Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Musbah Mahfoud

27 The Effect of Vanadium Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of A319 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Musbah Mahfoud, Ibtisam Mustafa

Abstract:

The present work highlights some of our up-to-date findings on the effect of vanadium addition on the mechanical properties and microstructure of one of the most versatile aluminum-silicon alloys, i.e., A319. In terms of microstructure, it was found that in addition to its ability to refine some of the constituent phases, vanadium also helps in retarding the formation of some of the detrimental intermetallic compounds, such as those involving Al-Fe-Si. Preliminary studies of the effect of vanadium on the mechanical properties of A319 have shown that vanadium additions up to 0.4% cause slight increase in the yield and tensile strength. However, the vanadium addition did not show a significant effect on the hardness of the alloy.

Keywords: aluminium, vanadium, intermetallic, microstructure, mechanical properties

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26 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

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25 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fibre Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on a alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm, cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, CO2, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, ion-exchange

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24 The Failure of Democracy in Libya

Authors: Ali Musbah Mohamed Elwahishi

Abstract:

Democracy is demand for the majority of people in the whole world, Specifically in the regions that are still outside the democratic life such as Libya and other Arab countries. Although democracy has spread across the world through three waves of democratization, Libya is still outside the democratic process, even recently its regime has changed. The challenges of democracy in Libya are not new, they represent accumulations over time that impeded to achieve this goal. This paper concludes that the absence of democracy in Libya because of set of factors that include: colonial legacy, oil wealth, the lack of institutions, the lack of political parties, tribal factor and recently the spread of the armed groups. These factors prevented Libya to be democratic state whether during King Idris’, Qaddafi’s or even after Qaddafi rule.

Keywords: the failure of democracy, political transition, the lack of institutions, Libya, Arab countries

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23 Wear Measurement of Thermomechanical Parameters of the Metal Carbide

Authors: Riad Harouz, Brahim Mahfoud

Abstract:

The threads and the circles on reinforced concrete are obtained by process of hot rolling with pebbles finishers in metal carbide which present a way of rolling around the outside diameter. Our observation is that this throat presents geometrical wear after the end of its cycle determined in tonnage. In our study, we have determined, in a first step, experimentally measurements of the wear in terms of thermo-mechanical parameters (Speed, Load, and Temperature) and the influence of these parameters on the wear. In the second stage, we have developed a mathematical model of lifetime useful for the prognostic of the wear and their changes.

Keywords: lifetime, metal carbides, modeling, thermo-mechanical, wear

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22 Numerical Study of a Nanofluid in a Truncated Cone

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

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21 Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Conical Container

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Ali Bendjaghlouli

Abstract:

Natural convection is simulated in a truncated cone filled with nanofluid. Inclined and top walls have constant temperature where the heat source is located on the bottom wall of the conical container which is thermally insulated. A finite volume approach is used to solve the governing equations using the SIMPLE algorithm for different parameters such as Rayleigh number, inclination angle of inclined walls of the enclosure and heat source length. The results showed an enhancement in cooling system by using a nanofluid, when conduction regime is assisted. The inclination angle of inclined sidewall and heat source length affect the heat transfer rate and the maximum temperature.

Keywords: heat source, truncated cone, nanofluid, natural convection

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20 Islamic Financial Engineering: An Overview

Authors: Mahfoud Djebbar

Abstract:

The past two decades or so have witnessed phenomenal growth of the Islamic financial services industry. The whole industry has been thriving at about 15 percent per annum. This development entails the Islamic financial engineering, IFE, to some kind of crossroads, lagging behind its conventional counterpart. Therefore, IFE, and particularly traded products development, and in order to achieve its goals, two approaches are available, i.e., replicating engineering and innovative engineering. We also try to emphasis the innovative strategy since it guards the Islamic identity of different financial products and processes, and thereby, improves the creativity in the Islamic financial industry. The attempt also centers on sukukization (Islamic securitization), innovation, liquidity management, and risk management and hedging in the Islamic financial system. Finally, the challenges facing IFE are also addressed.

Keywords: islamic financial engineering, hedging and risk management, innovation, securitization, money market instruments, islamic capital markets

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19 Steady and Oscillatory States of Swirling Flows under an Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Rachid Bessaïh

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical study of steady and oscillatory flows with heat transfer submitted to an axial magnetic field is studied. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by using the finite-volume method. The flow and temperature fields are presented by stream function and isotherms, respectively. The flow between counter-rotating end disks is very unstable and reveals a great richness of structures. The results are presented for various values of the Hartmann number, Ha=5, 10, 20, and 30, and Richardson numbers , Ri=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4, in order to see their effects on the value of the critical Reynolds number, Recr. Stability diagrams are established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams put in evidence the dependence of Recr with the increase of Ha for various values of Ri.

Keywords: swirling, counter-rotating end disks, magnetic field, oscillatory, cylinder

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18 Double Diffusive Natural Convection in Horizontal Elliptical Annulus Containing a Fluid-Saturated Porous Medium: Effects of Lewis Number

Authors: Hichem Boulechfar, Mahfoud Djezzar

Abstract:

Two-dimensional double diffusive natural convection in an annular elliptical space filled with fluid-saturated porous medium, is analyzed by solving numerically the mass balance, momentum, energy and concentration equations, using Darcy's law and Boussinesq approximation. Both walls delimiting the annular space are maintained at two uniform different temperatures and concentrations. The external parameter considered is the Lewis number. For the present work, the heat and mass transfer for natural convection is studied for the case of aiding buoyancies, where the flow is generated in a cooperative mode by both temperature and solutal gradients. The local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented in term of the external parameter.

Keywords: double diffusive, natural convection, porous media, elliptical annulus

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17 Hybrid Obfuscation Technique for Reverse Engineering Problem

Authors: Asma’a Mahfoud, Abu Bakar Md. Sultan, Abdul Azim Abd, Norhayati Mohd Ali, Novia Admodisastro

Abstract:

Obfuscation is a practice to make something difficult and complicated. Programming code is ordinarily obfuscated to protect the intellectual property (IP) and prevent the attacker from reverse engineering (RE) a copyrighted software program. Obfuscation may involve encrypting some or all the code, transforming out potentially revealing data, renaming useful classes and variables (identifiers) names to meaningless labels, or adding unused or meaningless code to an application binary. Obfuscation techniques were not performing effectively recently as the reversing tools are able to break the obfuscated code. We propose in this paper a hybrid obfuscation technique that contains three approaches of renaming. Experimentation was conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed technique. The experimentation has presented a promising result, where the reversing tools were not able to read the code.

Keywords: intellectual property, obfuscation, software security, reverse engineering

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16 Effect an Axial Magnetic Field in Co-rotating Flow Heated from Below

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjagloli

Abstract:

The effect of an axial magnetic field on the flow produced by co-rotation of the top and bottom disks in a vertical cylindrical heated from below is numerically analyzed. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations are solved by using the finite-volume method. It was observed that the Reynolds number is increased, the axisymmetric basic state loses stability to circular patterns of axisymmetric vortices and spiral waves. In mixed convection case the axisymmetric mode disappears giving an asymmetric mode m=1. It was also found that the primary thresholds Recr corresponding to the modes m=1and 2, increase with increasing of the Hartmann number (Ha). Finally, stability diagrams have been established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams giving the evolution of the primary thresholds as a function of the Hartmann number for various values of the Richardson number.

Keywords: bifurcation, co-rotating end disks, magnetic field, stability diagrams, vortices

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15 Swirling Flows with Heat Transfer in a Cylindrical under Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: B. Mahfoud, R. Harouz

Abstract:

The present work examine numerically the effect of axial magnetic field on mixed convection through a cylindrical cavity, filled with a liquid metal and having a rotating top and bottom disks. Effects of Richardson number (Ri = 0, 0.5, 1, and 2) and Hartman number (Ha = 0, 5, 10, and 20) on temperature and flow fields were analyzed. The basic state of this system is steady and axisymmetric, when the counter-rotation is sufficiently large, producing a free shear layer. This shear layer is unstable and different complex flows appear successively: steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 1; travelling waves and steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 2. Mixed modes and azimuthal wavenumber of 3 are also found with increasing Hartmann number. The stability diagram (Recr-Ha) corresponding to the axisymmetric-three-dimensional transition for increasing values of the axial magnetic field is obtained.

Keywords: axisymmetric, counter-rotating, instabilities, magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic field, wavenumber

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14 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Dehak Karima, Chabrouk Farid, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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13 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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12 Study of the Potential of Raw Sediments and Sediments Treated with Lime or Cement for Use in a Foundation Layer and the Base Layer of a Roadway

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Abdeljalil Zri

Abstract:

In this work, firstly we have studied the potential of raw sediments and sediments treated with lime or cement for use in a foundation layer and the base layer of a roadway. Secondly, we have examined mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement in order to explain the mechanical performance of stabilized sediments. After determining the amount of lime and cement required stabilizing the sediments, the compaction characteristics and Immediate Bearing Capacity (IBI) were studied using the Modified Proctor method. Then, the evolution of the three parameters, which are optimum water content, maximum dry density and IBI, were determined. Mechanical performances can be evaluated through resistance to compression, resistance under traction and the elasticity modulus. The resistances of the formulations treated with ROLAC®645 increase with the amount of ROLAC®645. Traction resistance and the elastic modulus were used to evaluate the potential of the formulations as road construction materials using the classification diagram. The results show that all the other formulations with ROLAC®645 can be used in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.

Keywords: sediment, lime, cement, roadway

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11 Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model

Authors: Le Ngoc Hung, Abriak Nor Edine, Binetruy Christophe, Benzerzour Mahfoud, Shahrour Isam, Patrice Rivard

Abstract:

Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these industrial by-products result from the incineration of various domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ashes are mainly used in road engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom ash is studied with triaxial tests. After analysis of the experiment results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to describe the evolution of material under the influence of external mechanical actions.

Keywords: bottom ash, granular material, triaxial test, mechanical behavior, simulation, Mohr-Coulomb model, CESAR-LCPC

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10 Recovery of Dredged Sediments With Lime or Cement as Platform Materials for Use in a Roadway

Authors: Abriak Yassine, Zri Abdeljalil, Benzerzour Mahfoud., Hadj Sadok Rachid, Abriak Nor-Edine

Abstract:

In this study, firstly, the study of the capacity reuse of dredged sediments and treated sediments with lime or cement were used in an establishment layer and the base layer of the roadway. Also, the analysis of mineral changes caused by the addition of lime or cement on the way as described in the mechanical results of stabilised sediments. After determining the quantity of lime and cement required to stabilise the sediment, the compaction characteristics were studied using the modified Proctor method. Then the evolution of the three parameters, that is, ideal water content and maximum dry density had been determined. Mechanical exhibitions can be assessed across the resistance to compression, flexibility modulus and the resistance under traction. The resistance of the formulation treated with cement addition (ROLAC®645) increase with the quantity of ROLAC®645. Traction resistances and the elastic modulus were utilized to assess the potential of the formulation as road construction materials utilizing classification diagram. The results show the various formulations with ROLAC® 645may be employed in subgrades and foundation layers for roads.

Keywords: cement, dredged, sediment, foundation layer, resistance

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9 Incorporating Morality Standards in eLearning Process at INU

Authors: Khader Musbah Titi

Abstract:

In this era, traditional education systems do not meet the new challenges created by emerging technologies. On the other hand, eLearning offers all the necessary tools to meet these challenges. Using the Internet has brought numerous benefits to most educational institutions; it has also stretched traditional problems of plagiarism, cheating, stealing, vandalism, and spying into the cyberspace. This research discusses these issues in an eLearning environment. It attempts to provide suggestions and possible solutions to some of these issues. The main aim of this research is to conduct a survey at Irbid National University (INU), one of the oldest and biggest universities in Jordan, to study information related to moral and ethical issues in e-learning environment that affect the construction of the students’ characters in the future. The study will focus on student’s behavior and actions through the Internet using Learning Management System (LMS). Another aim of this research is to analyze the opinions of the instructors and last year students at INU about ethical behavior and interaction through LMS. The results show that educational institutes that use LMS should focus on student character development along with field knowledge. According to disadvantages, the results of the study showed that most of students behave unethically in their online activities (cheating, plagiarism, copy/paste etc.) while studying online courses through LMS. The result showed that instructors play a major role in the character development of students. The result also showed that academic institute must have variant mechanisms and strict policy in LMS to control unethical actions of students.

Keywords: LMS, cyber ethics, e-learning, IT ethics, students’ behaviors

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8 Dilution Effect in Islamic Finance: The Case of Convertible Sukuk

Authors: Mahfoud Djebbar

Abstract:

Stock dilution is a financial phenomenon resulting from the issue of additional shares by a company, or when holders convert their convertibles into new shares (capital increase). This issue and/or conversion enlarge the company’s share base that will result in marginal dilution (loss) for existing shareholders, and a benefit to new ones. Dilution issues have already been addressed in mainstream finance, particularly as far as information disclosure is concerned. However, in Islamic finance, stock dilution problems have not been deeply studied and the subject has not received sufficient attention from shariah-compatible firms, investors, and scholars. In this regard, this paper emphasises the forms, the effects of capital dilution on current shareholders as well as the ways and techniques of compensating them. And since the research in this field, in its Islamic perspective, is still in its infancy, the paper tries to analyse the phenomenon theoretically in detail using numerical examples, and expose some case studies of Shariah-compliant issuers of convertible Sukuk and how they compensate their existing shareholders. Finally, this study shows that the Sukuk issuers compensate old shareholders using the right of shuf’ah as a well known and practiced pre-emptive right in Islamic transactions centuries ago, as well as the ways conventional bond issuers use.

Keywords: compensating shareholders, convertible Sukuk, Islamic financial innovation, Shuf’ah

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7 Formulation of Mortars with Marine Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Mouhamadou Amar, Mahfoud Benzerzour

Abstract:

The transition to a more sustainable economy is directed by a reduction in the consumption of raw materials in equivalent production. The recovery of byproducts and especially the dredged sediment as mineral addition in cements matrix represents an alternative to reduce raw material consumption and construction sector’s carbon footprint. However, the efficient use of sediment requires adequate and optimal treatment. Several processing techniques have so far been applied in order to improve some physicochemical properties. The heat treatment by calcination was effective in removing the organic fraction and activates the pozzolanic properties. In this article, the effect of the optimized heat treatment of marine sediments in the physico-mechanical and environmental properties of mortars are shown. A finding is that the optimal substitution of a portion of cement by treated sediments by calcination at 750 °C helps to maintain or improve the mechanical properties of the cement matrix in comparison with a standard reference mortar. The use of calcined sediment enhances mortar behavior in terms of mechanical strength and durability. From an environmental point of view and life cycle, mortars formulated containing treated sediments are considered inert with respect to the inert waste storage facilities reference (ISDI-France).

Keywords: sediment, calcination, cement, reuse

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6 An Experimental Approach of the Reuse of Dredged Sediments in a Cement Matrix by Physical and Heat Treatment

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Nor-edine Abriak

Abstract:

In this study, a sediment was used as a secondary raw material in cement substitution with prior treatment. The treatment adopted is a physical treatment involving grinding and separation to obtain different fractions, using a dry method (1 mm, 250µm, 120µm) and washing method (250µm and 120µm). They were subsequently heat treated at temperatures of 650°C, 750°C and 850°C for 1 hour and 3 hours, in order to enable chemical activation by decarbonation or by pozzolanic activation of the material. Different characterization techniques were performed. The determination of main physical and chemical characteristics was obtained through multiple tests: particle size distribution, specific density, the BET surface area, the initial setting time and hydration heat calorimetry Langavant. The chemical tests include: ATG analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) which were used to quantify the fractions, phases and chemical elements present. Compression tests were performed conforming NF EN 196-1 French standard, over terms of 7 days - 14 days - 28 days and 60 days on all formulated mortars: reference mortar based on 100% CEM I 52.5N binder and cement substituted mortars with 8% and 15% by treated sediment. This clearly evidenced contribution due to the chemical activity which was confirmed by calorimetry monitoring and strength investigation.

Keywords: sediment, characterization, grinding, heat treatment, substitution

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5 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi, Nor-Edine Abriak

Abstract:

Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: sediment, characterization, calcination, substitution, durability

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4 Formulation of Aggregates Based on Dredged Sand and Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Ilyas Ennahal, Abdeljalil Zri, Mahfoud Benzerzour

Abstract:

Nord Pas de Calais is one of the French regions that records a large volume of dredged sediment in harbors and waterways. To ensure navigation within ports and waterways, harbor and river managers are forced to find solutions to remove sediment that contamination levels exceed levels established by regulations. Therefore, this non- submersible sediment must be managed on land and will be subject to the waste regulation. In this paper, some examples of concrete achievements and experiments of reusing dredged sediment in civil engineering and sector will be illustrated. These achievements are alternative solutions to sediment landfilling and guarantee the reuse of this material in a logic of circular economy and ecological transition. It permits to preserve the natural resources increasingly scarce and resolve issues related to the accumulation of sediments in the harbor basins, rivers, dams, and lakes, etc. Examples of beneficial use of dredged material illustrated in this paper are the result of different projects reusing harbor and waterways sediments in several applications. These projects were funded under the national SEDIMATERIAUX approach. Thus the technical and environmental feasibility of the reuse of dredged sediment is demonstrated and verified; the dredged sediment reusing would meet multiple challenges of sustainable development in relation to environmental, economic, social and societal.

Keywords: circular economy, sediment, SEDIMATERIAUX, waterways

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3 Validation of the Arabic Version of the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) among the Arab Population in Qatar

Authors: S. Hammoudeh, S. Ghuloum, A. Abdelhakam, A. AlMujalli, M. Opler, Y. Hani, A. Yehya, S. Mari, R. Elsherbiny, Z. Mahfoud, H. Al-Amin

Abstract:

Introduction: Suicidal ideation and attempts are very common in patients with schizophrenia and still contributes to the high mortality in this population. The InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) is a validated tool used to assess suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia. This research aims to validate the Arabic version of the ISST among the Arabs residing in Qatar. Methods: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited from the department of Psychiatry, Rumailah Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Healthy controls were recruited from the primary health care centers in Doha, Qatar. The validation procedures including professional and expert translation, pilot survey and back translation of the ISST were implemented. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed using the validated Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6, module K) for schizophrenia. The gold standard was the module B on suicidality from MINI 6 also. This module was administered by a rater who was blinded to the results of ISST. Results: Our sample (n=199) was composed of 98 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (age 36.03 ± 9.88 years; M/F is 2/1) and 101 healthy participants (age 35.01 ± 8.23 years; M/F is 1/2). Among patients with schizophrenia: 26.5% were married, 17.3% had a college degree, 28.6% were employed, 9% had committed suicide once, and 4.4% had more than 4 suicide attempts. Among the control group: 77.2% were married, 57.4% had a college degree, and 99% were employed. The mean score on the ISST was 2.36 ± 3.97 vs. 0.47 ± 1.44 for the schizophrenia and control groups, respectively. The overall Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91. Conclusions: This is the first study in the Arab world to validate the ISST in an Arabic-based population. The psychometric properties indicate that the Arabic version of the ISST is a valid tool to assess the severity of suicidal ideation in Arabic speaking patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Keywords: mental health, Qatar, schizophrenia, suicide

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2 Corneal Confocal Microscopy As a Surrogate Marker of Neuronal Pathology In Schizophrenia

Authors: Peter W. Woodruff, Georgios Ponirakis, Reem Ibrahim, Amani Ahmed, Hoda Gad, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Adnan Khan, Ahmed Elsotouhy, Surjith Vattoth, Mahmoud K. M. Alshawwaf, Mohamed Adil Shah Khoodoruth, Marwan Ramadan, Anjushri Bhagat, James Currie, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hanadi Al Hamad, Ahmed Own, Peter Haddad, Majid Alabdulla, Rayaz A. Malik

Abstract:

Introduction:- We aimed to test the hypothesis that, using corneal confocal microscopy (a non-invasive method for assessing corneal nerve fibre integrity), patients with schizophrenia would show neuronal abnormalities compared with healthy participants. Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental and progressive neurodegenerative disease, for which there are no validated biomarkers. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging biomarker that can be used to detect neuronal abnormalities in neuropsychiatric syndromes. Methods:- Patients with schizophrenia (DSM-V criteria) without other causes of peripheral neuropathy and healthy controls underwent CCM, vibration perception threshold (VPT) and sudomotor function testing. The diagnostic accuracy of CCM in distinguishing patients from controls was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC) of the Receiver Operating Characterstics (ROC) curve. Findings:- Participants with schizophrenia (n=17) and controls (n=38) with comparable age (35.7±8.5 vs 35.6±12.2, P=0.96) were recruited. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher body weight (93.9±25.5 vs 77.1±10.1, P=0.02), lower Low Density Lipoproteins (2.6±1.0 vs 3.4±0.7, P=0.02), but comparable systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and High Density Lipoproteins were comparable with control participants. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD, fibers/mm2) (23.5±7.8 vs 35.6±6.5, p<0.0001), branch density (CNBD, branches/mm2) (34.4±26.9 vs 98.1±30.6, p<0.0001), and fiber length (CNFL, mm/mm2) (14.3±4.7 vs 24.2±3.9, p<0.0001) but no difference in VPT (6.1±3.1 vs 4.5±2.8, p=0.12) and electrochemical skin conductance (61.0±24.0 vs 68.9±12.3, p=0.23) compared with controls. The diagnostic accuracy of CNFD, CNBD and CNFL to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls were, according to the AUC, (95% CI): 87.0% (76.8-98.2), 93.2% (84.2-102.3), 93.2% (84.4-102.1), respectively. Conclusion:- In conclusion, CCM can be used to help identify neuronal changes and has a high diagnostic accuracy to distinguish subjects with schizophrenia from healthy controls.

Keywords:

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1 Validation of the Arabic Version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)

Authors: Arij Yehya, Suhaila Ghuloum, Abdlmoneim Abdulhakam, Azza Al-Mujalli, Mark Opler, Samer Hammoudeh, Yahya Hani, Sundus Mari, Reem Elsherbiny, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hassen Al-Amin

Abstract:

Introduction: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is a valid instrument developed by Kay and colleagues6 to assess symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. It consists of 30 items that factor the symptoms into three subscales: positive, negative and general psychopathology. This scale has been translated and validated in several languages. Objective: This study aims to determine the validity and psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the PANSS. Methods: A standardized translation and cultural adaptation method was adopted. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n=98), according to psychiatrist’s diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria, were recruited from the Psychiatry Department at Rumailah Hospital, Qatar. A first rater confirmed the diagnosis using the Arabic version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6). A second and independent rater-administered the Arabic version of PANSS. Also, a control group (n=101), with no history of psychiatric disorder was recruited from the family and friends of the patients and from primary health care centers in Qatar. Results: There were more males than females in our sample of patients with schizophrenia (68.9% and 31.6%, respectively). On the other hand, in the control group the number of females outweighed that of males (58.4% and 41.6% respectively). The scale had a good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha 0.91. There was a significant difference between the scores on the three subscales of the PANSS. Patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher (p<.0001) than the control subjects on subscales for positive symptoms 20.01(SD=7.21) and 7.30(SD=1.38), negative symptoms 18.89(SD=8.88) and 7.37(SD=2.38) and general psychopathology 34.41 (SD=11.56) and 16.93 (SD=3.93), respectively. Factor analysis and ROC curve were carried out to further test the psychometrics of the scale. Conclusions: The Arabic version of PANSS is a reliable and valid tool to assess both positive and negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia in a balanced manner. In addition to providing the Arab population with a standardized tool to monitor symptoms of schizophrenia, this version provides a gateway to compare the prevalence of positive and negative symptoms in the Arab world which can be compared to others done elsewhere.

Keywords: Arabic version, assessment, diagnosis, schizophrenia, validation

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