Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 175

Search results for: rolling

175 Prediction of Rolling Forces and Real Exit Thickness of Strips in the Cold Rolling by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Heydari Vini

Abstract:

There is a complicated relation between effective input parameters of cold rolling and output rolling force and exit thickness of strips.in many mathematical models, the effect of some rolling parameters have been ignored and the outputs have not a desirable accuracy. In the other hand, there is a special relation among input thickness of strips,the width of the strips,rolling speeds,mandrill tensions and the required exit thickness of strips with rolling force and the real exit thickness of the rolled strip. First of all, in this paper the effective parameters of cold rolling process modeled using an artificial neural network according to the optimum network achieved by using a written program in MATLAB,it has been shown that the prediction of rolling stand parameters with different properties and new dimensions attained from prior rolled strips by an artificial neural network is applicable.

Keywords: cold rolling, artificial neural networks, rolling force, real rolled thickness of strips

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
174 Compare Hot Forming and Cold Forming in Rolling Process

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh

Abstract:

In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. This article describes the use of advanced tubing inspection NDT methods for boiler and heat exchanger equipment in the petrochemical industry to supplement major turnaround inspections. The methods presented include remote field eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, internal rotary inspection system and eddy current.

Keywords: hot forming, cold forming, metal, rolling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
173 Influence of Different Asymmetric Rolling Processes on Shear Strain

Authors: Alexander Pesin, Denis Pustovoytov, Mikhail Sverdlik

Abstract:

Materials with ultrafine-grained structure and unique physical and mechanical properties can be obtained by methods of severe plastic deformation, which include processes of asymmetric rolling (AR). Asymmetric rolling is a very effective way to create ultrafine-grained structures of metals and alloys. Since the asymmetric rolling is a continuous process, it has great potential for industrial production of ultrafine-grained structure sheets. Basic principles of asymmetric rolling are described in detail in scientific literature. In this work finite element modeling of asymmetric rolling and metal forming processes in multiroll gauge was performed. Parameters of the processes which allow achieving significant values of shear strain were defined. The results of the study will be useful for the research of the evolution of ultra-fine metal structure in asymmetric rolling.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, equivalent strain, FEM, multiroll gauge, profile, severe plastic deformation, shear strain, sheet

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
172 A Hybrid Derivative-Free Optimization Method for Pass Schedule Calculation in Cold Rolling Mill

Authors: Mohammadhadi Mirmohammadi, Reza Safian, Hossein Haddad

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative solution for complex multi-objective optimization problem which is a part of efforts toward maximizing rolling mill throughput and minimizing processing costs in tandem cold rolling. This computational intelligence based optimization has been applied to the rolling schedules of tandem cold rolling mill. This method involves the combination of two derivative-free optimization procedures in the form of nested loops. The first optimization loop is based on Improving Hit and Run method which focus on balance of power, force and reduction distribution in rolling schedules. The second loop is a real-coded genetic algorithm based optimization procedure which optimizes energy consumption and productivity. An experimental result of application to five stand tandem cold rolling mill is presented.

Keywords: derivative-free optimization, Improving Hit and Run method, real-coded genetic algorithm, rolling schedules of tandem cold rolling mill

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
171 Study on Roll Marks of Stainless Steel in Rolling Mill

Authors: Cai-Wan Chang-Jian, Han-Ting Tsai

Abstract:

In the processing industry of metal forming, rolling is the most used method of processing. In a cold rolling factory of stainless steel, there occurs a product defect on temper rolling process within cold rolling. It is called 'roll marks', which is a phenomenon of undesirable flatness problem. In this research, we performed a series of experimental measurements on the roll marks, and we used optical sensors to measure it and compared the vibration frequency of roll marks with the vibration frequency of key components in the skin pass mill. We found there is less correlation between the above mentioned data. Finally, we took measurement on the motor driver in rolling mill. We found that the undulation frequency of motor could match with the frequency of roll marks, and then we have confirmed that the motor’s undulation caused roll marks.

Keywords: roll mark, plane strain, rolling mill, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
170 Finite Element Modeling of Influence of Roll Form of Vertical Scale Breaker on Decreased Formation of Surface Defects during Roughing Hot Rolling

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, M. Sverdlik

Abstract:

During production of rolled steel strips the quality of the surface of finished strips influences steel consumption considerably. The most critical areas for crack formation during rolling are lateral sides of slabs. Deformation behaviors of the slab edge in roughing rolling process were analyzed by the finite element method with Deform-3D. In this study our focus is the analysis of the influence of edger’s form on the possibility to decrease surface cracking during roughing hot rolling.

Keywords: roughing hot rolling, FEM, crack, bulging

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
169 Analysis of the Strip Shape and Microstructure with Consideration of Roll Crossing and Shifting

Authors: Z. Y. Jiang, H. B. Tibar, A. Aljabri

Abstract:

Optimisation of the physical and mechanical properties of cold rolled thin strips is achieved by controlling the rolling parameters. In this paper, the factors affecting the asymmetrical cold rolling of thin low carbon steel strip have been studied at a speed ratio of 1.1 without lubricant applied. The effect of rolling parameters on the resulting microstructure was also investigated. It was found that under dry condition, work roll shifting and work roll cross angle can improve the strip profile, and the result is more significant with an increase of work roll cross angle rather than that of work roll shifting. However, there was no obvious change in microstructure. In addition, effects of rolling parameters on strip profile and microstructure have also been discussed.

Keywords: rolling speed ratio, microstructure, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
168 Effect of Rolling Parameters on Thin Strip Profile in Cold Rolling

Authors: H. B. Tibar, Z. Y. Jiang

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of rolling process parameters such as the work roll cross angle and work roll shifting value on the strip shape and profile of aluminum have been investigated under dry conditions at a speed ratio of 1.3 using Hille 100 experimental mill. The strip profile was found to improve significantly with increase in work roll cross angle from 0o to 1o, with an associated decrease in rolling force. The effect of roll shifting (from 0 to 8mm) was not as significant as the roll cross angle. However, an increase in work roll shifting value achieved a similar decrease in rolling force as that of work roll cross angle. The effect of work roll shifting was also found to be maximum at an optimum roll speed of 0.0986 m/s for the desired thickness. Of all these parameters, the most significant effect of the strip shape profile was observed with variation of work roll cross angle. However, the rolling force can be a significantly reduced by either increasing the the work roll cross angle or work roll shifting.

Keywords: rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
167 Fabricating Sheets of Mg-Zn Alloys by Thermomechanical Process

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

In the present study, hot-rolled sheets of Mg-xZn alloy s(x=6, 8, and 10 weight percent) were produced by employing casting, homogenization heat treatment, hot rolling, and annealing processes subsequently. Effect of Zn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Zn alloys were also investigated in each process. Through calculation of phase equilibria of Mg-Zn alloys, solution treatment temperature was decided as temperatures from 350 oC, where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. After solution treatment, hot rolling was successfully conducted by reduction of 60%. Compression and tension tests were carried out at room temperature on the samples as-cast, solution treated, hot-rolled and recrystallized after rolling.

Keywords: Mg-Zn alloy, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hot rolling

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
166 Rolling Contact Fatigue Failure Analysis of Ball Bearing in Gear Box

Authors: Piyas Palit, Urbi Pal, Jitendra Mathur, Santanu Das

Abstract:

Bearing is an important machinery part in the industry. When bearings fail to meet their expected life the consequences are increased downtime, loss of revenue and missed the delivery. This article describes the failure of a gearbox bearing in rolling contact fatigue. The investigation consists of visual observation, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructures using optical microscopes and hardness test. The present study also considers bearing life as well as the operational condition of bearings. Surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life-limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Metallography analysis of crack propagation, crack morphology was also described. Indication of fatigue spalling in the ferrography test was also discussed. The analysis suggested the probable reasons for such kind of failure in operation. This type of spalling occurred due to (1) heavier external loading condition or (2) exceeds its service life.

Keywords: bearing, rolling contact fatigue, bearing life

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
165 Flicker Detection with Motion Tolerance for Embedded Camera

Authors: Jianrong Wu, Xuan Fu, Akihiro Higashi, Zhiming Tan

Abstract:

CMOS image sensors with a rolling shutter are used broadly in the digital cameras embedded in mobile devices. The rolling shutter suffers the flicker artifacts from the fluorescent lamp, and it could be observed easily. In this paper, the characteristics of illumination flicker in motion case were analyzed, and two efficient detection methods based on matching fragment selection were proposed. According to the experimental results, our methods could achieve as high as 100% accuracy in static scene, and at least 97% in motion scene.

Keywords: illumination flicker, embedded camera, rolling shutter, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
164 Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates

Authors: Taher El-Bitar, Maha El-Meligy, Eman El-Shenawy, Almosilhy Almosilhy, Nader Dawood

Abstract:

The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.

Keywords: armor steel, austenitizing, critical transformation temperatures (CTTs), dilatation curve, martensite, quenching, rough and finish rolling processes, soaking, tempering, thermo-mechanical processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
163 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: starvation, lubrication, elliptical contact, traction, minimum film thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
162 Effects of Foam Rolling with Different Application Volumes on the Isometric Force of the Calf Muscle with Consideration of Muscle Activity

Authors: T. Poppendieker, H. Maurer, C. Segieth

Abstract:

Over the past ten years, foam rolling has become a new trend in the fitness and health market. It is also a frequently used technique for self-massage. However, the scope of effects from foam rolling has only recently started to be researched and understood. The focus of this study is to examine the effects of prolonged foam rolling on muscle performance. Isometric muscle force was used as a parameter to determine an improving impact of the myofascial roller in two different application volumes. Besides the maximal muscle force, data were also collected on muscle activation during all tests. Twenty-four (17 females, 7 males) healthy students with an average age of 23.4 ± 2.8 years were recruited. The study followed a cross-over pre-/post design in which the order of conditions was counterbalanced. The subjects performed a one-minute and three-minute foam rolling application set on two separate days. Isometric maximal muscle force of the dominant calf was tested before and after the self-myofascial release application. The statistic software program SPSS 22 was used to analyze the data of the maximal isometric force of the calf muscle by a 2 x 2 (time of measurement x intervention) analysis of variance with repeated measures. The statistic significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Neither for the main effect of time of measurement (F(1,23) = .93, p = .36, f = .20) nor for the interaction of time of measurement x intervention (F(1,23) = 1.99, p = .17, f = 0.29) significant p-values were found. However, the effect size indicates a mean interaction effect with a tendency of greater pre-post improvements under the three-minute foam rolling condition. Changes in maximal force did not correlate with changes in EMG-activity (r = .02, p = .95 in the short and r = -.11, p = .65 in the long rolling condition). Results support findings of previous studies and suggest a positive potential for use of the foam roll as a means for keeping muscle force at least at the same performance level while leading to an increase in flexibility.

Keywords: application volume differences, foam rolling, isometric maximal force, self-myofascial release

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
161 Study of Mini Steel Re-Rolling and Pickling Mills for the Reduction of Accidents and Health Hazards

Authors: S. P. Rana

Abstract:

Objectives: For the manufacture of a very thin strip or a strip with a high-quality finish, the stainless steel sheet that is called billet is re-rolled in re-rolling mill to make stainless steel sheet of 18 gauges. The rolls of re-rolling mill exert tremendous pressure over the sheet and there is likely chance of breaking of stainless steel strip from the sheet. The objective of the study was to minimise the number of accidents in steel re-rolling mills due to ejection of stainless steel strip and to minimize the pollution caused by the pickling process used in these units. Methods: Looking into the high rate of frequency and severity of accidents as well as pollution hazard in re-rolling and pickling mills, it becomes essential to make necessary arrangements for prevention of accidents in such type of industry. The author carried out survey/inspections of a large number of re-rolling and pickling mills and allied units. During the course of inspection, the working of these steel re-rolling and pickling mills was closely studied and monitored. A number of accidents involving re-rolling mills were investigated and subsequently remedial measures to prevent the occurrence of such accidents were suggested. Assessment of occupational safety and health system of these units was carried out and compliance level of the statutory requirements was checked. The workers were medically examined and monitored to ascertain their health conditions. Results: Proper use of safety gadgets by workers, machine guarding and regular training brought down the risk to an acceptable level and discharged effluent pollution was brought down to permissible limits. The fatal accidents have been reduced by 83%. Conclusions: Effective enforcement and implementation of the directions/suggestions given to the managements of such units brought down the no. of accidents to a rational level. The number of fatal accidents has reduced by 83% during the study period. The effective implementation of pollution control device curtailed the pollution level to an acceptable level.

Keywords: re-rolling mill, hazard, accident, health hazards

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
160 On Cold Roll Bonding of Polymeric Films

Authors: Nikhil Padhye

Abstract:

Recently a new phenomenon for bonding of polymeric films in solid-state, at ambient temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymer, has been reported. This is achieved by bulk plastic compression of polymeric films held in contact. Here we analyze the process of cold-rolling of polymeric films via finite element simulations and illustrate a flexible and modular experimental rolling-apparatus that can achieve bonding of polymeric films through cold-rolling. Firstly, the classical theory of rolling a rigid-plastic thin-strip is utilized to estimate various deformation fields such as strain-rates, velocities, loads etc. in rolling the polymeric films at the specified feed-rates and desired levels of thickness-reduction(s). Predicted magnitudes of slow strain-rates, particularly at ambient temperatures during rolling, and moderate levels of plastic deformation (at which Bauschinger effect can be neglected for the particular class of polymeric materials studied here), greatly simplifies the task of material modeling and allows us to deploy a computationally efficient, yet accurate, finite deformation rate-independent elastic-plastic material behavior model (with inclusion of isotropic-hardening) for analyzing the rolling of these polymeric films. The interfacial behavior between the roller and polymer surfaces is modeled using Coulombic friction; consistent with the rate-independent behavior. The finite deformation elastic-plastic material behavior based on (i) the additive decomposition of stretching tensor (D = De + Dp, i.e. a hypoelastic formulation) with incrementally objective time integration and, (ii) multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient (F = FeFp) into elastic and plastic parts, are programmed and carried out for cold-rolling within ABAQUS Explicit. Predictions from both the formulations, i.e., hypoelastic and multiplicative decomposition, exhibit a close match. We find that no specialized hyperlastic/visco-plastic model is required to describe the behavior of the blend of polymeric films, under the conditions described here, thereby speeding up the computation process .

Keywords: Polymer Plasticity, Bonding, Deformation Induced Mobility, Rolling

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
159 Finite Elemental Simulation of the Combined Process of Asymmetric Rolling and Plastic Bending

Authors: A. Pesin, D. Pustovoytov, M. Sverdlik

Abstract:

Traditionally, the need in items represents a large body of rotation (e.g. shrouds of various process units: a converter, a mixer, a scrubber, a steel ladle and etc.) is satisfied by using them at engineering enterprises. At these enterprises large parts of bodies of rotation are made on stamping units or bending and forming machines. In Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University in alliance with JSC "Magnitogorsk Metal and Steel Works" there was suggested and implemented the technology for producing such items based on a combination of asymmetric rolling processes and plastic bending under conditions of the plate mill. In this paper, based on finite elemental mathematical simulation in technology of a combined process of asymmetric rolling and bending plastic has been improved. It is shown that for the same curvature along the entire length of the metal sheet it is necessary to introduce additional asymmetry speed when rolling front end and tape trailer. Production of large bodies of rotation at mill 4500 JSC "Magnitogorsk Metal and Steel Works" showed good convergence of theoretical and experimental values of the curvature of the metal. Economic effect obtained more than 1.0 million dollars.

Keywords: asymmetric rolling, plastic bending, combined process, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
158 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

Abstract:

Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
157 Steady State Rolling and Dynamic Response of a Tire at Low Frequency

Authors: Md Monir Hossain, Anne Staples, Kuya Takami, Tomonari Furukawa

Abstract:

Tire noise has a significant impact on ride quality and vehicle interior comfort, even at low frequency. Reduction of tire noise is especially important due to strict state and federal environmental regulations. The primary sources of tire noise are the low frequency structure-borne noise and the noise that originates from the release of trapped air between the tire tread and road surface during each revolution of the tire. The frequency response of the tire changes at low and high frequency. At low frequency, the tension and bending moment become dominant, while the internal structure and local deformation become dominant at higher frequencies. Here, we analyze tire response in terms of deformation and rolling velocity at low revolution frequency. An Abaqus FEA finite element model is used to calculate the static and dynamic response of a rolling tire under different rolling conditions. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a deformed tire are calculated with the FEA package where the subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis calculates dynamic response of tire subjected to harmonic excitation. The analysis was conducted on the dynamic response at the road (contact point of tire and road surface) and side nodes of a static and rolling tire when the tire was excited with 200 N vertical load for a frequency ranging from 20 to 200 Hz. The results show that frequency has little effect on tire deformation up to 80 Hz. But between 80 and 200 Hz, the radial and lateral components of displacement of the road and side nodes exhibited significant oscillation. For the static analysis, the fluctuation was sharp and frequent and decreased with frequency. In contrast, the fluctuation was periodic in nature for the dynamic response of the rolling tire. In addition to the dynamic analysis, a steady state rolling analysis was also performed on the tire traveling at ground velocity with a constant angular motion. The purpose of the computation was to demonstrate the effect of rotating motion on deformation and rolling velocity with respect to a fixed Newtonian reference point. The analysis showed a significant variation in deformation and rolling velocity due to centrifugal and Coriolis acceleration with respect to a fixed Newtonian point on ground.

Keywords: natural frequency, rotational motion, steady state rolling, subspace-based steady state dynamic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
156 A Microfluidic Biosensor for Detection of EGFR 19 Deletion Mutation Targeting Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Ji Su Kim, Bo Ram Choi, Ju Yeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

Abstract:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 deletion mutation gene is over-expressed in carcinoma patient. EGFR 19 deletion mutation is known as typical biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which one section in the coding exon 19 of EGFR is deleted. Therefore, there have been many attempts over the years to detect EGFR 19 deletion mutation for replacing conventional diagnostic method such as PCR and tissue biopsy. We developed a simple and facile detection platform based on Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), which provides highly amplified products in isothermal amplification of the ligated DNA template. Limit of detection (~50 nM) and a faster detection time (~30 min) could be achieved by introducing RCA.

Keywords: EGFR19, cancer, diagnosis, rolling circle amplification (RCA), hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
155 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh

Abstract:

Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: additive technology, texture, twins, Ti-6Al-4V, oxygen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
154 Application of Local Mean Decomposition for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based On Vibration Signals

Authors: Toufik Bensana, Slimane Mekhilef, Kamel Tadjine

Abstract:

Vibration analysis has been frequently applied in the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. Unfortunately, the vibration signals collected from a faulty bearing are generally non stationary, nonlinear and with strong noise interference, so it is essential to obtain the fault features correctly. In this paper, a novel numerical analysis method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed. LMD decompose the signal into a series of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a purely frequency modulated FM signal. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA) and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. After that the fault characteristic frequency of the roller bearing can be extracted by performing spectrum analysis to the instantaneous amplitude of PF component containing dominant fault information. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique in fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearing.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, condition monitoring, local mean decomposition, rolling element bearing, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
153 Employing Bayesian Artificial Neural Network for Evaluation of Cold Rolling Force

Authors: P. Kooche Baghy, S. Eskandari, E.javanmard

Abstract:

Neural network has been used as a predictive means of cold rolling force in this dissertation. Thus, imposed average force on rollers as a mere input and five pertaining parameters to its as a outputs are regarded. According to our study, feed-forward multilayer perceptron network has been selected. Besides, Bayesian algorithm based on the feed-forward back propagation method has been selected due to noisy data. Further, 470 out of 585 all tests were used for network learning and others (115 tests) were considered as assessment criteria. Eventually, by 30 times running the MATLAB software, mean error was obtained 3.84 percent as a criteria of network learning. As a consequence, this the mentioned error on par with other approaches such as numerical and empirical methods is acceptable admittedly.

Keywords: artificial neural network, Bayesian, cold rolling, force evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
152 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process were studied by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100°C with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400°C for 30 to 120 min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: aluminium/copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
151 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas

Abstract:

Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.

Keywords: electrical steels, hot rolling, magnetic properties, roughing mill

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
150 Effect of Texture of Orthorhombic Martensite on Thermal Expansion of Metastable Titanium Alloy

Authors: E. Stepanova, N. Popov, S. Demakov, S. Stepanov

Abstract:

This paper examines the so-called invar-type behavior of metastable titanium alloy subjected to cold rolling. The effect was shown to occur due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion of titanium orthorhombic martensite. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis and dilatometry analyses, the influence of crystallographic texture of orthorhombic martensite on the coefficient of thermal expansion of sheets of metastable titanium alloy VT23 was examined. Anisotropy of the coefficient of thermal expansion has been revealed. It was lower in the rolling plane and higher along the transverse direction of the cold-rolled sheet comparing to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the unprocessed alloy.

Keywords: invar-type, cold rolling, metastable titanium alloy, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
149 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
148 Analysis and Modeling of Vibratory Signals Based on LMD for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Toufik Bensana, Slimane Mekhilef, Kamel Tadjine

Abstract:

The use of vibration analysis has been established as the most common and reliable method of analysis in the field of condition monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery. Rolling bearings cover a broad range of rotary machines and plays a crucial role in the modern manufacturing industry. Unfortunately, the vibration signals collected from a faulty bearing are generally non-stationary, nonlinear and with strong noise interference, so it is essential to obtain the fault features correctly. In this paper, a novel numerical analysis method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed. LMD decompose the signal into a series of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a purely frequency modulated FM signal. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA) and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. After that, the fault characteristic frequency of the roller bearing can be extracted by performing spectrum analysis to the instantaneous amplitude of PF component containing dominant fault information. the results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique in fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearing.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, local mean decomposition, rolling element bearing, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
147 Analysis of Vibratory Signals Based on Local Mean Decomposition (LMD) for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Toufik Bensana, Medkour Mihoub, Slimane Mekhilef

Abstract:

The use of vibration analysis has been established as the most common and reliable method of analysis in the field of condition monitoring and diagnostics of rotating machinery. Rolling bearings cover a broad range of rotary machines and plays a crucial role in the modern manufacturing industry. Unfortunately, the vibration signals collected from a faulty bearing are generally nonstationary, nonlinear and with strong noise interference, so it is essential to obtain the fault features correctly. In this paper, a novel numerical analysis method based on local mean decomposition (LMD) is proposed. LMD decompose the signal into a series of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a purely frequency modulated FM signal. The envelope of a PF is the instantaneous amplitude (IA), and the derivative of the unwrapped phase of a purely flat frequency demodulated (FM) signal is the IF. After that, the fault characteristic frequency of the roller bearing can be extracted by performing spectrum analysis to the instantaneous amplitude of PF component containing dominant fault information. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique in fault detection and diagnosis of rolling element bearing.

Keywords: fault diagnosis, rolling element bearing, local mean decomposition, condition monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
146 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: efficiency, friction, gravitational motor and generator, rolling and sliding, truncated double-cone

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