Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 226

Search results for: aluminium

226 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos


This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
225 Utilization of Aluminium Dross as a Main Raw Material for Synthesize the Geopolymers via Mechanochemistry Method

Authors: Pimchanok Puksisuwan, Pitak Laorattanakul, Benya Cherdhirunkorn


The use of aluminium dross as a raw material for geopolymer synthesis via mechanochemistry method was studied. The geopolymers were prepared using aluminium dross from secondary aluminium industry, fly ash from a biomass power plant and liquid alkaline activators, which is a mixture of sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) (Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1). Aluminium dross consists mostly of alumina (Al2O3), silicon oxide (SiO2) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The raw materials were mixed and milled using the high energy ball milling method for 5, 10 and 15 minutes in order to reduce the particle size. The milled powders were uniaxially pressed into a cylinder die with the pressure of 2200 psi. The cylinder samples were cured in the sealed plastic bags for 3, 7 and 14 days at the room temperature and 60°C for 24 hour. The mechanical property of geopolymers was investigated. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out in order to study the microstructure and phase structures of the geopolymers, respectively. The results showed that aluminium dross could enhance the mechanical property of geopolymers product by mechanochemistry method and meet the TISI requirements.

Keywords: aluminium dross, fly ash, geopolymer, mechanochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
224 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh


Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
223 An Evaluation of the Oxide Layers in Machining Swarfs to Improve Recycling

Authors: J. Uka, B. McKay, T. Minton, O. Adole, R. Lewis, S. J. Glanvill, L. Anguilano


Effective heat treatment conditions to obtain maximum aluminium swarf recycling are investigated in this work. Aluminium swarf briquettes underwent treatments at different temperatures and cooling times to investigate the improvements obtained in the recovery of aluminium metal. The main issue for the recovery of the metal from swarfs is to overcome the constraints due to the oxide layers present in high concentration in the swarfs since they have a high surface area. Briquettes supplied by Renishaw were heat treated at 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 ℃ for 1-hour and then cooled at 2.3, 3.5 and 5 ℃/min. The resulting material was analysed using SEM EDX to observe the oxygen diffusion and aluminium coalescence at the boundary between adjacent swarfs. Preliminary results show that, swarf needs to be heat treated at a temperature of 850 ℃ and cooled down slowly at 2.3 ℃/min to have thin and discontinuous alumina layers between the adjacent swarf and consequently allowing aluminium coalescence. This has the potential to save energy and provide maximum financial profit in preparation of swarf briquettes for recycling.

Keywords: reuse, recycle, aluminium, swarf, oxide layers

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
222 A Metallography Study of Secondary A226 Aluminium Alloy Used in Automotive Industries

Authors: Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Milan Uhríčik


The secondary alloy A226 is used for many automotive casting produced by mould casting and high pressure die-casting. This alloy has excellent castability, good mechanical properties and cost-effectiveness. Production of primary aluminium alloys belong to heavy source fouling of life environs. The European Union calls for the emission reduction and reduction in energy consumption, therefore, increase production of recycled (secondary) aluminium cast alloys. The contribution is deal with influence of recycling on the quality of the casting made from A226 in automotive industry. The properties of the casting made from secondary aluminium alloys were compared with the required properties of primary aluminium alloys. The effect of recycling on microstructure was observed using combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white etching, scanning electron microscopy-SEM upon deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis-EDX). These techniques were used for the identification of the various structure parameters, which was used to compare secondary alloy microstructure with primary alloy microstructure.

Keywords: A226 secondary aluminium alloy, deep etching, mechanical properties, recycling foundry aluminium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
221 Mechanochemical Behaviour of Aluminium–Boron Oxide–Melamine Ternary System

Authors: Ismail Seckin Cardakli, Mustafa Engin Kocadagistan, Ersin Arslan


In this study, mechanochemical behaviour of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system was investigated by high energy ball milling. According to the reaction Al + B₂O₃ = Al₂O₃ + B, stochiometric amount of aluminium and boron oxide with melamine up to ten percent of total weight was used in the experiments. The powder characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after leaching of product by 1M HCl acid. Results show that mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) between aluminium and boron oxide takes place after four hours high energy ball milling. Al₂O₃/h-BN composite powder is obtained as the product of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, hexagonal boron nitride, mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, melamine

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
220 The Effects of Root Zone Supply of Aluminium on Vegetative Growth of 15 Groundnut Cultivars Grown in Solution Culture

Authors: Mosima M. Mabitsela


Groundnut is preferably grown on light textured soils. Most of these light textured soils tend to be highly weathered and characterized by high soil acidity and low nutrient status. One major soil factor associated with infertility of acidic soils that can negatively depress groundnut yield is aluminium (Al) toxicity. In plants Al toxicity damages root cells, leading to inhibition of root growth as a result of the suppression of cell division, cell elongation and cell expansion in the apical meristem cells of the root. The end result is that roots become stunted and brittle, root hair development is poor, and the root apices become swollen. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aluminium (Al) toxicity on a range of groundnut varieties. Fifteen cultivars were tested in incremental aluminum (Al) supply in an ebb and flow solution culture laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were six aluminium (Al) treatments viz. 0 µM, 1 µM, 5.7 µM, 14.14 µM, 53.18 µM, and 200 µM. At 1 µM there was no inhibitory effect on the growth of groundnut. The inhibition of groundnut growth was noticeable from 5.7 µM to 200 µM, where the severe effect of aluminium (Al) stress was observed at 200 µM. The cultivars varied in their response to aluminium (Al) supply in solution culture. Groundnuts are one of the most important food crops in the world, and its supply is on a decline due to the light-textured soils that they thrive under as these soils are acidic and can easily solubilize aluminium (Al) to its toxic form. Consequently, there is a need to develop groundnut cultivars with high tolerance to soil acidity.

Keywords: aluminium toxicity, cultivars, reduction, root growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
219 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.


Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: aluminium 6061, corrosion, quartz, vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
218 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour


The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
217 Biologically Synthesized Palladium Nanoparticles Impregnated Porous Aluminium Catalyst in CO2 Detection

Authors: I. B. Patel, K. A. Mistry, A. H. Prajapati


Biologically synthesized colloidal Pd nanoparticles were impregnated on porous aluminium. In this paper, the obtained Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. The effects of deposited films on the performances of Pd/Al2O3 in adsorption, reduction, and catalytic reaction of CO2 were investigated. The results showed that the deposited films can remarkably improve the dispersion of active components and enhance the reactivity of Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The catalytic performance of Pd/Al2O3 in term of surface reaction is also enhanced in terms of sensitivity (SF = 850) obtained through conventional CBD method.

Keywords: palladium nanoparticles, Pd/Al2O3, carbon dioxide, aluminium catalyst

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
216 Preparation Static Dissipative Nanocomposites of Alkaline Earth Metal Doped Aluminium Oxide and Methyl Vinyl Silicone Polymer

Authors: Aparna M. Joshi


Methyl vinyl silicone polymer (VMQ) - alkaline earth metal doped aluminium oxide composites are prepared by conventional two rolls open mill mixing method. Doped aluminium oxides (DAO) using silvery white coloured alkaline earth metals such as Mg and Ca as dopants in the concentration of 0.4 % are synthesized by microwave combustion method and referred as MA ( Mg doped aluminium oxide) and CA ( Ca doped aluminium oxide). The as-synthesized materials are characterized for the electrical resistance, X–ray diffraction, FE-SEM, TEM and FTIR. The electrical resistances of the DAOs are observed to be ~ 8-20 MΩ. This means that the resistance of aluminium oxide (Corundum) α-Al2O3 which is ~ 1010Ω is reduced by the order of ~ 103 to 104 Ω after doping. XRD studies reveal the doping of Mg and Ca in aluminium oxide. The microstructural study using FE-SEM shows the flaky clusterous structures with the thickness of the flakes between 10 and 20 nm. TEM images depict the rod-shaped morphological geometry of the particles with the diameter of ~50-70 nm. The nanocomposites are synthesized by incorporating the DAOs in the concentration of 75 phr (parts per hundred parts of rubber) into VMQ polymer. The electrical resistance of VMQ polymer, which is ~ 1015Ω, drops by the order of 108Ω. There is a retention of the electrical resistance of ~ 30-50 MΩ for the nanocomposites which is a static dissipative range of electricity. In this work white coloured electrically conductive VMQ polymer-DAO nanocomposites (MAVMQ for Mg doping and CAVMQ for Ca doping) have been synthesized. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites such as specific gravity, hardness, tensile strength and rebound resilience are measured. Hardness and tensile strength are found to increase, with the negligible alteration in the other properties.

Keywords: doped aluminium oxide, methyl vinyl silicone polymer, microwave synthesis, static dissipation

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215 An Analytical Systematic Design Approach to Evaluate Ballistic Performance of Armour Grade AA7075 Aluminium Alloy Using Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Lahari Ramya Pa, Sudhakar Ib, Madhu Vc, Madhusudhan Reddy Gd, Srinivasa Rao E.


Selection of suitable armor materials for defense applications is very crucial with respect to increasing mobility of the systems as well as maintaining safety. Therefore, determining the material with the lowest possible areal density that resists the predefined threat successfully is required in armor design studies. A number of light metal and alloys are come in to forefront especially to substitute the armour grade steels. AA5083 aluminium alloy which fit in to the military standards imposed by USA army is foremost nonferrous alloy to consider for possible replacement of steel to increase the mobility of armour vehicles and enhance fuel economy. Growing need of AA5083 aluminium alloy paves a way to develop supplement aluminium alloys maintaining the military standards. It has been witnessed that AA 2xxx aluminium alloy, AA6xxx aluminium alloy and AA7xxx aluminium alloy are the potential material to supplement AA5083 aluminium alloy. Among those cited aluminium series alloys AA7xxx aluminium alloy (heat treatable) possesses high strength and can compete with armour grade steels. Earlier investigations revealed that layering of AA7xxx aluminium alloy can prevent spalling of rear portion of armour during ballistic impacts. Hence, present investigation deals with fabrication of hard layer (made of boron carbide) i.e. layer on AA 7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing with an intention of blunting the projectile in the initial impact and backing tough portion(AA7xxx aluminium alloy) to dissipate residual kinetic energy. An analytical approach has been adopted to unfold the ballistic performance of projectile. Penetration of projectile inside the armour has been resolved by considering by strain energy model analysis. Perforation shearing areas i.e. interface of projectile and armour is taken in to account for evaluation of penetration inside the armour. Fabricated surface composites (targets) were tested as per the military standard (JIS.0108.01) in a ballistic testing tunnel at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad in standardized testing conditions. Analytical results were well validated with experimental obtained one.

Keywords: AA7075 aluminium alloy, friction stir processing, boron carbide, ballistic performance, target

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214 Changes in Secretory Products and Lipid Profile in the Epididymis and Spermatozoa of Rats Induced by Aluminium Chloride

Authors: Ramalingam Venugopal, Kalaiselvi Arumugam


Environmental exposure to heavy metals is associated with a wide range of toxic effects. It is evident that heavy metals released in the environment affect the reproductive processes and fertility of animals. Toxic metals affect the male and female reproductive system directly or indirectly. Considering the toxic nature of aluminium and also the major role of secretory products and lipids in sperm maturation, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride on secretory products like glyceryl phosphoryl choline (GPC), sialic acid, carnitine and acetyl carnitine content and also lipid profiles in the epididymis and spermatozoa of adult rats. Aluminium chloride, 50 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily for 60 days. 24 hours after the last dose the rats were sacrificed and immediately epididymis was dissected out and spermatozoa was isolated. The weight of the epididymis decreased significantly. GPC and sialic acid content was significantly reduced in the epididymis and not much altered in spermatozoa. Carnitine and acetyl carnitine contents were markedly decreased in the spermatozoa as well as in the epididymis. Aluminium chloride administration caused a marked reduction in total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids and cholesterol content in epididymis and no significant changes in spermatozoa. Several changes take place in the spermatozoa as they pass through the epididymis. These changes are directly related to the acquisition of fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. From the results, it is evident that aluminium chloride has definite influence on secretory products and lipid profiles in the epididymis. This may eventually have an adverse impact on the fertility of the animal.

Keywords: aluminium chloride, rat, carnitine, GPC, sialic acid, epididymis, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
213 Effect of the Aluminium Concentration on the Laser Wavelength of Random Trimer Barrier AlxGa1-xAs Superlattices

Authors: Samir Bentata, Fatima Bendahma


We have numerically investigated the effect of Aluminium concentration on the the laser wavelength of random trimer barrier AlxGa1-xAs superlattices (RTBSL). Such systems consist of two different structures randomly distributed along the growth direction, with the additional constraint that the barriers of one kind appear in triply. An explicit formula is given for evaluating the transmission coefficient of superlattices (SL's) with intentional correlated disorder. The method is based on Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. We discuss the impact of the Aluminium concentration associate to the structure profile on the laser wavelengths.

Keywords: superlattices, correlated disorder, transmission coefficient, laser wavelength

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
212 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang


Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
211 Numerical Investigation for Ductile Fracture of an Aluminium Alloy 6061 T-6: Assessment of Critical J-Integral

Authors: R. Bensaada, M. Almansba, M. Ould Ouali, R. Ferhoum, N. E. Hannachi


The aim of this work is to simulate the ductile fracture of SEN specimens in aluminium alloy. The assessment of fracture toughness is performed with the calculation of Jc (the critical value of J-Integral) through the resistance curves. The study is done using finite element code calculation ABAQUSTM including an elastic plastic with damage model of material’s behaviour. The procedure involves specimens of four different thicknesses and four ligament sizes for every thickness. The material of study is an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for which the necessary parameters to complete the study are given. We found the same results for the same specimen’s thickness and for different ligament sizes when the fracture criterion is evaluated.

Keywords: j-integral, critical-j, damage, fracture toughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
210 Mechanical Characteristics on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Plate

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, L. Addar, H. Kebir


This paper present a mechanical characteristics on fatigue crack propagation in Aluminium Plate based on strain and stress distribution using the abaqus software. The changes in shear strain and stress distribution during the fatigue cycle with crack growth is identified. In progressive crack in the strain distribution and the stress is increase in the critical zone. Numerical Modal analysis of the model developed, prove that the Eigen frequencies of aluminium plate were decreased after cracking, and this reduce is nonlinear. These results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of aluminium alloys in aeronautical systems. Therefore, the modal analysis is an important factor for monitoring the aeronautic structures.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plate, crack, failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
209 Hardness Analysis of Samples of Friction Stir Welded Joints of (Al-Cu)

Authors: Upamanyu Majumder, Angshuman Das


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a Solid-State joining process. Unlike fusion welding techniques it does not involve operation above the melting point temperature of metals, but above the re-crystallization temperature. FSW also does not involve fusion of other material. FSW of ALUMINIUM has been commercialized and recent studies on joining dissimilar metals have been studied. Friction stir welding was introduced and patented in 1991 by The Welding Institute. For this paper, a total of nine samples each of copper and ALUMINIUM(Dissimilar metals) were welded using FSW process and Vickers Hardness were conducted on each of the samples.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), recrystallization temperature, dissimilar metals, aluminium-copper, Vickers hardness test

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
208 Comparison of Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation for Boron Removal from Synthetic Wastewater Using Aluminium

Authors: Kartikaningsih Danis, Yao-Hui Huang


Various techniques including conventional and advanced have been employed for the boron treatment from water and wastewater. The electrocoagulation involves an electrolytic reactor for coagulation/flotation with aluminium as anode and cathode. There is aluminium as coagulant to be used for removal which may induce secondary pollution in chemical coagulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the performance between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation on boron removal from synthetic wastewater. The effect of different parameters, such as pH reaction, coagulant dosage, and initial boron concentration were examined. The results show that the boron removal using chemical coagulation was lower. At the optimum condition (e.g. pH 8 and 0.8 mol coagulant dosage), boron removal efficiencies for chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation were 61% and 91%, respectively. In addition, the electrocoagulation needs no chemical reagents and makes the boron treatment easy for application.

Keywords: boron removal, chemical coagulation, aluminum, electro-coagulation

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207 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar


Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

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206 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee


The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: aluminium, grain size, nitrogen, reheating, sizing strain, steel, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
205 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar


The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
204 Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters for Joining Aluminium Alloys using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: A. M. Khourshid, A. M. El-Kassas, I. Sabry


The objective of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties in order to demonstrate the feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminium alloys. Welding was performed on pipe with different thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm), five rotational speeds (485, 710, 910, 1120 and 1400 rpm) and a traverse speed of 4mm/min. This work focuses on two methods which are artificial neural networks using software and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminium alloy. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of 6061 pipe. Tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of weld joints were predicted by taking the parameters tool rotation speed, material thickness and axial force as a function. A comparison was made between measured and predicted data. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was also developed and the values obtained for the response tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. The effect of FSW process parameters on mechanical properties of 6061 aluminium alloy has been analysed in detail.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminium alloy, response surface methodology, artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
203 Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Solar Cooker

Authors: Bastien Sanglard, Lou Magnat, Ligia Barna, Julian Carrey, Sébastien Lachaize


Cooking is a primary need for humans, several techniques being used around the globe based on different sources of energy: electricity, solid fuel (wood, coal...), fuel or liquefied petroleum gas. However, all of them leads to direct or indirect greenhouse gas emissions and sometimes health damage in household. Therefore, the solar concentrated power represent a great option to lower the damages because of a cleaner using phase. Nevertheless, the construction phase of the solar cooker still requires primary energy and materials, which leads to environmental impacts. The aims of this work is to analyse the ecological impacts of a commercialaluminium parabola and to compare it with other means of cooking, taking the boiling of 2 litres of water three times a day during 40 years as the functional unit. Life cycle assessment was performed using the software Umberto and the EcoInvent database. Calculations were realized over more than 13 criteria using two methods: the international panel on climate change method and the ReCiPe method. For the reflector itself, different aluminium provenances were compared, as well as the use of recycled aluminium. For the structure, aluminium was compared to iron (primary and recycled) and wood. Results show that climate impacts of the studied parabola was 0.0353 kgCO2eq/kWh when built with Chinese aluminium and can be reduced by 4 using aluminium from Canada. Assessment also showed that using 32% of recycled aluminium would reduce the impact by 1.33 and 1.43 compared to the use of primary Canadian aluminium and primary Chinese aluminium, respectively. The exclusive use of recycled aluminium lower the impact by 17. Besides, the use of iron (recycled or primary) or wood for the structure supporting the reflector significantly lowers the impact. The impact categories of the ReCiPe method show that the parabola made from Chinese aluminium has the heaviest impact - except for metal resource depletion - compared to aluminium from Canada, recycled aluminium or iron. Impact of solar cooking was then compared to gas stove and induction. The gas stove model was a cast iron tripod that supports the cooking pot, and the induction plate was as well a single spot plate. Results show the parabolic solar cooker has the lowest ecological impact over the 13 criteria of the ReCiPe method and over the global warming potential compared to the two other technologies. The climate impact of gas cooking is 0.628kgCO2/kWh when used with natural gas and 0.723 kgCO2/kWh when used with a bottle of gas. In each case, the main part of emissions came from gas burning. Induction cooking has a global warming potential of 0.12 kgCO2eq/kWh with the electricity mix of France, 96.3% of the impact being due to electricity production. Therefore, the electricity mix is a key factor for this impact: for instance, with the electricity mix of Germany and Poland, impacts are 0.81kgCO2eq/kWh and 1.39 kgCO2eq/kWh, respectively. Therefore, the parabolic solar cooker has a real ecological advantages compared to both gas stove and induction plate.

Keywords: life cycle assessement, solar concentration, cooking, sustainability

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202 An ANOVA Approach for the Process Parameters Optimization of Al-Si Alloy Sand Casting

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Manish Nagpal


This research paper aims to propose a novel approach using ANOVA technique for the strategic investigation of process parameters and their effects on the mechanical properties of Aluminium alloy cast. The two process parameters considered here were permeability of sand and pouring temperature of aluminium alloy. ANOVA has been employed for the first time to determine the effects of these selected parameters on the impact strength of alloy. The experimental results show that this proposed technique has great potential for analyzing sand casting process. Using this approach we have determined the treatment mean square, response mean square and mean square of error as 8.54, 8.255 and 0.435 respectively. The research concluded that at the 5% level of significance, permeability of sand is the more significant parameter influencing the impact strength of cast alloy.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, pouring temperature, permeability of sand, impact strength, ANOVA

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201 Evaluation of Forming Properties on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy by Incremental Forming

Authors: A. Anbu Raj, V. Mugendiren


Sheet metal forming is a vital manufacturing process used in automobile, aerospace, agricultural industries, etc. Incremental forming is a promising process providing a short and inexpensive way of forming complex three-dimensional parts without using die. The aim of this research is to study the forming behaviour of AA 5052, Aluminium Alloy, using incremental forming and also to study the FLD of cone shape AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature. Initially the surface roughness and wall thickness through incremental forming on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy sheet at room temperature is optimized by controlling the effects of forming parameters. The central composite design (CCD) was utilized to plan the experiment. The step depth, feed rate, and spindle speed were considered as input parameters in this study. The surface roughness and wall thickness were used as output response. The process performances such as average thickness and surface roughness were evaluated. The optimized results are taken for minimum surface roughness and maximum wall thickness. The optimal results are determined based on response surface methodology and the analysis of variance. Formability Limit Diagram is constructed on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature by using optimized process parameters from the response surface methodology. The cone has higher formability than the square pyramid and higher wall thickness distribution. Finally the FLD on cone shape and square pyramid shape at room temperature and the various annealing temperature is compared experimentally and simulated with Abaqus software.

Keywords: incremental forming, response surface methodology, optimization, wall thickness, surface roughness

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200 Green Corrosion Inhibitor from Essential Oil of Linseed for Aluminum in Na2CO3 Solution

Authors: L. Bazzi, E. Azzouyahar, A. Lamiri, M. Essahli


Effect of addition of linseed oil (LSO) on the corrosion of aluminium in 0.1 M Na2CO3 has been studied by weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with inhibitor content to attain 70% for LSO at 4g/L. Inhibition efficiency E (%) obtained from the various methods is in good agreement. The temperature effect on the corrosion behavior of aluminium was studied by potentiodynamic technique in the range from 298 to 308 K.

Keywords: aluminum, corrosion, green inhibitors, carbonate, linseed oil

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199 Removal of Chloro-Compounds from Pulp and Paper Industry Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation

Authors: Chhaya Sharma, Dushyant Kumar


The present work deals with the treatment of wastewater generated by paper industry by using aluminium as anode material. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of chloropenolics have been carried out by using primary clarifier effluent with the help of gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Sixteen chlorophenolics compounds have been identified and estimated. Results indicated that among 16 identified compounds, 7 are 100% removed and overall 66% reduction in chorophenolics compounds have been detected. Moreover, during the treatment, the biodegradability index of wastewater significantly increases, along with 70 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand and 99 % in color.

Keywords: aluminium anode, chlorophenolics, electrocoagulation, pollution load, wastewater

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198 Waste-Based Surface Modification to Enhance Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Bronze Alloy

Authors: Wilson Handoko, Farshid Pahlevani, Isha Singla, Himanish Kumar, Veena Sahajwalla


Aluminium bronze alloys are well known for their superior abrasion, tensile strength and non-magnetic properties, due to the co-presence of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) as alloying elements and have been commonly used in many industrial applications. However, continuous exposure to the marine environment will accelerate the risk of a tendency to Al bronze alloys parts failures. Although a higher level of corrosion resistance properties can be achieved by modifying its elemental composition, it will come at a price through the complex manufacturing process and increases the risk of reducing the ductility of Al bronze alloy. In this research, the use of ironmaking slag and waste plastic as the input source for surface modification of Al bronze alloy was implemented. Microstructural analysis conducted using polarised light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that is equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). An electrochemical corrosion test was carried out through Tafel polarisation method and calculation of protection efficiency against the base-material was determined. Results have indicated that uniform modified surface which is as the result of selective diffusion process, has enhanced corrosion resistance properties up to 12.67%. This approach has opened a new opportunity to access various industrial utilisations in commercial scale through minimising the dependency on natural resources by transforming waste sources into the protective coating in environmentally friendly and cost-effective ways.

Keywords: aluminium bronze, waste-based surface modification, tafel polarisation, corrosion resistance

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197 The Corrosion Resistance of P/M Alumix 431D Compacts

Authors: J. Kazior, A. Szewczyk-Nykiel, T. Pieczonka, M. Laska


Aluminium alloys are an important class of engineering materials for structural applications. This is due to the fact that these alloys have many interesting properties, namely, low density, high ratio of strength to density, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance as well as extensive capabilities for shaping processes. In case of classical PM technology a particular attention should be paid to the selection of appropriate parameters of compacting and sintering processes and to keeping them. The latter need arises from the high sensitivity of aluminium based alloy powders on any fluctuation of technological parameters, in particular those related to the temperature-time profile and gas flow. Only then the desired sintered compacts with residual porosity may be produced. Except high mechanical properties, the other profitable properties of almost fully dense sintered components could be expected. Among them is corrosion resistance, rarely investigated on PM aluminium alloys. Thus, in the current study the Alumix 431/D commercial, press-ready grade powder was used for this purpose. Sintered compacts made of it in different conditions (isothermal sintering temperature, gas flow rate) were subjected to corrosion experiments in 0,1 M and 0,5 M NaCl solutions. The potentiodynamic curves were used to establish parameters characterising the corrosion resistance of sintered Alumix 431/D powder, namely, the corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance, the breakdown potential. The highest value of polarization resistance, the lowest value of corrosion current density and the most positive corrosion potential was obtained for Alumix431/D powder sintered at 600°C and for highest protective gas flow rate.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, sintering, corrosion resistance, industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 248