Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 854

Search results for: magnesium alloy

854 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: C. H. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, G. A. Lee


Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.

Keywords: extrusion, extrusion ratio, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material

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853 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško


The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

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852 Influence of Titanium Addition on Wear Properties of AM60 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Zengin, M. E. Turan, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci, Y. Sun


This study aimed for improving wear resistance of AM60 magnesium alloy by Ti addition (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1wt%Ti). An electric resistance furnace was used to produce alloys. Pure Mg together with Al, Al-Ti and Al-Mn were melted at 750 0C in a stainless steel crucible under controlled Ar gas atmosphere and then poured into a metal mould preheated at 250 0C. Microstructure characterizations were performed by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) after the wear test. Wear rates and friction coefficients were measured with a pin-on-disk type UTS-10 Tribometer test device under a load of 20N. The results showed that Ti addition altered the morphology and the amount of b-Mg17Al12 phase in the microstructure of AM60 alloy. b-Mg17Al12 phases on the grain boundaries were refined with increasing amount of Ti. An improvement in wear resistance of AM60 alloy was observed due to the alteration in the microstructure by Ti addition.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, titanium, SEM, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
851 Evaluation of Formability of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Ramezani M., Neitzert T.


This paper investigates mechanical properties and formability of the AZ61 magnesium alloy at high temperatures. Tensile tests were performed at elevated temperatures of up to 400ºC. The results showed that as temperature increases, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease significantly, while the material experiences an increase in ductility (maximum elongation before break). A finite element model has been developed to further investigate the formability of the AZ61 alloy by deep drawing a square cup. Effects of different process parameters such as punch and die geometry, forming speed and temperature as well as blank-holder force on deep drawability of the AZ61 alloy were studied and optimum values for these parameters are achieved which can be used as a design guide for deep drawing of this alloy.

Keywords: AZ61, formability, magnesium, mechanical properties

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850 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül


The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited an amorphous and rougher structure.

Keywords: magnesium, electroless Ni–B, X-ray diffraction, amorphous

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849 Wear Behaviors of B4C and SiC Particle Reinforced AZ91 Magnesium Matrix Metal Composites

Authors: M. E. Turan, H. Zengin, E. Cevik, Y. Sun, Y. Turen, H. Ahlatci


In this study, the effects of B4C and SiC particle reinforcements on wear properties of magnesium matrix metal composites produced by pressure infiltration method were investigated. AZ91 (9%Al-1%Zn) magnesium alloy was used as a matrix. AZ91 magnesium alloy was melted under an argon atmosphere. The melt was infiltrated to the particles with an appropriate pressure. Wear tests, hardness tests were performed respectively. Microstructure characterizations were examined by light optical (LOM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that uniform particle distributions were achieved in both B4C and SiC reinforced composites. Wear behaviors of magnesium matrix metal composites changed as a function of type of particles. SiC reinforced composite has better wear performance and higher hardness than B4C reinforced composite.

Keywords: magnesium matrix composite, pressure infiltration, SEM, wear

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848 Using the Micro Computed Tomography to Study the Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy at Different pH Values

Authors: Chia-Jung Chang, Sheng-Che Chen, Ming-Long Yeh, Chih-Wei Wang, Chih-Han Chang


Introduction and Motivation: In recent years, magnesium alloy is used to be a kind of medical biodegradable materials. Magnesium is an essential element in the body and is efficiently excreted by the kidneys. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of magnesium alloy is closest to human bone. However, in some cases magnesium alloy corrodes so quickly that it would release hydrogen on surface of implant. The other product is hydroxide ion, it can significantly increase the local pH value. The above situations may have adverse effects on local cell functions. On the other hand, nowadays magnesium alloy corrode too fast to maintain the function of implant until the healing of tissue. Therefore, much recent research about magnesium alloy has focused on controlling the corrosion rate. The in vitro corrosion behavior of magnesium alloys is affected by many factors, and pH value is one of factors. In this study, we will study on the influence of pH value on the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy by the Micro-CT (micro computed tomography) and other instruments.Material and methods: In the first step, we make some guiding plates for specimens of magnesium alloy AZ91 by Rapid Prototyping. The guiding plates are able to be a standard for the degradation of specimen, so that we can use it to make sure the position of specimens in the CT image. We can also simplify the conditions of degradation by the guiding plates.In the next step, we prepare the solution with different pH value. And then we put the specimens into the solution to start the corrosion test. The CT image, surface photographs and weigh are measured on every twelve hours. Results: In the primary results of the test, we make sure that CT image can be a way to quantify the corrosion behavior of magnesium alloy. Moreover we can observe the phenomenon that corrosion always start from some erosion point. It’s possibly based on some defect like dislocations and the voids with high strain energy in the materials. We will deal with the raw data into Mass Loss (ML) and corrosion rate by CT image, surface photographs and weigh in the near future. Having a simple prediction, the pH value and degradation rate will be negatively correlated. And we want to find out the equation of the pH value and corrosion rate. We also have a simple test to simulate the change of the pH value in the local region. In this test the pH value will rise to 10 in a short time. Conclusion: As a biodegradable implant for the area with stagnating body fluid flow in the human body, magnesium alloy can cause the increase of local pH values and release the hydrogen. Those may damage the human cell. The purpose of this study is finding out the equation of the pH value and corrosion rate. After that we will try to find the ways to overcome the limitations of medical magnesium alloy.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, biodegradable materials, corrosion, micro-CT

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847 Jump-Like Deformation of Ultrafinegrained AZ31 at Temperature 4,2 - 0,5 K

Authors: Pavel Zabrodin


The drawback of magnesium alloys is poor plasticity, which complicates the forming. Effective way of improving the properties of the cast magnesium alloy AZ31 (3 wt. % Al, 0.8 wt. % Zn, 0.2 wt. % Mn)) is to combine hot extrusion at 350°C and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 180°C. Because of reduced grain sizes, changes in the nature of the grain boundaries, and enhancement of a texture that favors basal dislocation glide, after this kind of processing, increase yield stress and ductility. For study of the effect of microstructure on the mechanisms for plastic deformation, there is some interest in investigating the mechanical properties of the ultrafinegrained (UFG) Mg alloy at low temperatures, before and after annealing. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation the Mg alloy of dependent on microstructure. Reduction of the average density of dislocations and grain growth during annealing causing a reduction in the amplitude of the jump-like deformation and changes in the distribution of surges in amplitude. It found that the amplitude and statistics at the low-temperature jump-like deformation UFG alloy dependent on temperature of deformation. Plastic deformation of UFG alloy at a temperature of 10 K occurs uniformly - peculiarities is not observed. Increasing of the temperature of deformation from 4,2 to 0,5 K is causing a reduction in the amplitude and increasing the frequency of the jump-like deformation.

Keywords: jump-like deformation, low temperature, plasticity, magnesium alloy

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846 Effect of Zirconium (Zr) Amount on Mechanical and Metallurgical Behavior of ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Emrah Yaliniz, Ali Kalkanli


ZE41A magnesium alloy has been extensively used in aerospace industry, especially for use in rotorcraft transmission casings. Due to the improved mechanical properties, the latest generation of magnesium casting alloy EV31A-T6 (Elektron 21® specified in AMS 4429) is seen as a potential replacement for ZE41A in terms of strength. Therefore, the necessity of enhancement has been arisen for ZE41A in order to avoid fully replacement. The main element affecting the strength of ZE41A is Zirconium (Zr), which acts as a grain refiner. The specified range of Zr element for ZE41A alloy is between 0.4 wt % and 1.0 wt % (unless otherwise stated by weight percentage after this point) as stated in AMS 4439. This paper investigates the effects of Zr amount on tensile and metallurgical properties of ZE41A magnesium alloy. The Zr alloying amount for the research has been chosen as 0.5 % and 1 %, which are standard amounts in a commercial alloy (average of 0.4-0.6%) and maximum percent in the standard, separately. 1 % Zr amount has been achieved via Zirmax (66.7 Mg-33.3 Zr) master alloy addition. The ultimate tensile strength of ZE41A with 1% Zr has been increased up to about 220-225 MPa in comparison to 200 MPa given in AMS 4439. The reason for the increase in strength with the addition of Zirmax is based on the decrease in grain size, which was measured about 30 µm. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to detect the change in the microstructural futures via alloying. The zirconium rich coring at the center of the grains was observed in addition to the grain boundary intermetallic phases and bulk Mg-rich matrix. The solidification characteristics were also identified by using the cooling curve obtained from the sand casting mold during cooling of the alloys.

Keywords: aerospace, grain refinement, magnesium, sand casting, ZE41A

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845 Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Joints of Cast Al-Mg-Sc Alloy

Authors: K. Subbaiah, C. V. Jeyakumar, S. R. Koteswara Rao


Cast Aluminum-Magnesium-Scandium alloy was Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welded, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint and its component parts were examined and analyzed. The global joint fractured in the base metal, and thus possessed slightly greater tensile strength than the base metal. These results clearly show that Gas Tungsten Arc welding is an optimum / suitable welding process for cast Aluminum-Magnesium-Scandium alloys.

Keywords: cast Al-Mg-Sc alloy, GTAW, microstructure, mechanical properties

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844 Inoculation of Aerospace Grade Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Cast Magnesium Alloy with Carbon Nanopowder

Authors: Spartak Makovskyi, Volodymir Klochykhin, Valery Zakharchenko, Konstantyn Balushok, Eduard Tsyvirko, Anatoly Shalomeyev


A highly efficient, cost-effective grain refinement technique for ML5 magnesium alloy with a commercially pure carbon nanopowder has been proposed. An experimental casting of testing specimens with incremental additions of a carbon nanopowder (0.001 - 0.1 wt.% ) was performed. It has been found that the carbon nanoparticle inoculation of the alloy structure is efficient in a narrow concentration range. The additions of 0.005-0.01 wt. % the grain refiner in the alloy resulted in a maximum increase of ductility properties (appr. Twofold) and improved tensile strength. However, further expansion of the grain refiner content led to the deterioration of the alloy's mechanical properties. In particular, the introduction of 0.1 wt.% of the nanocarbon and more caused internal defects in the metal. The carbon nanoparticle inoculation is a promising way of improving the properties of the Mg-Al-Zn alloys for critical lightweight aerospace applications on an industrial scale.

Keywords: carbon nanopowder, inoculation, melt, tensile strength

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843 The Effect of the Weld Current Types on Microstructure and Hardness in Tungsten Inert Gas Welding of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Authors: Bilge Demir, Ahmet Durgutlu, Mustafa Acarer


In this study, the butt welding of the commercial AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets have been carried out by using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding process with alternative and pulsed current. Welded samples were examined with regards to hardness and microstructure. Despite some recent developments in welding of magnesium alloys, they have some problems such as porosity, hot cracking, oxide formation and so on. Samples of the welded parts have undergone metallographic and mechanical examination. Porosities and homogeneous micron grain oxides were rarely observed. Orientations of the weld microstructure in terms of heat transfer also were rarely observed and equiaxed grain morphology was dominant grain structure as in the base metal. As results, fusion zone and few locations of the HAZ of the welded samples have shown twin’s grains. Hot cracking was not observed for any samples. Weld bead geometry of the welded samples were evaluated as normal according to welding parameters. In the results, conditions of alternative and pulsed current and the samples were compared to each other with regards to microstructure and hardness.

Keywords: AZ31 magnesium alloy, microstructures, micro hardness TIG welding

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842 Melt Conditioned-Twin Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Sanjeev Das


In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. The microstructures showed uniform fine equiaxed grain morphology in the case of MC-TRC cast samples. In the case of TRC samples elongated grains with centerline segregation was observed. Further investigation showed both the process has different solidification mechanism. Tensile tests were performed at 250–400ºC for both TRC and MCTRC samples. At 250ºC, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. It was observed that homogenized MC-TRC samples were easily hot stamped compared to TRC samples.

Keywords: MC-TRC, magnesium alloy, solidification, nucleation

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841 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan


The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: energy, electrodialysis, magnesium, new technology

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840 Effect of Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Abdolvand, M. Riazat, H. Sohrabi, G. Faraji


An experimental investigation into the Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) process on AZ31 magnesium alloy is studied. Microstructures and grain size distribution of the specimens before and after TBE process are investigated by optical microscopy. Tensile and Vickers microhardness tests along extrusion direction were performed at room temperature. It is found that the average grain size is refined remarkably from the initial 33 µm down to 3.5 µm after TBE process. Also, the microhardness increased significantly to 58 HV after the process from an initial value of 36 HV.

Keywords: tube backward extrusion, AZ31, grain size distribution, grain refinement

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839 Development of A MG-Gd-Er-Zn-Zr Alloy with Ultrahigh Strength and Ductility via Extrusion, Pre-Deformation, and Two-Stage Aging

Authors: Linyue Jia, Wenbo Du, Zhaohui Wang, Ke Liu, Shubo Li


Due to the great potential for weight reduction in aerospace and automotive industries, magnesium-rare earth (Mg-RE) based alloys with outstanding mechanical performance have been widely investigated for decades. However, magnesium alloys are still restricted in engineering applications because of their lower strength and ductility. Hence, there are large spaces and challenges in achieving high-performance Mg alloys. This work reports an Mg-Gd-Er-Zn-Zr alloy with ultrahigh strength and good ductility developed via hot extrusion, pre-deformation, and two-stage aging. The extruded alloy comprises fine dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grains and coarse worked grains with a large aspect ratio. Pre-deformation has little effect on the microstructure and macro-texture and serves primarily to introduce a large number of dislocations, resulting in strain hardening and higher precipitation strengthening during subsequent aging due to more nucleation sites. As a result, the alloy exhibits a yield strength (YS) of 506 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 549 MPa, and elongation (EL) of 8.2% at room temperature, showing superior strength-ductility balance than the other wrought Mg-RE alloys previously reported. The current study proposes a combination of pre-deformation and two-stage aging to further improve the mechanical properties of wrought Mg alloys for engineering applications.

Keywords: magnesium alloys, mechanical properties, microstructure, pre-deformation, two-stage aging

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838 Enhancement of Mechanical and Dissolution Properties of a Cast Magnesium Alloy via Equal Angular Channel Processing

Authors: Tim Dunne, Jiaxiang Ren, Lei Zhao, Peng Cheng, Yi Song, Yu Liu, Wenhan Yue, Xiongwen Yang


Two decades of the Shale Revolution has transforming transformed the global energy market, in part by the adaption of multi-stage dissolvable frac plugs. Magnesium has been favored for the bulk of plugs, requiring development of materials to suit specific field requirements. Herein, the mechanical and dissolution results from equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) of two cast dissolvable magnesium alloy are described. ECAP was selected as a route to increase the mechanical properties of two formulations of dissolvable magnesium, as solutionizing failed. In this study, 1” square cross section samples cast Mg alloys formulations containing rare earth were processed at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350 °C, at a rate of 0.005”/s, with a backpressure from 0 to 70 MPa, in a brass, or brass + graphite sheet. Generally, the yield and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) doubled for all. For formulation DM-2, the yield increased from 100 MPa to 250 MPa; UTS from 175 MPa to 325 MPa, but the strain fell from 2 to 1%. Formulation DM-3 yield increased from 75 MPa to 200 MPa, UTS from 150 MPa to 275 MPa, with strain increasing from 1 to 3%. Meanwhile, ECAP has also been found to reduce the dissolution rate significantly. A microstructural analysis showed grain refinement of the alloy and the movement of secondary phases away from the grain boundary. It is believed that reconfiguration of the grain boundary phases increased the mechanical properties and decreased the dissolution rate. ECAP processing of dissolvable high rare earth content magnesium is possible despite the brittleness of the material. ECAP is a possible processing route to increase mechanical properties for dissolvable aluminum alloys that do not extrude.

Keywords: equal channel angular processing, dissolvable magnesium, frac plug, mechanical properties

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837 Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Nonflammable Mg Alloy

Authors: Myoung-Gon Yoon, Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha


Tensile specimens of nonflammable AZ91D Mg alloy were fabricated in this study via cold chamber die-casting process. Dimensions of tensile specimens were 25mm in length, 4mm in width, and 0.8 or 3.0mm in thickness. Microstructure observation was conducted before and after tensile tests at room temperature. In the die casting process, various injection distances from 150 to 260mm were employed to obtain optimum process conditions. Distribution of Al12Mg17 phase was the key factor to determine the mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy. Specimens with 3mm of thickness showed superior mechanical properties to those with 0.8mm of thickness. Closed networking of Al12Mg17 phase along grain boundary was found to be detrimental to mechanical properties of die-cast Mg alloy.

Keywords: non-flammable magnesium alloy, AZ91D, die-casting, microstructure, mechanical properties

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836 Properties of Magnesium-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloy Added with Palladium and Titanium Hydride

Authors: Jun Ying Lin, Tzu Hsiang Yen, Cha'o Kuang Chen


Nowadays, the great majority believe that there is great potentiality in hydrogen storage alloy storing hydrogen by physical and chemical absorption. However, the hydrogen storage alloy is limited by high operation temperature. Scientists find that adding transition elements can improve the properties of hydrogen storage alloy. In this research, outstanding improvements of kinetic and thermal properties are given by the addition of Palladium and Titanium hydride to Magnesium-based hydrogen storage alloy. Magnesium-based alloy is the main material, into which TiH2 / Pd are added separately. Following that, materials are milled by a Planetary Ball Miller at 650 rpm. TGA/DSC and PCT measure the capacity, spending time and temperature of abs/des-orption. Additionally, SEM and XRD analyze the structures and components of material. It is clearly shown that Pd is beneficial to kinetic properties. 2MgH2-0.1Pd has the highest capacity of all the alloys listed, approximately 5.5 wt%. Secondly, there are not any new Ti-related compounds found from XRD analysis. Thus, TiH2, considered as the catalyst, leads to the condition of 2MgH2-TiH2 and 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd efficiently absorbing hydrogen in low temperature. 2MgH2-TiH2 can reach roughly 3.0 wt% in 82.4 minutes at 50°C and 8 minutes at 100°C, while2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd can reach 2.0 wt% in 400 minutes at 50°C and in 48 minutes at 100°C. The lowest temperature of 2MgH2-0.1Pd and 2MgH2-TiH2 is similar (320°C), otherwise the lowest temperature of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd decrease by 20°C. From XRD, it can be observed that PdTi2 and Pd3Ti are produced by mechanical alloying when adding Pd as well as TiH2 into MgH2. Due to the synergistic effects between Pd and TiH2, 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd owns the lowest dehydrogenation temperature. Furthermore, the Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) curve of 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd is measured at different temperature, 370°C, 350°C, 320°C and 300°C separately. The plateau pressure is given form the PCT curves above. In accordance to different plateau pressures, enthalpy and entropy in the Van’t Hoff equation can be solved. In 2MgH2-TiH2-0.1Pd, the enthalpy is 74.9 KJ/mol and the entropy is 122.9 J/mol. Activation means that hydrogen storage alloy undergoes repeat abs/des-orpting processes. It plays an important role in the abs/des-orption. Activation shortens the abs/des-orption time because of the increase in surface area. From SEM, it is clear that the grain size and surface become smaller and rougher

Keywords: hydrogen storage materials, magnesium hydride, abs-/des-orption performance, Plateau pressure

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835 Tensile and Fracture Properties of Cast and Forged Composite Synthesized by Addition of in-situ Generated Al3Ti-Al2O3 Particles to Magnesium

Authors: H. M. Nanjundaswamy, S. K. Nath, S. Ray


TiO2 particles have been added in molten aluminium to result in aluminium based cast Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite, which has been added then to molten magnesium to synthesize magnesium based cast Mg-Al/Al3Ti-Al2O3 composite. The nominal compositions in terms of Mg, Al, and TiO2 contents in the magnesium based composites are Mg-9Al-0.6TiO2, Mg-9Al-0.8TiO2, Mg-9Al-1.0TiO2 and Mg-9Al-1.2TiO2 designated respectively as MA6T, MA8T, MA10T and MA12T. The microstructure of the cast magnesium based composite shows grayish rods of intermetallics Al3Ti, inherited from aluminium based composite but these rods, on hot forging, breaks into smaller lengths decreasing the average aspect ratio (length to diameter) from 7.5 to 3.0. There are also cavities in between the broken segments of rods. β-phase in cast microstructure, Mg17Al12, dissolves during heating prior to forging and re-precipitates as relatively finer particles on cooling. The amount of β-phase also decreases on forging as segregation is removed. In both the cast and forged composite, the Brinell hardness increases rapidly with increasing addition of TiO2 but the hardness is higher in forged composites by about 80 BHN. With addition of higher level of TiO2 in magnesium based cast composite, yield strength decreases progressively but there is marginal increase in yield strength over that of the cast Mg-9 wt. pct. Al, designated as MA alloy. But the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) in the cast composites decreases with the increasing particle content indicating possibly an early initiation of crack in the brittle inter-dendritic region and their easy propagation through the interfaces of the particles. In forged composites, there is a significant improvement in both yield strength and UTS with increasing TiO2 addition and also, over those observed in their cast counterpart, but at higher addition it decreases. It may also be noted that as in forged MA alloy, incomplete recovery of forging strain increases the strength of the matrix in the composites and the ductility decreases both in the forged alloy and the composites. Initiation fracture toughness, JIC, decreases drastically in cast composites compared to that in MA alloy due to the presence of intermetallic Al3Ti and Al2O3 particles in the composite. There is drastic reduction of JIC on forging both in the alloy and the composites, possibly due to incomplete recovery of forging strain in both as well as breaking of Al3Ti rods and the voids between the broken segments of Al3Ti rods in composites. The ratio of tearing modulus to elastic modulus in cast composites show higher ratio, which increases with the increasing TiO2 addition. The ratio decreases comparatively more on forging of cast MA alloy than those in forged composites.

Keywords: composite, fracture toughness, forging, tensile properties

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834 Residual Stresses and Crystallographic Texture of Magnesium AZ31-C Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW)

Authors: A. Kouadri-Henni, L. Barrallier


The objective of the study was to characterize the properties of a magnesium alloy welded by friction stir welding (FSW). The results led to a better understanding of the relationship between this process, the microstructure and anisotropic properties of alloy materials. Welding principally leads to a large reduction in grain size in welded zones due to the phenomenon of dynamic recrystallization. The most remarkable observation was that crystallographic textures changed from a base metal with one texture in two zones: the thermo-mechanically affected and stir welded zones. The latter zone has the peculiarity of possessing a marked texture with two components on the basal plane and the pyramidal plane. These characteristics disappeared in the TMAZ, which had only one component following the basal plane. These modifications have been explained by the nature of the plastic deformation in these zones, which occurs at a moderate temperature in the TMAZ and high temperature in the SWZ. In the same time, we compared this evolution with the nature and the level of the residual stresses obtained by X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: texture christallography, residual stresses, FSW process

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833 Microstructure Study of Melt Spun Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀

Authors: Michael Regev, Shai Essel, Alexander Katz-Demyanetz


Magnesium alloys are characterized by good physical properties: They exhibit high strength, are lightweight and have good damping absorption and good thermal and electrical conductivity. Amorphous magnesium alloys, moreover, exhibit higher strength, hardness and a large elastic domain in addition to having excellent corrosion resistance. These above-mentioned advantages make magnesium based metallic glasses attractive for industrial use. Among the various existing magnesium alloys, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ alloy is known to be one of the best glass formers. In the current study, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ ribbons were produced by melt spinning, their microstructure was investigated in its as-cast condition, after pressing under 0.5 GPa for 5 minutes under different temperatures - RT, 500C, 1000C, 1500C and 2000C - and after five minute exposure to the above temperatures without pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC studies showed that the as-cast material had an amorphous character and that the material crystallized during exposure to temperature with or without applying stress. HRTEM revealed that the as-cast Mg65Cu25Y10, although known to be one of the best glass formers, is nano-crystalline rather than amorphous. The current study casts light on the question what an amorphous alloy is and whether there is any clear borderline between amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys.

Keywords: metallic glass, magnesium, melt spinning, amorphous alloys

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832 Low Plastic Deformation Energy to Induce High Superficial Strain on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Authors: Emigdio Mendoza, Patricia Fernandez, Cristian Gomez


Magnesium alloys have generated great interest for several industrial applications because their high specific strength and low density make them a very attractive alternative for the manufacture of various components; however, these alloys present a limitation with their hexagonal crystal structure that limits the deformation mechanisms at room temperature likewise the molding components alternatives, it is for this reason that severe plastic deformation processes have taken a huge relevance recently because these, allow high deformation rates to be applied that induce microstructural changes where the deficiency in the sliding systems is compensated with crystallographic grains reorientations or crystal twinning. The present study reports a statistical analysis of process temperature, number of passes and shear angle with respect to the shear stress in severe plastic deformation process denominated 'Equal Channel Angular Sheet Drawing (ECASD)' applied to the magnesium alloy AZ31B through Python Statsmodels libraries, additionally a Post-Hoc range test is performed using the Tukey statistical test. Statistical results show that each variable has a p-value lower than 0.05, which allows comparing the average values of shear stresses obtained, which are in the range of 7.37 MPa to 12.23 MPa, lower values in comparison to others severe plastic deformation processes reported in the literature, considering a value of 157.53 MPa as the average creep stress for AZ31B alloy. However, a higher stress level is required when the sheets are processed using a shear angle of 150°, due to a higher level of adjustment applied for the shear die of 150°. Temperature and shear passes are important variables as well, but there is no significant impact on the level of stress applied during the ECASD process. In the processing of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets, ECASD technique is evidenced as a viable alternative in the modification of the elasto-plastic properties of this alloy, promoting the weakening of the basal texture, which means, a better response to deformation, whereby, during the manufacture of parts by drawing or stamping processes the formation of cracks on the surface can be reduced, presenting an adequate mechanical performance.

Keywords: plastic deformation, strain, sheet drawing, magnesium

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831 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang


Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

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830 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: N. H. Othman, N. Udin, M. Ishak, L. H. Shah


This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: friction stir welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio

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829 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Elena Pello, Martin Bobak, Yuri Nikitin


In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: dietary, magnesium, hypertension, lipids

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828 Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys with Addition of Rare Earth Elements for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen


Biodegradable metallic materials such as magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have attracted extensive interest for use as bone implant materials. However, the high biodegradation rate of existing Mg alloys in the physiological environment of human body leads to losing mechanical integrity before adequate bone healing and producing a large volume of hydrogen gas. Therefore, slowing down the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys is a critical task in developing new biodegradable Mg alloy implant materials. One of the most effective approaches to achieve this is to strategically design new Mg alloys with low biodegradation rate, excellent biocompatibility, and enhanced mechanical properties. Our research selected biocompatible and biofunctional alloying elements such as zirconium (Zr), strontium (Sr), and rare earth elements (REEs) to alloy Mg and has developed a new series of Mg-Zr-Sr-REEs alloys for biodegradable implant applications. Research results indicated that Sr and Zr additions could refine the grain size, decrease the biodegradation rate, and enhance the biological behaviors of the Mg alloys. The REE addition, such as holmium (Ho) and dysprosium (Dy) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased biodegradation rate. In addition, Ho and Dy additions (≤ 5 wt.%) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho/Dy alloys.

Keywords: biocompatibility, magnesium, mechanical and biodegrade properties, rare earth elements

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827 Mechanical Properties of Powder Metallurgy Processed Biodegradable Zn-Based Alloy for Biomedical Application

Authors: Maruf Yinka Kolawole, Jacob Olayiwola Aweda, Farasat Iqbal, Asif Ali, Sulaiman Abdulkareem


Zinc is a non-ferrous metal with potential application in orthopaedic implant materials. However, its poor mechanical properties were major challenge to its application. Therefore, this paper studies the mechanical properties of biodegradable Zn-based alloy for biomedical application. Pure zinc powder with varying (0, 1, 2, 3 & 6) wt% of magnesium powders were ball milled using ball-to-powder ratio (B:P) of 10:1 at 350 rpm for 4 hours. The resulting milled powders were compacted and sintered at 300 MPa and 350 °C respectively. Microstructural, phase and mechanical properties analyses were performed following American standard of testing and measurement. The results show that magnesium has influence on the mechanical properties of zinc. The compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus of 210 ± 8.878 MPa, 76 ± 5.707 HV and 45 ± 11.616 GPa respectively as obtained in Zn-2Mg alloy were optimum and meet the minimum requirement of biodegradable metal for orthopaedics application. These results indicate an increase of 111, 93 and 93% in compressive strength, hardness and elastic modulus respectively as compared to pure zinc. The increase in mechanical properties was adduced to effectiveness of compaction pressure and intermetallic phase formation within the matrix resulting in high dislocation density for improving strength. The study concluded that, Zn-2Mg alloy with optimum mechanical properties can therefore be considered a potential candidate for orthopaedic application.

Keywords: Biodegradable metal, Biomedical application, Mechanical properties, Powder Metallurgy, Zinc

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826 Synthesis of Magnesium Borates from the Slurries of Magnesium Wastes by Microwave Energy

Authors: N. Tugrul, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin


In this research, it is aimed not only microwave synthesis of magnesium borates but also evaluation of magnesium wastes. Synthesis process can be described with the reaction of Mg wastes and boric acid using microwave energy. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were applied to synthesized minerals. According to XRD results, magnesium borate hydrate mixtures were obtained as mcallisterite (pdf# = 01-070-1902, Mg2(B6O7(OH)6)2.9(H2O)) at higher crystallinity properties was achieved at the mole ratio raw material 1:1. Also, other kinds of magnesium borate hydrates were obtained at lower crystallinity such as admontite (pdf # = 01-076-0540, MgO(B2O3)3.7(H2O)), inderite (pdf # = 01-072-2308, 2MgO.3B2O3.15(H2O)) and magnesium borate hydrates (pdf # = 01-076-0539, MgO(B2O3)3.6(H2O)). FT-IR spectrums indicated that minor changes were seen at the band values of characteristic stretching in each experiment. At the end of experiments it is seen that using microwave energy may contribute positive effects to design of synthesis process such as reducing reaction time and products at higher crystallinity.

Keywords: magnesium wastes, boric acid, magnesium borate, microwave energy

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825 Potentiostatic Growth of Hazenite Mineral Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in 0.1 M K₂HPO₄/0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ Solution

Authors: Liping Wu, Durga Bhakta Pokharel, Junhua Dong, Changgang Wang, Lin Zhao, Wei Ke, Nan Chen


Hazenite conversion coating was deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy in a deaerated phosphate solution containing 0.1 M K₂HPO₄ and 0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ (Na₀.₁K0₀.₁) with pH 9 at −0.8 V. The coating mechanism of hazenite was elucidated by in situ potentiostatic current decay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The volume of H₂ evolved during potentiostatic polarization was measured by a gas collection apparatus. The degradation resistance of the hazenite coating was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37℃ by using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The results showed that amorphous Mg(OH)₂ was deposited first, followed by the transformation of Mg(OH)₂ to amorphous MgHPO₄, subsequently the conversion of MgHPO₄ to crystallized K-struvite (KMgPO₄·6H₂O), finally the crystallization of crystallized hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The deposited coating was composed of four layers where the inner layer is comprised of Mg(OH)₂, the middle layer of Mg(OH)₂ and MgHPO₄, the top layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄ and K-struvite, the topmost layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄, K-struvite and hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The PD results showed that the hazenite coating decreased the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, potentiostatic technique, hazenite, mineral conversion coating

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