Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 4001

Search results for: rare earth elements

4001 Rare Earth Element (REE) Geochemistry of Tepeköy Sandstones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

Authors: Mehmet Yavuz Hüseyinca, Şuayip Küpeli

Abstract:

Sandstones from Upper Eocene - Oligocene Tepeköy formation (Member of Mezgit Group) that exposed on the eastern edge of Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents. Average concentrations of ΣREE, ΣLREE (Total light rare earth elements) and ΣHREE (Total heavy rare earth elements) were determined as 31.37, 26.47 and 4.55 ppm respectively. These values are lower than UCC (Upper continental crust) which indicates grain size and/or CaO dilution effect. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by the average ratios of (La/Yb)cn = 6.20, (La/Sm)cn = 4.06, (Gd/Lu)cn = 1.10, Eu/Eu* = 0.99 and Ce/Ce* = 0.94. Lower values of ΣLREE/ΣHREE (Average 5.97) and (La/Yb)cn suggest lower fractionation of overall REE. Moreover (La/Sm)cn and (Gd/Lu)cn ratios define less inclined LREE and almost flat HREE pattern when compared with UCC. Almost no Ce anomaly (Ce/Ce*) emphasizes that REE were originated from terrigenous material. Also depleted LREE and no Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*) suggest an undifferentiated mafic provenance for the sandstones.

Keywords: central Anatolia, provenance, rare earth elements, REE, Tepeköy sandstone

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4000 Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes

Authors: Nice Vasconcelos Coimbra, Fábio dos Santos Gonçalves, Marisa Nascimento, Ellen Cristine Giese

Abstract:

The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempts to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III)> La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.

Keywords: rare earth elements, biosorption, Bacillus subtilis, adsorption isotherm models

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3999 Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Liquidity and Mechanical Properties of Phase Formation Reaction Change in Cast Iron by Cooling Curve Analysis

Authors: S. Y. Park, S. M. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. M. Lim

Abstract:

In this research analyzed the effects that phase formation reaction change in the grey cast iron makes on characteristics of microstructures, liquidity, and mechanical properties through cooling curve when adding rare earth elements (R.E). This research was analyzed with comparison between the case of not adding the rare earth elements (R.E) into the grey cast iron with the standard composition (as 3.3%C-2.1%Si-0.7%Mn-0.1%S) and the case of adding 0.3% rare earth elements (R.E). The thermal analysis parameters have been drawn through eutectic temperature theoretically calculated, recalescence temperature, and undercooling temperature measured from start of eutectic reaction to end of solidification in the cooling curve obtained by thermal analysis to analyze formation behavior of graphite, and the effects by addition of rare earth elements on this have been reviewed. When adding rare earth elements (R.E), the cause of liquidity slowdown was analyzed trough the solidification starting temperature and change of solidification ending temperature. The strength and hardness have been measured to evaluate the mechanical properties, and the sound tensile strength has been evaluated through quality coefficient after measuring relative hardness and normality degree of tensile strength by calculating theoretical tensile strength and theoretical hardness. The change of Pearlite Inter-lamellar Spacing of matrix microstructure and eutectic cell count of macrostructure was measured to analyze the effects of the rare earth elements on the sound tensile strength. The change of eutectic cell count has been clarified through activation of the eutectic reaction, and the cause of pearlite inter-lamellar spacing clarified through eutectoid reaction temperature.

Keywords: cooling curve, element, grey cast iron, thermal analysis, rare earth element

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3998 Adsorption of Cerium as One of the Rare Earth Elements Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes from Aqueous Solution: Modeling, Equilibrium and Kinetics

Authors: Saeb Ahmadi, Mohsen Vafaie Sefti, Mohammad Mahdi Shadman, Ebrahim Tangestani

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube has shown great potential for the removal of various inorganic and organic components due to properties such as large surface area and high adsorption capacity. Central composite design is widely used method for determining optimal conditions. Also due to the economic reasons and wide application, the rare earth elements are important components. The analyses of cerium (Ce(III)) adsorption as one of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) adsorption on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been studied. The optimization process was performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum amount conditions were pH of 4.5, initial Ce (III) concentration of 90 mg/l and MWCNTs dosage of 80 mg. Under this condition, the optimum adsorption percentage of Ce (III) was obtained about 96%. Next, at the obtained optimum conditions the kinetic and isotherm studied and result showed the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm are more fitted with experimental data than other models.

Keywords: cerium, rare earth element, MWCNTs, adsorption, optimization

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3997 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho

Abstract:

Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

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3996 Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids

Authors: George B. Abaka-Wood, Massimiliano Zanin, Jonas Addai-Mensah, William Skinner

Abstract:

The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.

Keywords: depressants, flotation, oleic acid, sodium oleate

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3995 Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys with Addition of Rare Earth Elements for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen

Abstract:

Biodegradable metallic materials such as magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have attracted extensive interest for use as bone implant materials. However, the high biodegradation rate of existing Mg alloys in the physiological environment of human body leads to losing mechanical integrity before adequate bone healing and producing a large volume of hydrogen gas. Therefore, slowing down the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys is a critical task in developing new biodegradable Mg alloy implant materials. One of the most effective approaches to achieve this is to strategically design new Mg alloys with low biodegradation rate, excellent biocompatibility, and enhanced mechanical properties. Our research selected biocompatible and biofunctional alloying elements such as zirconium (Zr), strontium (Sr), and rare earth elements (REEs) to alloy Mg and has developed a new series of Mg-Zr-Sr-REEs alloys for biodegradable implant applications. Research results indicated that Sr and Zr additions could refine the grain size, decrease the biodegradation rate, and enhance the biological behaviors of the Mg alloys. The REE addition, such as holmium (Ho) and dysprosium (Dy) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased biodegradation rate. In addition, Ho and Dy additions (≤ 5 wt.%) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho/Dy alloys.

Keywords: biocompatibility, magnesium, mechanical and biodegrade properties, rare earth elements

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3994 Separation of Rare-Earth Metals from E-Wastes

Authors: Gulsara Akanova, Akmaral Ismailova, Duisek Kamysbayev

Abstract:

The separation of rare earth metals (REM) from a neodymium magnet has been widely studied in the last year. The waste of computer hard disk contains 25.41 % neodymium, 64.09 % iron, and <<1 % boron. To further the separation of rare-earth metals, the magnet dissolved in open and closed systems with nitric acid. In the closed system, the magnet was dissolved in a microwave sample preparation system at different temperatures and pressures and the dissolution process lasted 1 hour. In the open system, the acid dissolution of the magnet was conducted at room temperature and the process lasted 30-40 minutes. To remove the iron in the magnet, oxalic acid was used and precipitated as oxalates under both conditions. For separation of rare earth metals (Nd, Pr and Dy) from magnet waste is used sorption method.

Keywords: dissolution of the magnet, Neodymium magnet, rare earth metals, separation, Sorption

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3993 Synthesis of Rare-Earth Pyrazolate Compounds

Authors: Nazli Eslamirad, Peter C. Junk, Jun Wang, Glen B. Deacon

Abstract:

Since coordination behavior of pyrazoles and pyrazolate ions are widely versatile towards a great range of metals such as d-block, f-block as well as main group elements; they attract interest as ligands for preparing compounds. A variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes have been synthesized by redox transmetalation/protolysis (RTP) previously, therefore, a variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes using two pyrazoles, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Me₂pzH) and 3,5-di-tert -butylpyrazolate (t-Bu₂pzH), in which the structures span the whole La-Lu array beside Sc and Y has been synthesized by RTP reaction. There have been further developments in this study: Synthesizing structure of [Tb(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ which is isomorphous with those of the previously reported [Dy(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ and [Lu(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ analogous that has two µ-1(N):2(Nʹ)-Me2pz ligands (the most common pyrazolate ligation for non-rare-earth complexes). Previously most of the reported compounds using t-Bu2pzH were monomeric compounds however the lanthanum derivative [La(Me₂pz)₃thf₂] ,which has been reported previously without crystal structure, has now been structurally characterized, along with cerium and lutetium analogue. Also a polymeric structure with samarium has now been synthesized which the neodymium analogue has been reported previously and comparing these polymeric structures can support the idea that the geometry of Sm(tBu₂pz)₃ affect the coordination of the solvent. Also, by using 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) instead of tetrahydrofuran (THF) new [Er(tBu₂pz)₃ (dme)₂] has now been reported.

Keywords: lanthanoid complexes, pyrazolate, redox transmetalation/protolysis, x-ray crystal structures

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3992 Structural and Optical Properties of Ce3+ Doped YPO4: Nanophosphors Synthesis by Sol Gel Method

Authors: B. Kahouadji, L. Guerbous, L. Lamiri, A. Mendoud

Abstract:

Recently, nanomaterials are developed in the form of nano-films, nano-crystals and nano-pores. Lanthanide phosphates as a material find extensive application as laser, ceramic, sensor, phosphor, and also in optoelectronics, medical and biological labels, solar cells and light sources. Among the different kinds of rare-earth orthophosphates, yttrium orthophosphate has been shown to be an efficient host lattice for rare earth activator ions, which have become a research focus because of their important role in the field of light display systems, lasers, and optoelectronic devices. It is in this context that the 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies .Though there has been a few reports on Eu3+, Nd3+, Pr3+,Er3+, Ce3+, Tm3+ doped YPO4. The 4fn- « 4fn-1 5d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggesting to study on a very specific class of inorganic material that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions. This study focused on the effect of Ce3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Ce3+ doped YPO4 yttrium orthophosphate with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: YPO4, Ce3+, 4fn- <->4fn-1 5d transitions, scintillator

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3991 Sol-Gel Synthesis and Photoluminescent Properties of YPO4: Pr3+ Nanophosphors

Authors: Badis Kahouadji, Lakhdar Guerbous, Lyes Lamiri

Abstract:

For many years, the luminescent materials were investigated principally in the infrared and visible areas, because the ultraviolet (UV) and especially in vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) are technically more difficult to explore, especially absence of applications requiring of materials suitable to short wavelengths.Recent necessary, related to the development of certain technologies, encouraged research in these spectra domains. It is in this context that the 4Fn-4Fn-1 5d transitions of rare earth in insulating materials, lying in the UV and VUV, are the aim of large number of studies. These studies relate in particular to search for new scintillator materials used for spectroscopy and X-ray, ɤ, as well as medical imaging. The 4Fn- 4Fn-15d transitions of the rare earth dependent to the host-matrix, several matrices ions were used to study these transitions, in this work we are suggeting to study on a very specific class of inorganic scintillators that are orthophosphate doped with rare earth ions, this study focused on the Pr3+ concentration on the structural and optical properties of Pr3+ doped YPO4 (yttriumorthophosphate) with powder form prepared by the Sol Gel method.

Keywords: rare earth, scintillator, YPO4:Pr3+ nanophosphors, sol gel, 4Fn-4Fn-15d transitions

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3990 Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Anorogenic Acid Plutonic Rocks of Khanak and Devsar of Southwestern Haryana

Authors: Naresh Kumar, Radhika Sharma, A. K. Singh

Abstract:

Acid plutonic rocks from the Khanak and Devsar areas of southwestern Haryana were investigated to understand their geochemical and petrogenetic characteristics and tectonic environments. Three dominant rock types (grey, grayish green and pink granites) are the principal geochemical features of Khanak and Devsar areas which reflect the dependencies of their composition on varied geological environment during the anorogenic magmatism. These rocks are enriched in SiO₂, Na₂O+K₂O, Fe/Mg, Rb, Zr, Y, Th, U, REE (Rare Earth Elements) enriched and depleted in MgO, CaO, Sr, P, Ti, Ni, Cr, V and Eu and exhibit a clear affinity to the within-plate granites that were emplaced in an extensional tectonic environment. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show enriched LREE (Light Rare Earth Elements), moderate to strong negative Eu anomalies and flat heavy REE and grey and grayish green is different from pink granite which is enriched by Rb, Ga, Nb, Th, U, Y and HREE (Heavy Rare Earth Elements) concentrations. The composition of parental magma of both areas corresponds to mafic source contaminated with crustal materials. Petrogenetic modelling suggest that the acid plutonic rocks might have been generated from a basaltic source by partial melting (15-25%) leaving a residue with 35% plagioclase, 25% alkali feldspar, 25% quartz, 7% orthopyroxene, 5% biotite and 3% hornblende. Granites from both areas might be formed from different sources with different degree of melting for grey, grayish green and pink granites.

Keywords: A-type granite, anorogenic, Malani igneous suite, Khanak and Devsar

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3989 Deformability of the Rare Earth Metal Modified Metastable-β Alloy Ti-15Mo

Authors: F. Brunke, L. Waalkes, C. Siemers

Abstract:

Due to reduced stiffness, research on second generation titanium alloys for implant applications, like the metastable β-titanium alloy Ti-15Mo, become more and more important in the recent years. The machinability of these alloys is generally poor leading to problems during implant production and comparably large production costs. Therefore, in the present study, Ti 15Mo was alloyed with 0.8 wt.-% of the rare earth metals lanthanum (Ti-15Mo+0.8La) and neodymium (Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd) to improve its machinability. Their microstructure consisted of a titanium matrix and micrometer-size particles of the rare earth metals and two of their oxides. The particles stabilized the micro structure as grain growth was minimized. As especially the ductility might be affected by the precipitates, the behavior of Ti-15Mo+0.8La and Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd was investigated during static and dynamic deformation at elevated temperature to develop a processing route. The resulting mechanical properties (static strength and ductility) were similar in all investigated alloys.

Keywords: Ti 15Mo, titanium alloys, rare earth metals, free machining alloy

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3988 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method and Annealing Effect

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jaromir Havlica, Zuzana Kozakova, Jiri Masilko, Lukas Kalina, Miroslava Hajdúchová, Vojtěch Enev, Jaromir Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) doped CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed the effect of annealing temperature on size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and particles were in the range of 10-100 nm. The magnetic properties of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with annealing temperature/ particle size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, rare-earth ions, spinel ferrite nanoparticles, magnetic properties

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3987 Pre-Analysis of Printed Circuit Boards Based on Multispectral Imaging for Vision Based Recognition of Electronics Waste

Authors: Florian Kleber, Martin Kampel

Abstract:

The increasing demand of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements for the production of electronics, e.g. solid state-lighting, photovoltaics, integrated circuits, and liquid crystal displays, will exceed the world-wide supply according to current forecasts. Recycling systems to reclaim these materials are not yet in place, which challenges the sustainability of these technologies. This paper proposes a multispectral imaging system as a basis for a vision based recognition system for valuable components of electronics waste. Multispectral images intend to enhance the contrast of images of printed circuit boards (single components, as well as labels) for further analysis, such as optical character recognition and entire printed circuit board recognition. The results show that a higher contrast is achieved in the near infrared compared to ultraviolet and visible light.

Keywords: electronics waste, multispectral imaging, printed circuit boards, rare-earth elements

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3986 Magnetic Properties of Layered Rare-Earth Oxy-Carbonates Ln2O2CO3 (Ln = Nd, Sm, and Dy)

Authors: U. Arjun, K. Brinda, M. Padmanabhan, R. Nath

Abstract:

Polycrystalline samples of rare-earth oxy-carbonates Ln2O2CO3 (Ln = Nd, Sm, and Dy) are synthesized, and their structural and magnetic properties are investigated. All of them crystallize in a hexagonal structure with space group P6_3/mmc. They form a double layered structure with frustrated triangular arrangement of rare-earth magnetic ions. An antiferromagnetic transition is observed at TN ≈ 1.25 K, 0.61 K, and 1.21 K for Nd2O2CO3, Sm2O2CO3, and Dy2O2CO3, respectively. From the analysis of magnetic susceptibility, the value of the Curie-Weiss temperature θ_CW is obtained to be ≈ 21.7 K, 18 K, and 10.6 K for Nd2O2CO3, Sm2O2CO3, and Dy2O2CO3, respectively. The magnetic frustration parameter f ( = |θ_CW|/T_N) is calculated to be ≈ 17.4, 31, and 8.8 for Nd2O2CO3, Sm2O2CO3, and Dy2O2CO3, respectively which indicates that Sm2O2CO3 is strongly frustrated compared to its Nd and Dy analogues.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, exchange and superexchange, heat capacity, magnetically ordered materials

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3985 Recovery of Rare Earths and Scandium from in situ Leaching Solutions

Authors: Maxim S. Botalov, Svetlana М. Titova, Denis V. Smyshlyaev, Grigory M. Bunkov, Evgeny V. Kirillov, Sergey V. Kirillov, Maxim A. Mashkovtsev, Vladimir N. Rychkov

Abstract:

In uranium production, in-situ leaching (ISL) with its relatively low cost has become an important technology. As the orebody containing uranium most often contains a considerable value of other metals, particularly rare earth metals it has rendered feasible to recover the REM from the barren ISL solutions, from which the major uranium content has been removed. Ural Federal University (UrFU, Ekaterinburg, Russia) have performed joint research on the development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from Uranium ISL solutions. Leaching experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution model. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 500 kg/hr of solids. The pilot allows for the recovery of a 99% concentrate of scandium oxide and collective concentrate with over 50 % REM content, with further recovery of heavy and light REM concentrates (99%).

Keywords: extraction, ion exchange, rare earth elements, scandium

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3984 Determination of Rare Earth Element Patterns in Uranium Matrix for Nuclear Forensics Application: Method Development for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Measurements

Authors: Bernadett Henn, Katalin Tálos, Éva Kováss Széles

Abstract:

During the last 50 years, the worldwide permeation of the nuclear techniques induces several new problems in the environmental and in the human life. Nowadays, due to the increasing of the risk of terrorism worldwide, the potential occurrence of terrorist attacks using also weapon of mass destruction containing radioactive or nuclear materials as e.g. dirty bombs, is a real threat. For instance, the uranium pellets are one of the potential nuclear materials which are suitable for making special weapons. The nuclear forensics mainly focuses on the determination of the origin of the confiscated or found nuclear and other radioactive materials, which could be used for making any radioactive dispersive device. One of the most important signatures in nuclear forensics to find the origin of the material is the determination of the rare earth element patterns (REE) in the seized or found radioactive or nuclear samples. The concentration and the normalized pattern of the REE can be used as an evidence of uranium origin. The REE are the fourteen Lanthanides in addition scandium and yttrium what are mostly found together and really low concentration in uranium pellets. The problems of the REE determination using ICP-MS technique are the uranium matrix (high concentration of uranium) and the interferences among Lanthanides. In this work, our aim was to develop an effective chemical sample preparation process using extraction chromatography for separation the uranium matrix and the rare earth elements from each other following some publications can be found in the literature and modified them. Secondly, our purpose was the optimization of the ICP-MS measuring process for REE concentration. During method development, in the first step, a REE model solution was used in two different types of extraction chromatographic resins (LN® and TRU®) and different acidic media for environmental testing the Lanthanides separation. Uranium matrix was added to the model solution and was proved in the same conditions. Methods were tested and validated using REE UOC (uranium ore concentrate) reference materials. Samples were analyzed by sector field mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS).

Keywords: extraction chromatography, nuclear forensics, rare earth elements, uranium

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3983 The Effect of Addition of Some Rare Earth Materials to Zinc Aluminum Alloy ZA-22

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing several parts in the automobile and aircraft industries. The effect of grain refinement of these alloys by rare earth elements on their mechanical characteristics is scarce. The equal channel angular pressing is relatively recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials subjected to it resulting in refinement of their structure and enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. The phase diagram of these alloys indicates that large dendrites of large grain size can be formed during their solidification of the cast which tends to deteriorate their mechanical strength and surface quality. To overcome this problem they are normally grain refined by either titanium or titanium + boron to their melt prior to solidification. In this paper, comparison between the effect of adding either titanium, (Ti), titanium+boron, (Ti+B), or Molybdenum, Mo, to zinc-aluminum22, alloy, (ZA22) on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of either Ti, Ti+B, or Mo to the ZA22 alloy in the cast condition resulted in refining of their structure being more refined by the addition of Mo, then .Ti+B and less refining by Ti addition. Furthermore, the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the alloy micro structure except in case of Ti+B addition where poisoning i.e. coarsening of the grains has occurred. Regarding the addition of these element on the mechanical behavior; it was found that addition of Ti Or Ti+B resulted in little enhancement of the alloy strength factor and its flow stress at 20% true strain; whereas, the addition of resulted in deteriorating of its mechanical behavior as % decrease in the strength factor and % in its flow stress of 20%. As for the strain hardening index; addition of any of these elements resulted in decreasing the strain hardening index.

Keywords: addition, grain refinement, mechanical characteristics, microstructure, rare earth elements, ZA-22, Zinc- aluminum alloy

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3982 Novel Spoke-Type BLDC Motor Design for Cost Effective and High Power Density

Authors: Suyong Kim

Abstract:

Recently because of the rise in the price of rare earth magnet, interest of non-rare earth or less-rare earth motor is growing. Especially to achieve the high power density, Spoke-Type BLDC (Brushless Permanent Magnet) Motor with ferrite permanent magnet are spotlighted. But Spoke-Type Ferrite BLDC Motor has much of magnetic flux leakage in the direction of rotor shaft. In order to solve this problem, there are two conventional ways. But conventional ways bring the increases of product cost or the decreases of the power density. Therefore, this paper proposes new Spoke-Type BLDC Rotor shape that has the advantages of both conventional methods. The new shape is consists of a one-piece core. The inside and the outside of the rotor are open alternately. So it can take reduced production cost and high power density.

Keywords: motor, BLDC, spoke, ferrite

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3981 Strategic Metals and Rare Earth Elements Exploration of Lithium Cesium Tantalum Type Pegmatites: A Case Study from Northwest Himalayas

Authors: Auzair Mehmood, Mohammad Arif

Abstract:

The LCT (Li, Cs and Ta rich)-type pegmatites, genetically related to peraluminous S-type granites, are being mined for strategic metals (SMs) and rare earth elements (REEs) around the world. This study investigates the SMs and REEs potentials of pegmatites that are spatially associated with an S-type granitic suite of the Himalayan sequence, specifically Mansehra Granitic Complex (MGC), northwest Pakistan. Geochemical signatures of the pegmatites and some of their mineral extracts were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) technique to explore and generate potential prospects (if any) for SMs and REEs. In general, the REE patterns of the studied whole-rock pegmatite samples show tetrad effect and possess low total REE abundances, strong positive Europium (Eu) anomalies, weak negative Cesium (Cs) anomalies and relative enrichment in heavy REE. Similar features have been observed on the REE patterns of the feldspar extracts. However, the REE patterns of the muscovite extracts reflect preferential enrichment and possess negative Eu anomalies. The trace element evaluation further suggests that the MGC pegmatites have undergone low levels of fractionation. Various trace elements concentrations (and their ratios) including Ta versus Cs, K/Rb (Potassium/Rubidium) versus Rb and Th/U (Thorium/Uranium) versus K/Cs, were used to analyze the economically viable mineral potential of the studied rocks. On most of the plots, concentrations fall below the dividing line and confer either barren or low-level mineralization potential of the studied rocks for both SMs and REEs. The results demonstrate paucity of the MGC pegmatites with respect to Ta-Nb (Tantalum-Niobium) mineralization, which is in sharp contrast to many Pan-African S-type granites around the world. The MGC pegmatites are classified as muscovite pegmatites based on their K/Rb versus Cs relationship. This classification is consistent with the occurrence of rare accessory minerals like garnet, biotite, tourmaline, and beryl. Furthermore, the classification corroborates with an earlier sorting of the MCG pegmatites into muscovite-bearing, biotite-bearing, and subordinate muscovite-biotite types. These types of pegmatites lack any significant SMs and REEs mineralization potentials. Field relations, such as close spatial association with parent granitic rocks and absence of internal zonation structure, also reflect the barren character and hence lack of any potential prospects of the MGC pegmatites.

Keywords: exploration, fractionation, Himalayas, pegmatites, rare earth elements

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3980 Atomic Hydrogen Storage in Hexagonal GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu Rare Earth Compounds: A Comparative Density Functional Theory Study

Authors: A. Kellou, L. Rouaiguia, L. Rabahi

Abstract:

In the present work, the atomic hydrogen absorption trend in the GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu rare earth compounds within the hexagonal CaCu5 type of crystal structure (space group P6/mmm) is investigated. The density functional theory (DFT) combined with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is used to study the site preference of atomic hydrogen at 0K. The octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites are considered. The formation energies and structural properties are determined in order to evaluate hydrogen effects on the stability of the studied compounds. The energetic diagram of hydrogen storage is established and compared in GdNi5 and GdNi4Cu. The magnetic properties of the selected compounds are determined using spin polarized calculations. The obtained results are discussed with and without hydrogen addition taking into account available theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: density functional theory, hydrogen storage, rare earth compounds, structural and magnetic properties

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3979 Luminescence and Local Environment: Identification of Thermal History

Authors: Veronique Jubera, Guillaume Salek, Manuel Gaudon, Alain Garcia, Alain Demourgues

Abstract:

Luminescence of transition metal and rare earth elements cover ultraviolet to far infrared wavelengths. Applications of phosphors are numerous. One can cite lighting, sensing, laser, energy, medical or military applications. But regarding each domain, specific criteria are required and they can be achieved with a strong control of the chemical composition. Emission of doped materials can be tailored with modifications of the local environment of the cations. For instance, the increase of the crystal field effect shifts the divalent manganese radiative transitions from the green to the red color. External factor as heat-treatment can induce changes of the doping element location or modify the unit cell crystalline symmetry. By controlling carefully the synthesis route, it is possible to initiate emission shift and to establish the thermal history of a compound. We propose to demonstrate through the luminescence of divalent manganese and trivalent rare earth doped oxide, that it is possible to follow the thermal history of a material. After optimization of the synthesis route, structural and optical properties are discussed. Finally, thermal calibration graphs are successfully established on these doped compounds. This makes these materials promising probe for thermal sensing.

Keywords: emission, thermal sensing, transition metal, rare eath element

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3978 Conventional Synthesis and Characterization of Zirconium Molybdate, Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9

Authors: G. Çelik Gül, F. Kurtuluş

Abstract:

Rare earths containing complex metal oxides have drawn much attention due to physical, chemical and optical properties which make them feasible in so many areas such as non-linear optical materials and ion exchanger. We have researched a systematic study to obtain rare earth containing zirconium molybdate compound, characterization, investigation of crystal system and calculation of unit cell parameters.  After a successful synthesis of Nd2Zr3(MoO4)9 which is a member of rare earth metal containing complex oxides family, X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Score Plus/Rietveld refinement analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were completed to determine the crystal structure. Morphological properties and elemental composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Thermal properties were observed via Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA).

Keywords: Nd₂Zr₃(MoO₄)₉, powder x-ray diffraction, solid state synthesis, zirconium molybdates

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3977 Thermodynamic Approach of Lanthanide-Iron Double Oxides Formation

Authors: Vera Varazashvili, Murman Tsarakhov, Tamar Mirianashvili, Teimuraz Pavlenishvili, Tengiz Machaladze, Mzia Khundadze

Abstract:

Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity – temperature functions and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 of formation. Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the isostructural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.

Keywords: calorimetry, entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity, gibbs energy of formation, rare earth iron garnets

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3976 Standard Gibbs Energy of Formation and Entropy of Lanthanide-Iron Oxides of Garnet Crystal Structure

Authors: Vera Varazashvili, Murman Tsarakhov, Tamar Mirianashvili, Teimuraz Pavlenishvili, Tengiz Machaladze, Mzia Khundadze

Abstract:

Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 (formation). Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the isostructural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.

Keywords: calorimetry, entropy, heat capacity, Gibbs energy of formation, rare earth iron garnets

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
3975 Origin of the Eocene Volcanic Rocks in Muradlu Village, Azerbaijan Province, Northwest of Iran

Authors: A. Shahriari, M. Khalatbari Jafari, M. Faridi

Abstract:

Abstract The Muradlu volcanic area is located in Azerbaijan province, NW Iran. The studied area exposed in a vast region includes lesser Caucasus, Southeastern Turkey, and northwestern Iran, comprising Cenozoic volcanic and plutonic massifs. The geology of this extended region was under the influence of the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny. Cenozoic magmatic activities in this vast region evolved through the northward subduction of the Neotethyan subducted slab and subsequence collision of the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Based on stratigraphy and paleontology data, most of the volcanic activities in the Muradlu area occurred in the Eocene period. The Studied volcanic rocks overly late Cretaceous limestone with disconformity. The volcanic sequence includes thick epiclastic and hyaloclastite breccia at the base, laterally changed to pillow lava and continued by hyaloclastite and lave flows at the top of the series. The lava flows display different textures from megaporphyric-phyric to fluidal and microlithic textures. The studied samples comprise picrobasalt basalt, tephrite basanite, trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, phonotephrite, tephrophonolite, trachyandesite, and trachyte in compositions. Some xenoliths with lherzolitic composition are found in picrobasalt. These xenoliths are made of olivine, cpx (diopside), and opx (enstatite), probably the remain of mantle origin. Some feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite presence in the phonotephrite confirm an alkaline trend. Two types of augite phenocrysts are found in picrobasalt, basalt and trachybasalt. The first types are shapeless, with disharmony zoning and sponge texture with reaction edges probably resulted from sodic magma, which is affected by a potassic magma. The second shows a glomerocryst shape. In discriminative diagrams, the volcanic rocks show alkaline-shoshonitic trends. They contain (0.5-7.7) k2O values and plot in the shoshonitic field. Most of the samples display transitional to potassic alkaline trends, and some samples reveal sodic alkaline trends. The transitional trend probably results from the mixing of the sodic alkaline and potassic magmas. The Rare Earth Elements (REE) patterns and spider diagrams indicate enrichment of Large-Ione Lithophile Element (LILE) and depletion of High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE). Enrichment of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zr, Th, and U and the enrichment of Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE) relative to Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) indicate the effect of subduction-related fluids over the mantle source, which has been reported in the arc and continental collision zones. The studied samples show low Nb/La ratios. Our studied samples plot in the lithosphere and lithosphere-asthenosphere fields in the Nb/La versus La/Yb ratios diagram. These geochemical characters allow us to conclude that a lithospheric mantle source previously metasomatized by subduction components was the origin of the Muradlu volcanic rocks.

Keywords: alkaline, asthenosphere, lherzolite, lithosphere, Muradlu, potassic, shoshonitic, sodic, volcanism

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3974 Theoretical Study of the Structural and Elastic Properties of Semiconducting Rare Earth Chalcogenide Sm1-XEuXS under Pressure

Authors: R. Dubey, M. Sarwan, S. Singh

Abstract:

We have investigated the phase transition pressure and associated volume collapse in Sm1– X EuX S alloy (0≤x≤1) which shows transition from discontinuous to continuous as x is reduced. The calculated results from present approach are in good agreement with experimental data available for the end point members (x=0 and x=1). The results for the alloy counter parts are also in fair agreement with experimental data generated from the vegard’s law. An improved interaction potential model has been developed which includes coulomb, three body interaction, polarizability effect and overlap repulsive interaction operative up to second neighbor ions. It is found that the inclusion of polarizability effect has improved our results.

Keywords: elastic constants, high pressure, phase transition, rare earth compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
3973 Life Cycle Assessment of Rare Earth Metals Production: Hotspot Analysis of Didymium Electrolysis Process

Authors: Sandra H. Fukurozaki, Andre L. N. Silva, Joao B. F. Neto, Fernando J. G. Landgraf

Abstract:

Nowadays, the rare earth (RE) metals play an important role in emerging technologies that are crucial for the decarbonisation of the energy sector. Their unique properties have led to increasing clean energy applications, such as wind turbine generators, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Despite the substantial media coverage that has recently surrounded the mining and processing of rare earth metals, very little quantitative information is available concerning their subsequent life stages, especially related to the metallic production of didymium (Nd-Pr) in fluoride molten salt system. Here we investigate a gate to gate scale life cycle assessment (LCA) of the didymium electrolysis based on three different scenarios of operational conditions. The product system is modeled with SimaPro Analyst 8.0.2 software, and IMPACT 2002+ was applied as an impact assessment tool. In order to develop a life cycle inventories built in software databases, patents, and other published sources together with energy/mass balance were utilized. Analysis indicates that from the 14 midpoint impact categories evaluated, the global warming potential (GWP) is the main contributors to the total environmental burden, ranging from 2.7E2 to 3.2E2 kg CO2eq/kg Nd-Pr. At the damage step assessment, the results suggest that slight changes in materials flows associated with enhancement of current efficiency (between 2.5% and 5%), could lead a reduction up to 12% and 15% of human health and climate change damage, respectively. Additionally, this paper highlights the knowledge gaps and future research efforts needing to understand the environmental impacts of Nd-Pr electrolysis process from the life cycle perspective.

Keywords: didymium electrolysis, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, rare earth metals

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3972 Rare Earth Elements and Radioactivity of Granitoid Rocks at Abu Marw Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

Authors: Adel H.El-Afandy, Abd Alrahman Embaby, Mona A. El Harairey

Abstract:

Abu Marw area is located in the southeastern part of the Eastern Desert, about 150km south east of Aswan. Abu Marw area is mainly covered by late Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. These basement rocks are nonconformably overlain by late Cretaceous Nubian sandstones in the western and northern parts of the areas. Abu Marw granitoid batholiths comprises a co-magmatic calc alkaline I type peraluminous suite of rocks ranging in composition from tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite, syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite. The studied tonalite and granodiorite samples have ΣREE lower than the average REE values (250ppm) of granitic rocks, while the monzogranite, syenogranite and alkali feldspar granite samples have ΣREE above the average REE values of granitic rocks. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the considered granites display a gull-wing shape, characterized by large to moderately fractionated patterns and high LREE relative to the MREE and HREE contents. Furthermore, the studied rocks have a steadily decreasing Eu/Eu* values from the tonalite to the alkali feldspar granite with simultaneous increase in the ΣREE contents. The average U contents in different granitic rocks.

Keywords: granite, rare earth element, radioactivity, Abu Marw, south eastern desert

Procedia PDF Downloads 351