations were extracted and discussed. These results exhibit an excellent match with the results reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the utility of the developed methodology for determining the mechanical properties of soils easily and rapidly depending on their electrical resistivity measurements.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, clayey soil, physical properties, shear properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
10503 Influence of Physical Properties on Estimation of Mechanical Strength of Limestone

Authors: Khaled Benyounes


Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah(Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Others correlations UCS-tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus-static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: limestone, mechanical strength, Young’s modulus, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
10502 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Produced from Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Bottle Wastes and Sawdust of Three Tropical Hardwood Species

Authors: Amos Olajide Oluyege, Akpanobong Akpan Ekong, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Opara, Sunday Adeniyi Adedutan, Joseph Adeola Fuwape, Olawale John Olukunle


This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of wood species and wood plastic ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs) produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottle wastes and sawdust from three hardwood species, namely, Terminalia superba, Gmelina arborea, and Ceiba pentandra. The experimental WPCs were prepared from sawdust particle size classes of ≤ 0.5, 0.5 – 1.0, and 1.0 – 2.0 mm at wood/plastic ratios of 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 (percentage by weight). The WPCs for each study variable combination were prepared in 3 replicates and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The physical properties investigated water absorption (WA), linear expansion (LE) and thickness swelling (TS) while the mechanical properties evaluated were Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The mean values for WA, LE and TS ranged from 1.07 to 34.04, 0.11 to 1.76 and 0.11 to 4.05 %, respectively. The mean values of the three physical properties increased with decrease in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each particle size class generally resulted in the lowest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the highest values for each of the three species. For each of the physical properties, T. superba had the least mean values followed by G. arborea, while the highest values were observed C. pentandra. The mean values for MOE and MOR ranged from 458.17 to 1875.67 and 2.64 to 18.39 N/mm2, respectively. The mean values of the two mechanical properties decreased with increase in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each wood particle size class generally had the highest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the least values for each of the three species. For each of the mechanical properties, C. pentandra had the highest mean values followed by G. arborea, while the least values were observed T. superba. There were improvements in both the physical and mechanical properties due to decrease in sawdust particle size class with the particle size class of ≤ 0.5 mm giving the best result. The results of the Analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) effects of the three study variables – wood species, sawdust particle size class and wood/plastic ratio on all the physical and mechanical properties of the WPCs. It can be concluded from the results of this study that wood plastic composites from sawdust particle size ≤ 0.5 and PET plastic bottle wastes with acceptable physical and mechanical properties are better produced using 40:60 wood/plastic ratio, and that at this ratio, all the three species are suitable for the production of wood plastic composites.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate plastic bottle wastes, wood plastic composite, physical properties, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
10501 Theoretical Investigation of Structural and Electronic Properties of AlBi

Authors: S. Louhibi-Fasla, H. Achour, B. Amrani


The purpose of this work is to provide some additional information to the existing data on the physical properties of AlBi with state-of-the-art first-principles method of the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW). Additionally to the structural properties, the electronic properties have also been investigated. The dependence of the volume, the bulk modulus, the variation of the thermal expansion α, as well as the Debye temperature are successfully obtained in the whole range from 0 to 30 GPa and temperature range from 0 to 1200 K. The latter are the basis of solid-state science and industrial applications and their study is of importance to extend our knowledge on their specific behaviour when undergoing severe constraints of high pressure and high temperature environments.

Keywords: AlBi, FP-LAPW, structural properties, electronic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
10500 Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Limestone in the Quarry of Meftah (Algeria)

Authors: Khaled Benyounes


Determination of the rock mechanical properties such as unconfined compressive strength UCS, Young’s modulus E, and tensile strength by the Brazilian test Rtb is considered to be the most important component in drilling and mining engineering project. Research related to establishing correlation between strength and physical parameters of rocks has always been of interest to mining and reservoir engineering. For this, many rock blocks of limestone were collected from the quarry located in Meftah (Algeria), the cores were crafted in the laboratory using a core drill. This work examines the relationships between mechanical properties and some physical properties of limestone. Many empirical equations are established between UCS and physical properties of limestone (such as dry bulk density, velocity of P-waves, dynamic Young’s modulus, alteration index, and total porosity). Other correlations, UCS - tensile strength, dynamic Young’s modulus - static Young’s modulus have been find. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we were able to establish mathematical relationships that will allow estimating the cohesion and internal friction angle from UCS and indirect tensile strength. Results from this study can be useful for mining industry for resolve range of geomechanical problems such as slope stability.

Keywords: limestone, mechanical strength, Young’s modulus, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
10499 Thermoelastic Analysis of a Tube Subjected to Internal Heating with Temperature Dependent Material Properties

Authors: Yasemin Kaya, Ahmet N. Eraslan


In this study, the thermoelastic behavior of a long tube is studied by taking into account the temperature dependency of all mechanical and thermal properties. As the tube is heated slowly, an uncoupled solution procedure is adopted under free and radially constrained boundary conditions. The nonlinear heat conduction equation is solved by a finite element collocation procedure and the corresponding distributions of stress and strain are computed by shooting iterations. The computational model is verified in comparison to the analytical solution by shutting down the temperature dependency of physical properties. In the analysis, experimental data available in the literature is used to describe the coefficient of thermal expansion $\alpha$, the thermal conductivity $k$, the modulus of rigidity $G$, the yield strength $\sigma_{0}$, and the Poisson's ratio $\nu$ of Nickel. Results of the analysis are presented in comparison to those having constant physical properties. As a result of the calculations, the temperature dependency of the material properties should be taken into account at higher temperature ranges.

Keywords: thermoelasticity, long tube, temperature-dependent properties, internal heating

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
10498 Ointment of Rosella Flower Petals Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa): Pharmaceutical Preparations Formulation Development of Herbs for Antibacterial S. aureus

Authors: Muslihatus Syarifah


Introduction: Rosella flower petals can be used as an antibacterial because it contains alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and terpenoids) for the . Bacteria activity is S. aureus can cause skin infections and pengobatanya most appropriate use of topical preparations. Ointment is a topical preparation comprising the active substance and ointment base. Not all the base matches the active substances or any type of disease. In this study using flavonoid active substances contained in rosella flower petals (Hibiscus sabdariffa) to be made ointment by testing a variety of different bases in order to obtain a suitable basis for the formulation of ointment extract rosella flower petals. Methods: Experimental research with research methods Post test control group design using the ointment is hydrocarbon sample, absorption, leached water and dissolved water. Then tested for bacteria S. aureus with different concentrations of 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, 16, 32%. Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA followed by Post Hoc test. Results: Ointment with a hydrocarbon base, absorption, leached water and dissolved water having no change in physical properties during storage. Base affect the physical properties of an ointment that adhesion, dispersive power and pH. The physical properties of the ointment with different concentrations produce different physical properties including adhesion, dispersive power and pH. The higher the concentration the higher dispersive power, but the smaller the adhesion and pH. Conclusion: Differences bases, storage time, the concentration of the extract can affect the physical properties of the ointment. Concentration of extract in the ointment extract rosella flower petals is 32%.

Keywords: rosella, physical properties, ointments, antibacterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
10497 Variation with Depth of Physico-Chemical, Mineralogical and Physical Properties of Overburden over Gneiss Basement Complex in Minna Metropolis, North Central Nigeria

Authors: M. M. Alhaji, M. Alhassan, A. M. Yahaya


Soil engineers pay very little or no attention to variation in the mineralogical and consequently, the geotechnical properties of overburden with depth on basement complexes, a situation which can lead to sudden failure of civil engineering structures. Soil samples collected at depths ranging from 0.5m to 4.0m at 0.5m intervals, from a trial pit dogged manually to depth of 4.0m on an overburden over gneiss basement complex, was evaluated for physico-chemical, mineralogical and physical properties. This is to determine the variation of these properties with depth within the profile of the strata. Results showed that sodium amphibolite and feldspar, which are both primary minerals dominate the overall profile of the overburden. Carbon which dominates the lower profile of the strata was observed to alter to gregorite at upper section of the profile. Organic matter contents and cation exchange capacity reduces with increase in depth while lost on ignition and pH were relatively constant with depth. The index properties, as well as natural moisture contents, increases from 0.5m to between 1.0m to 1.5m depth after which the values reduced to constant values at 3.0m depth. The grain size analysis shows high composition of sand sized particles with silts of low to non-plasticity. The maximum dry density (MDD) values are generally relatively high and increases from 2.262g/cm³ at 0.5m depth to 2.410g/cm³ at 4.0m depth while the optimum moisture content (OMC) reduced from 9.8% at 0.5m depth to 6.7% at 4.0m depth.

Keywords: Gneiss basement complex, mineralogical properties, North Central Nigeria, physico-chemical properties, physical properties, overburden soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
10496 Elaboration and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Edible Films Made from Chitosan and Spray Dried Ethanolic Extracts of Propolis

Authors: David Guillermo Piedrahita Marquez, Hector Suarez Mahecha, Jairo Humberto Lopez


It was necessary to establish which formulation is suitable for the preservation of aquaculture products, that why edible films were made. These were to a characterization in order to meet their morphology physicochemical and mechanical properties, optical. Six Formulations of chitosan and propolis ethanolic extract encapsulated were developed because of their activity against pathogens and due to their properties, which allows the creation waterproof polymer networks against gasses, vapor, and physical damage. In the six Formulations, the concentration of comparison material (1% w/v, 2% pv) and the bioactive concentrations (0.5% w/v, 1% w/v, 1.5% pv) were changed and the results obtained were compared with statistical and multivariate analysis methods. It was observed that the matrices showed a mayor impermeability and thickness control samples and the samples reported in the literature. Also, these films showed a notorious uniformity of the films and a bigger resistance to the physical damage compared with other edible films made of other biopolymers. However the action of some compounds had a negative effect on the mechanical properties and changed drastically the optical properties, the bioactive has an effect on Polymer Matrix and it was determined that the films with 2% w / v of chitosan and 1.5% w/v encapsulated, exhibited the best properties and suffered to a lesser extent the negative impact of immiscible substances.

Keywords: chitosan, edible films, ethanolic extract of propolis, mechanical properties, optical properties, physical characterization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
10495 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman


Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
10494 Characteristics Flakes Product with Dry Residue of Wild Orenago

Authors: Kosutic Milenko, Filipovic Jelena


Cereals constitute the staple food of the human race. In accordance with the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products, flakes and snack products are the most common foods in the daily diet, such as ready to eat breakfast cereal, flakes, and snacks. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snacks products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health, therefore attracting the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of simultaneous addition of dry residue of wild oregano (0.5% and 1%), on the physical and colour properties of corn flakes to obtain new products with altered nutritional properties. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Addition of dry residue wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2%, increased expansion rate 44.9%), influenced of decrease hardness 38.1% and work of compression 40.3% also significantly change the color of flakes product. Presented data point that investigated corn flakes is a new product with good physical and sensory properties due to higher level of dry residue of wild oregano.

Keywords: flakes product, wild oregano, phisical properties, colour, sensory properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
10493 Physical Properties of Nine Nigerian Staple Food Flours Related to Bulk Handling and Processing

Authors: Ogunsina Babatunde, Aregbesola Omotayo, Adebayo Adewale, Odunlami Johnson


The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p<0.05). The least gelation concentration of the flour samples ranged from 6 to 14%. The colour of the flours fell between light and saturated, with the exception of cassava, millet and maize flours which appear dark and dull. The properties of food flours depend largely on the inherent property of the food material and may influence their functional behaviour as food materials.

Keywords: properties, flours, staple food, bulk handling

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
10492 Physical Properties and Elastic Studies of Fluoroaluminate Glasses Based on Alkali

Authors: C. Benhamideche


Fluoroaluminate glasses have been reported as the earliest heavy metal fluoride glasses. By comparison with flurozirconate glasses, they offer a set of similar optical features, but also some differences in their elastic and chemical properties. In practice they have been less developed because their stability against devitrification is smaller than that of the most stable fluoroziconates. The purpose of this study was to investigate glass formation in systems AlF3-YF3-PbF2-MgF2-MF2 (M= Li, Na, K). Synthesis was implemented at room atmosphere using the ammonium fluoride processing. After fining, the liquid was into a preheated brass mold, then annealed below the glass transition temperature for several hours. The samples were polished for optical measurements. Glass formation has been investigated in a systematic way, using pseudo ternary systems in order to allow parameters to vary at the same time. We have chosen the most stable glass compositions for the determination of the physical properties. These properties including characteristic temperatures, density and proprieties elastic. Glass stability increases in multicomponent glasses. Bulk samples have been prepared for physical characterization. These glasses have a potential interest for passive optical fibers because they are less sensitive to water attack than ZBLAN glass, mechanically stronger. It is expected they could have a larger damage threshold for laser power transmission.

Keywords: fluoride glass, aluminium fluoride, thermal properties, density, proprieties elastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
10491 A Comparative Study Mechanical Properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene Materials Synthesized by Non-Conventional and Conventional Techniques

Authors: H. Lahlali F. El Haouzi, A.M.Al-Baradi, I. El Aboudi, M. El Azhari, A. Mdarhri


Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with exceptional physical and chemical properties, such as a high melting temperature, high thermal stability, and very good chemical resistance. Nevertheless, manufacturing PTFE is problematic due to its high melt viscosity (10 12 Pa.s). In practice, it is by now well established that this property presents a serious problem when the classical methods are used to synthesized the dense PTFE materials in particularly hot pressing, high temperature extrusion. In this framework, we use here a new process namely spark plasma sintering (SPS) to elaborate PTFE samples from the micro metric particles powder. It consists in applying simultaneous electric current and pressure directly on the sample powder. By controlling the processing parameters of this technique, a series of PTFE samples are easy obtained and associated to remarkably short time as is reported in an early work. Our central goal in the present study is to understand how the non conventional SPS affects the mechanical properties at room temperature. For this end, a second commercially series of PTFE synthesized by using the extrusion method is investigated. The first data according to the tensile mechanical properties are found to be superior for the first set samples (SPS). However, this trend is not observed for the results obtained from the compression testing. The observed macro-behaviors are correlated to some physical properties of the two series of samples such as their crystallinity or density. Upon a close examination of these properties, we believe the SPS technique can be seen as a promising way to elaborate the polymer having high molecular mass without compromising their mechanical properties.

Keywords: PTFE, extrusion, Spark Plasma Sintering, physical properties, mechanical behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
10490 Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Properties of Viscose Single Jersey Fabrics

Authors: Merve Kucukali Ozturk, Yesim Beceren, Banu Nergis


The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate effects of different drying methods (line dry and tumble dry) on viscose single jersey fabrics knitted with ring yarn.

Keywords: color change, dimensional properties, drying method, fabric tightness, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
10489 Random Analysis of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Superfine Animal Fibres

Authors: Sepehr Moradi


The physical and mechanical property parameters, inter-relation of key dimensional and distribution profile of raw Australia Superfine Merino Wool (ASFW) and Inner Mongolia Cashmere (IMC) fibres have been studied. The relationship between the properties of these fibres is assessed using fit transformation functions obtained through correlation coefficient analysis. ASFW and IMC fibre properties are found to be both positively skewed and asymmetric in nature. Whilst fibre diameter varies along its length and both ends have a tapering shape. The basic physical features, namely linear density, true local diameter, true length and breaking load are positively correlated while their tenacity is negatively correlated. The tenacity and true length follow a second order polynomial while the true local diameter is linearly correlated. Assessment of the diameter and length is sufficient to estimate the evaluation of quality for commercial grade ASFW and IMC fibres.

Keywords: Australia Superfine Merino Wool fibre, Inner Mongolia Cashmere fibre, distribution profile, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
10488 Evaluation of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Adhesive Material

Authors: Moudar H. A. Zgoul, Amin Al Zamer


Adhesive materials and adhesion have been the focal point of multiple research works related to numerous applications, particularly, aerospace, and aviation industries. To enhance the properties of conventional adhesive materials, additives have been introduced to the mix in order to enhance their mechanical and physical properties by creating a hybrid adhesive material. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of such hybrid adhesive materials is thus of an essential requirement for the purpose of properly modeling their behavior accurately. This paper presents an approach/tool to simulate the behavior such hybrid adhesives in a way that will allow researchers to better understand their behavior while in service.

Keywords: adhesive materials, analysis, hybrid adhesives, mechanical properties, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
10487 Physical Properties of Alkali Resistant-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

Authors: Ji-Sun Lee, Soong-Keun Hyun, Jin-Ho Kim


In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt% zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured, and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

Keywords: glass composition, fiber diameter, continuous filament fiber, continuous spinning, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
10486 Basic Properties of a Fundamental Particle: Behavioral-Physical and Visual Methods for the Study of Fundamental Particle

Authors: Shukran M. Dadayev


To author's best knowledge, in this paper, the Basic Properties and Research methods of a Fundamental Particle is studied for the first time. That's to say, Fundamental Particle has not been discovered in the Nature yet. Because Fundamental Particle consists of specific Physical, Geometrical and Internal bases. Geometrical and Internal characteristics that are considered significant for the elementary and fundamental particles aren’t basic properties, characteristics or criteria of a Fundamental Particle. Of course, completely new Physical and Visual experimental methods of Quantum mechanics and Behavioral-Physical investigations of Particles are needed to study and discover the Fundamental Particle. These are new Physical, Visual and Behavioral-Physical experimental methods for describing and discovering the Fundamental Particle in the Nature and Microworld. Fundamental Particle consists of the same Energy-Mass-Motion system and a symmetry of Energy-Mass-Motion. Fundamental Particle supplies each of the elementary particles with the same Energy-Mass-Motion system at the same time and regulates each of the particles. Fundamental Particle gives Energy, Mass and Motion to each particles at the same time, each of the Particles consists of acquired Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry. Energy, Mass, Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles are Symmetrical Equivalent and they remain in their primary shapes in all cases. Fundamental Particle gives Energy-Mass-Motion system and symmetry consisting of different measures and functions to each of the particles. The Motion given by the Fundamental Particle to the particles is Gravitation, Gravitational Interaction not only gives Motion, but also cause Motion by attracting. All Substances, Fields and Cosmic objects consist of Energy-Mass-Motion. The Field also includes specific Mass. They are always Energetic, Massive and Active. Fundamental Particle establishes the bases of the Nature. Supplement and Regulating of all the particles existing in the Nature belongs to Fundamental Particle.

Keywords: basic properties of a fundamental particle, behavioral-physical and visual methods, energy-mass-motion system and symmetrical equivalence, fundamental particle

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
10485 Woody Plant Encroachment Effects on the Physical Properties of Vertic Soils in Bela-Bela, Limpopo Province

Authors: Rebone E. Mashapa, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Sandile S. Mthimkhulu


Woody plant encroachment, a land cover transformation that reduces grassland productivity may influence soil physical properties. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of woody plant encroachment on physical properties of vertic soils in a savanna grassland. In this study, we quantified and compared soil bulk density, aggregate stability and porosity in the top and subsoil of an open and woody encroached savanna grassland. The results revealed that soil bulk density increases, while porosity and mean weight diameter decreases with depth in both open and woody encroached grassland soil. Compared to open grassland, soil bulk density was 11% and 10% greater in the topsoil and subsoil, while porosity was 6% and 9% lower in the topsoil and subsoil of woody encroached grassland. Mean weight diameter, an indicator of soil aggregation increased by 38% only in the subsoil of encroached grasslands due to increasing clay content with depth. These results suggest that woody plant encroachment leads to compaction of vertic soils, which in turn reduces pore size distribution.

Keywords: soil depth, soil physical properties, vertic soils, woody plant encroachment

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
10484 Interaction between River and City Morphology

Authors: Ehsan Abshirini


Rivers as one of the most important topographic factors have played a strategic role not only on the appearance of cities but they also affect the structure and morphology of cities. In this paper author intends to find out how a city in its physical network interacts with a river flowing inside. The pilot study is Angers, a city in western France, in which it is influenced by the Maine River. To this purpose space syntax method integrating with GIS is used to extract the properties of physical form of cities in terms of global and local integration value, accessibility and choice value. Simulating the state of absence of river in this city and comparing the result to the current state of city according to the effect of river on the morphology of areas located in different banks of river is also part of interest in this paper. The results show that although a river is not comparable to the city based on size and the area occupied by, it has a significant effect on the form of the city in both global and local properties. In addition, this study endorses that tracking the effect of river-cities and their interaction to rivers in a hybrid of space syntax and GIS may lead researchers to improve their interpretation of physical form of these types of cities.

Keywords: river-cities, Physical form, space syntax properties, GIS, topographic factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
10483 Date Palm Compreg: A High Quality Bio-Composite of Date Palm Wood

Authors: Mojtaba Soltani, Edi Suhaimi Bakar, Hamid Reza Naji


Date Palm Wood (D.P.W) specimens were impregnated with Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at 15% level, using vacuum/pressure method. Three levels of moisture content (MC) (50%, 60%, and 70% ) before pressing stage and three hot pressing times (15, 20, and 30 minutes) were the variables. The boards were prepared at 20% compression rate. The physical properties of specimens such as spring back, thickness swelling and water absorption, and mechanical properties including MOR, MOE were studied and compared between variables. The results indicated that the percentage of MC levels before compression set was the main factor on the properties of the Date Palm Compreg. Also, the results showed that this compregnation method can be used as a good method for making high-quality bio-composite from Date Palm Wood.

Keywords: Date palm, phenol formaldehyde resin, high-quality bio-composite, physical and mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 224