Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 340

Search results for: coal gasification

340 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification

Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian

Abstract:

Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.

Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
339 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

Abstract:

Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: underground coal gasification, clean coal technology, calorific value, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
338 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
337 Effect of Minerals in Middlings on the Reactivity of Gasification-Coke by Blending a Large Proportion of Long Flame Coal

Authors: Jianjun Wu, Fanhui Guo, Yixin Zhang

Abstract:

In this study, gasification-coke were produced by blending the middlings (MC), and coking coal (CC) and a large proportion of long flame coal (Shenfu coal, SC), the effects of blending ratio were investigated. Mineral evolution and crystalline order obtained by XRD methods were reproduced within reasonable accuracy. Structure characteristics of partially gasification-coke such as surface area and porosity were determined using the N₂ adsorption and mercury porosimetry. Experimental data of gasification-coke was dominated by the TGA results provided trend, reactivity differences between gasification-cokes are discussed in terms of structure characteristic, crystallinity, and alkali index (AI). The first-order reaction equation was suitable for the gasification reaction kinetics of CO₂ atmosphere which was represented by the volumetric reaction model with linear correlation coefficient above 0.985. The differences in the microporous structure of gasification-coke and catalysis caused by the minerals in parent coals were supposed to be the main factors which affect its reactivity. The addition of MC made the samples enriched with a large amount of ash causing a higher surface area and a lower crystalline order to gasification-coke which was beneficial to gasification reaction. The higher SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ contents, causing a decreasing AI value and increasing activation energy, which reduced the gasification reaction activity. It was found that the increasing amount of MC got a better performance on the coke gasification reactivity by blending > 30% SC with this coking process.

Keywords: low-rank coal, middlings, structure characteristic, mineral evolution, alkali index, gasification-coke, gasification kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
336 Experimental Study on Effects of Addition of Rice Husk on Coal Gasification

Authors: M. Bharath, Vasudevan Raghavan, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad, S. R. Chakravarthy

Abstract:

In this experimental study, effects of addition of rice husk on coal gasification in a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, operating at atmospheric pressure with air as gasifying agent, are reported. Rice husks comprising of 6.5% and 13% by mass are added to coal. Results show that, when rice husk is added the methane yield increases from volumetric percentage of 0.56% (with no rice husk) to 2.77% (with 13% rice husk). CO and H2 remain almost unchanged and CO2 decreases with addition of rice husk. The calorific value of the synthetic gas is around 2.73 MJ/Nm3. All performance indices, such as cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, increase with addition of rice husk.

Keywords: bubbling fluidized bed reactor, calorific value, coal gasification, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
335 In-situ Oxygen Enrichment for UCG

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Membrane separation technology is still considered as an emerging technology in the mining sector and does not yet have the widespread acceptance that it has in other industrial sectors. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), wherein coal is converted to gas in-situ, is a safer alternative to mining method that retains all pollutants underground making the process environmentally friendly. In-situ combustion of coal for power generation allows access to more of the physical global coal resource than would be included in current economically recoverable reserve estimates. Where mining is no longer taking place, for economic or geological reasons, controlled gasification permits exploitation of the deposit (again a reaction of coal to form a synthesis gas) of coal seams in situ. The oxygen supply stage is one of the most expensive parts of any gasification project but the use of membranes is a potentially attractive approach for producing oxygen-enriched air. In this study, a variety of cost-effective membrane materials that gives an optimal amount of oxygen concentrations in the range of interest was designed and tested at diverse operating conditions. Oxygen-enriched atmosphere improves the combustion temperature but a decline is observed if oxygen concentration exceeds optimum. Experimental result also reveals the preparatory method, apparatus and performance of the fabricated membrane.

Keywords: membranes, oxygen-enrichment, gasification, coal

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
334 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

Abstract:

Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: clean coal technology, CO₂ gasification, activation energy, underground coal gasification

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
333 Mini Coal Gasifier for Fulfilling Small-Scale Industries Energy Consumption in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Ade Andriansyah Efendi, Ika Monika

Abstract:

Mini coal gasifier (GasMin) is a small reactor that could convert coal into combustible gas or producer gas which is designed to fulfill energy needs of small-scale industries. The producer gas can be utilized for both external and internal combustion. The design of coal gasifier is suitable for community require because it is easy to handle, affordable and environmentally friendly. The feasibility study shows that the substitution of 12 kg LPG or specially 50 kg LPG into GasMin of 20 kg coal capacity per hour is very attractive. The estimation price of 20 kg coal per hour capacity GasMin is 40 million rupiahs. In the year 2016, the implementation of GasMin conducted at alumunium industry and batik industry at Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Keywords: biomass, coal, energy, gasification

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
332 Managing the Effects of Wet Coal on Generation in Thermal Power Station: A Case Study

Authors: Ravindra Gohane, S. V. Deshmukh

Abstract:

The coal acts as a fuel on a very large scale. Coal forms the basis of any thermal power plant. Different types of coal are available for utilization. The moisture content, volatile nature and ash content determines the type of the coal. Out of these moisture plays a very important part as it is present naturally within the coal and is added while handling the coal and is termed as wet coal. The problems of wet coal are many and more particularly during rainy season such as generation loss, jamming of crusher, reduction in calorific value, transportation of coal etc. Efforts are made to resolve the problems arising out of wet coal worldwide. This paper highlights the issue of resolving the problem due to wet coal with the help of a case study involving installation of V-type wiper on the conveyer belt.

Keywords: coal handling plant, wet coal, v-type, generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
331 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Study in Solvent Extraction of o-Cresol from Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation, also in some industries such as steel, power plant, cement, and others. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research investigates thermodynamic modelling of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) in solvent extraction of o-Cresol from the coal tar. The equilibria are modeled by ternary components of Wohl, Van Laar, and Three-Suffix Margules models. The values of the parameters involved are obtained by curve-fitting to the experimental data. Based on the comparison between calculated and experimental data, it turns out that among the three models studied, the Three-Suffix Margules seems to be the best to predict the LLE of o-Cresol for those system.

Keywords: coal tar, o-Cresol, Wohl, Van Laar, three-suffix margules

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
330 Clean Coal Using Coal Bed Methane: A Pollution Control Mechanism

Authors: Arish Iqbal, Santosh Kumar Singh

Abstract:

Energy from coal is one of the major source of energy throughout the world but taking into consideration its effect on environment 'Clean Coal Technologies' (CCT) came into existence. In this paper we have we studied why CCT’s are essential and what are the different types of CCT’s. Also, the coal and CCT scenario in India is introduced. Coal Bed Methane one of major CCT area is studied in detail. Different types of coal bed methane and its methods of extraction are discussed. The different problem areas during the extraction of CBM are identified and discussed. How CBM can be used as a fuel for future is also discussed.

Keywords: CBM (coal bed methane), CCS (carbon capture and storage), CCT (clean coal technology), CMM (coal mining methane)

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
329 Thermodynamic Modelling of Liquid-Liquid Equilibria (LLE) in the Separation of p-Cresol from the Coal Tar by Solvent Extraction

Authors: D. S. Fardhyanti, Megawati, W. B. Sediawan

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal gasification and carbonation. This liquid oil mixture contains various kinds of useful compounds such as aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. This research investigates thermodynamic modelling of liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) in the separation of phenol from the coal tar by solvent extraction. The equilibria are modeled by ternary components of Wohl, Van Laar, and Three-Suffix Margules models. The values of the parameters involved are obtained by curve-fitting to the experimental data. Based on the comparison between calculated and experimental data, it turns out that among the three models studied, the Three-Suffix Margules seems to be the best to predict the LLE of p-Cresol mixtures for those system.

Keywords: coal tar, phenol, Wohl, Van Laar, Three-Suffix Margules

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
328 Mathematical Modelling of Slag Formation in an Entrained-Flow Gasifier

Authors: Girts Zageris, Vadims Geza, Andris Jakovics

Abstract:

Gasification processes are of great interest due to their generation of renewable energy in the form of syngas from biodegradable waste. It is, therefore, important to study the factors that play a role in the efficiency of gasification and the longevity of the machines in which gasification takes place. This study focuses on the latter, aiming to optimize an entrained-flow gasifier by reducing slag formation on its walls to reduce maintenance costs. A CFD mathematical model for an entrained-flow gasifier is constructed – the model of an actual gasifier is rendered in 3D and appropriately meshed. Then, the turbulent gas flow in the gasifier is modeled with the realizable k-ε approach, taking devolatilization, combustion and coal gasification into account. Various such simulations are conducted, obtaining results for different air inlet positions and by tracking particles of varying sizes undergoing devolatilization and gasification. The model identifies potential problematic zones where most particles collide with the gasifier walls, indicating risk regions where ash deposits could most likely form. In conclusion, the effects on the formation of an ash layer of air inlet positioning and particle size allowed in the main gasifier tank are discussed, and possible solutions for decreasing a number of undesirable deposits are proposed. Additionally, an estimate of the impact of different factors such as temperature, gas properties and gas content, and different forces acting on the particles undergoing gasification is given.

Keywords: biomass particles, gasification, slag formation, turbulence k-ε modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
327 Plasma Chemical Gasification of Solid Fuel with Mineral Mass Processing

Authors: V. E. Messerle, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. B. Ustimenko

Abstract:

Currently and in the foreseeable future (up to 2100), the global economy is oriented to the use of organic fuel, mostly, solid fuels, the share of which constitutes 40% in the generation of electric power. Therefore, the development of technologies for their effective and environmentally friendly application represents a priority problem nowadays. This work presents the results of thermodynamic and experimental investigations of plasma technology for processing of low-grade coals. The use of this technology for producing target products (synthesis gas, hydrogen, technical carbon, and valuable components of mineral mass of coals) meets the modern environmental and economic requirements applied to basic industrial sectors. The plasma technology of coal processing for the production of synthesis gas from the coal organic mass (COM) and valuable components from coal mineral mass (CMM) is highly promising. Its essence is heating the coal dust by reducing electric arc plasma to the complete gasification temperature, when the COM converts into synthesis gas, free from particles of ash, nitrogen oxides and sulfur. At the same time, oxides of the CMM are reduced by the carbon residue, producing valuable components, such as technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and carbon silicon, as well as microelements of rare metals, such as uranium, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium. Thermodynamic analysis of the process was made using a versatile computation program TERRA. Calculations were carried out in the temperature range 300 - 4000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. Bituminous coal with the ash content of 40% and the heating value 16,632 kJ/kg was taken for the investigation. The gaseous phase of coal processing products includes, basically, a synthesis gas with a concentration of up to 99 vol.% at 1500 K. CMM components completely converts from the condensed phase into the gaseous phase at a temperature above 2600 K. At temperatures above 3000 K, the gaseous phase includes, basically, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Na, and compounds of SiO, SiH, AlH, and SiS. The latter compounds dissociate into relevant elements with increasing temperature. Complex coal conversion for the production of synthesis gas from COM and valuable components from CMM was investigated using a versatile experimental plant the main element of which was plug and flow plasma reactor. The material and thermal balances helped to find the integral indicators for the process. Plasma-steam gasification of the low-grade coal with CMM processing gave the synthesis gas yield 95.2%, the carbon gasification 92.3%, and coal desulfurization 95.2%. The reduced material of the CMM was found in the slag in the form of ferrosilicon as well as silicon and iron carbides. The maximum reduction of the CMM oxides was observed in the slag from the walls of the plasma reactor in the areas with maximum temperatures, reaching 47%. The thusly produced synthesis gas can be used for synthesis of methanol, or as a high-calorific reducing gas instead of blast-furnace coke as well as power gas for thermal power plants. Reduced material of CMM can be used in metallurgy.

Keywords: gasification, mineral mass, organic mass, plasma, processing, solid fuel, synthesis gas, valuable components

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
326 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

Abstract:

The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.

Keywords: biomass fuels, temperature, advanced downdraft gasifier, tar, renewable energy sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
325 Arc Plasma Thermochemical Preparation of Coal to Effective Combustion in Thermal Power Plants

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

This work presents plasma technology for solid fuel ignition and combustion. Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal ignition and combustion. To realise this technology at coal fired power plants plasma-fuel systems (PFS) were developed. PFS improve efficiency of power coals combustion and decrease harmful emission. PFS is pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch. Plasma torch is the main element of the PFS. Plasma forming gas is air. It is blown through the electrodes forming plasma flame. Temperature of this flame is varied from 5000 to 6000 K. Plasma torch power is varied from 100 to 350 kW and geometrical sizes are the following: the height is 0.4-0.5 m and diameter is 0.2-0.25 m. The base of the PFS technology is plasma thermochemical preparation of coal for burning. It consists of heating of the pulverized coal and air mixture by arc plasma up to temperature of coal volatiles release and char carbon partial gasification. In the PFS coal-air mixture is deficient in oxygen and carbon is oxidised mainly to carbon monoxide. As a result, at the PFS exit a highly reactive mixture is formed of combustible gases and partially burned char particles, together with products of combustion, while the temperature of the gaseous mixture is around 1300 K. Further mixing with the air promotes intensive ignition and complete combustion of the prepared fuel. PFS have been tested for boilers start up and pulverized coal flame stabilization in different countries at power boilers of 75 to 950 t/h steam productivity. They were equipped with different types of pulverized coal burners (direct flow, muffle and swirl burners). At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (lignite, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were incinerated. Volatile content of them was from 4 to 50%, ash varied from 15 to 48% and heat of combustion was from 1600 to 6000 kcal/kg. To show the advantages of the plasma technology before conventional technologies of coal combustion numerical investigation of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration in an experimental furnace with heat capacity of 3 MW was fulfilled. Two computer-codes were used for the research. The computer simulation experiments were conducted for low-rank bituminous coal of 44% ash content. The boiler operation has been studied at the conventional mode of combustion and with arc plasma activation of coal combustion. The experiments and computer simulation showed ecological efficiency of the plasma technology. When a plasma torch operates in the regime of plasma stabilization of pulverized coal flame, NOX emission is reduced twice and amount of unburned carbon is reduced four times. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.613.21.0005, project RFMEFI61314X0005).

Keywords: coal, ignition, plasma-fuel system, plasma torch, thermal power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
324 Measurement of Coal Fineness, Air Fuel Ratio, and Fuel Weight Distribution in a Vertical Spindle Mill’s Pulverized Fuel Pipes at Classifier Vane 40%

Authors: Jayasiler Kunasagaram

Abstract:

In power generation, coal fineness is crucial to maintain flame stability, ensure combustion efficiency, and lower emissions to the environment. In order for the pulverized coal to react effectively in the boiler furnace, the size of coal particles needs to be at least 70% finer than 74 μm. This paper presents the experiment results of coal fineness, air fuel ratio and fuel weight distribution in pulverized fuel pipes at classifier vane 40%. The aim of this experiment is to extract the pulverized coal is kinetically and investigate the data accordingly. Dirty air velocity, coal sample extraction, and coal sieving experiments were performed to measure coal fineness. The experiment results show that required coal fineness can be achieved at 40 % classifier vane. However, this does not surpass the desired value by a great margin.

Keywords: coal power, emissions, isokinetic sampling, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
323 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
322 A Numerical Model Simulation for an Updraft Gasifier Using High-Temperature Steam

Authors: T. M. Ismail, M. A. El-Salam

Abstract:

A mathematical model study was carried out to investigate gasification of biomass fuels using high-temperature air and steam as a gasifying agent using high-temperature air up to 1000°C. In this study, a 2D computational fluid dynamics model was developed to study the gasification process in an updraft gasifier, considering drying, pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification reactions. The gas and solid phases were resolved using a Euler−Euler multiphase approach, with exchange terms for the momentum, mass, and energy. The standard k−ε turbulence model was used in the gas phase, and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The results show that the present model giving a promising way in its capability and sensitivity for the parameter effects that influence the gasification process.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, gasification, biomass fuel, fixed bed gasifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
321 Optimizing Coal Yard Management Using Discrete Event Simulation

Authors: Iqbal Felani

Abstract:

A Coal-Fired Power Plant has some integrated facilities to handle coal from three separated coal yards to eight units power plant’s bunker. But nowadays the facilities are not reliable enough for supporting the system. Management planned to invest some facilities to increase the reliability. They also had a plan to make single spesification of coal used all of the units, called Single Quality Coal (SQC). This simulation would compare before and after improvement with two scenarios i.e First In First Out (FIFO) and Last In First Out (LIFO). Some parameters like stay time, reorder point and safety stock is determined by the simulation. Discrete event simulation based software, Flexsim 5.0, is used to help the simulation. Based on the simulation, Single Quality Coal with FIFO scenario has the shortest staytime with 8.38 days.

Keywords: Coal Yard Management, Discrete event simulation First In First Out, Last In First Out.

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
320 Hazardous Gas Detection Robot in Coal Mines

Authors: Kanchan J. Kakade, S. A. Annadate

Abstract:

This paper presents design and development of underground coal mine monitoring using mbed arm cortex controller and ZigBee communication. Coal mine is a special type of mine which is dangerous in nature. Safety is the most important feature of a coal industry for proper functioning. It’s not only for employees and workers but also for environment and nation. Many coal producing countries in the world face phenomenal frequently occurred accidents in coal mines viz, gas explosion, flood, and fire breaking out during coal mines exploitation. Thus, such emissions of various gases from coal mines are necessary to detect with the help of robot. Coal is a combustible, sedimentary, organic rock, which is made up of mainly carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Coal Mine Detection Robot mainly detects mash gas and carbon monoxide. The mash gas is the kind of the mixed gas which mainly make up of methane in the underground of the coal mine shaft, and sometimes it abbreviate to methane. It is formed from vegetation, which has been fused between other rock layers and altered by the combined effects of heat and pressure over millions of years to form coal beds. Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel.

Keywords: Zigbee communication, various sensors, hazardous gases, mbed arm cortex M3 core controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
319 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
318 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan

Abstract:

The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
317 Effect of Coal on Engineering Properties in Building Materials: Opportunity to Manufacturing Insulating Bricks

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Halima Chemani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of adding coal to obtain insulating ceramic product. The preparation of mixtures is achieved with 04 types of different masse compositions, consisting of gray and yellow clay, and coal. Analyses are performed on local raw materials by adding coal as additive. The coal content varies from 5 to 20 % in weight by varying the size of coal particles ranging from 0.25 mm to 1.60 mm. Initially, each natural moisture content of a raw material has been determined at the temperature of 105°C in a laboratory oven. The Influence of low-coal content on absorption, the apparent density, the contraction and the resistance during compression have been evaluated. The experimental results showed that the optimized composition could be obtained by adding 10% by weight of coal leading thus to insulating ceramic products with water absorption, a density and resistance to compression of 9.40 %, 1.88 g/cm3, 35.46 MPa, respectively. The results show that coal, when mixed with traditional raw materials, offers the conditions to be used as an additive in the production of lightweight ceramic products.

Keywords: clay, coal, resistance to compression, insulating bricks

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316 Catalytic Soot Gasification in Single and Mixed Atmospheres of CO2 and H2O in the Presence of CO and H2

Authors: Yeidy Sorani Montenegro Camacho, Samir Bensaid, Nunzio Russo, Debora Fino

Abstract:

LiFeO2 nano-powders were prepared via solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method and were used as carbon gasification catalyst in a reduced atmosphere. The gasification of soot with CO2 and H2O in the presence of CO and H2 (syngas atmosphere) were also investigated under atmospheric conditions using a fixed-bed micro-reactor placed in an electric, PID-regulated oven. The catalytic bed was composed of 150 mg of inert silica, 45 mg of carbon (Printex-U) and 5 mg of catalyst. The bed was prepared by ball milling the mixture at 240 rpm for 15 min to get an intimate contact between the catalyst and soot. A Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) of 38.000 h-1 was used for the tests campaign. The furnace was heated up to the desired temperature, a flow of 120 mL/min was sent into the system and at the same time the concentrations of CO, CO2 and H2 were recorded at the reactor outlet using an EMERSON X-STREAM XEGP analyzer. Catalytic and non-catalytic soot gasification reactions were studied in a temperature range of 120°C – 850°C with a heating rate of 5 °C/min (non-isothermal case) and at 650°C for 40 minutes (isothermal case). Experimental results show that the gasification of soot with H2O and CO2 are inhibited by the H2 and CO, respectively. The soot conversion at 650°C decreases from 70.2% to 31.6% when the CO is present in the feed. Besides, the soot conversion was 73.1% and 48.6% for H2O-soot and H2O-H2-soot gasification reactions, respectively. Also, it was observed that the carbon gasification in mixed atmosphere, i.e., when simultaneous carbon gasification with CO2 and steam take place, with H2 and CO as co-reagents; the gasification reaction is strongly inhibited by CO and H2, as well has been observed in single atmospheres for the isothermal and non-isothermal reactions. Further, it has been observed that when CO2 and H2O react with carbon at the same time, there is a passive cooperation of steam and carbon dioxide in the gasification reaction, this means that the two gases operate on separate active sites without influencing each other. Finally, despite the extreme reduced operating conditions, it has been demonstrated that the 32.9% of the initial carbon was gasified using LiFeO2-catalyst, while in the non-catalytic case only 8% of the soot was gasified at 650°C.

Keywords: soot gasification, nanostructured catalyst, reducing environment, syngas

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315 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

Abstract:

In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

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314 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

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313 Investigation of the Composition and Structure of Tar by Lignite Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetry, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrum Coupled Instrument System

Authors: Li Feng, Cheng Zhang, Chuanzhou Yuang

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Understanding the macromolecular structure of low-rank coal is very important for its gasification and liquefaction. The pyrolysis is one of the methods of analyzing the macromolecular structure of coal. The gaseous products decomposed directly by the raw lignite at 500 °C and indirectly by tar products from raw lignite pyrolysis at 500 °C were investigated and compared by thermogravimetry, gas chromatography and mass spectrum coupled instrument system (TG/GC/MS) in this paper. The results show that 52 kinds of products were found from the raw lignite and 70 kinds of products from the tar. The pyrolysis products directly from the lignite appear more monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and less substituent groups or branch chain, compared with the products from the tar. There is less linear chain and double bonds structure in the tar, which can be speculated that linear chain and double bonds structure took part in the generation of condensed rings and other reactions. There are more kinds of phenol and furan in the tar, which indicate that these products may be generated from the secondary reaction. The formation process of phenol, phenol naphthalene, naphthene and furan are discussed.

Keywords: composition and structure, lignite, pyrolysis of coal, tar, TG/GC/MS

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312 Arc Plasma Application for Solid Waste Processing

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alfred Mosse, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

Abstract:

Hygiene and sanitary study of typical medical-biological waste made in Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus and other countries show that their risk to the environment is much higher than that of most chemical wastes. For example, toxicity of solid waste (SW) containing cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics is comparable to toxicity of radioactive waste of high and medium level activity. This report presents the results of the thermodynamic analysis of thermal processing of SW and experiments at the developed plasma unit for SW processing. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the maximum yield of the synthesis gas at plasma gasification of SW in air and steam mediums is achieved at a temperature of 1600K. At the air plasma gasification of SW high-calorific synthesis gas with a concentration of 82.4% (СO – 31.7%, H2 – 50.7%) can be obtained, and at the steam plasma gasification – with a concentration of 94.5% (СO – 33.6%, H2 – 60.9%). Specific heat of combustion of the synthesis gas produced by air gasification amounts to 14267 kJ/kg, while by steam gasification - 19414 kJ/kg. At the optimal temperature (1600 K), the specific power consumption for air gasification of SW constitutes 1.92 kWh/kg, while for steam gasification - 2.44 kWh/kg. Experimental study was carried out in a plasma reactor. This is device of periodic action. The arc plasma torch of 70 kW electric power is used for SW processing. Consumption of SW was 30 kg/h. Flow of plasma-forming air was 12 kg/h. Under the influence of air plasma flame weight average temperature in the chamber reaches 1800 K. Gaseous products are taken out of the reactor into the flue gas cooling unit, and the condensed products accumulate in the slag formation zone. The cooled gaseous products enter the gas purification unit, after which via gas sampling system is supplied to the analyzer. Ventilation system provides a negative pressure in the reactor up to 10 mm of water column. Condensed products of SW processing are removed from the reactor after its stopping. By the results of experiments on SW plasma gasification the reactor operating conditions were determined, the exhaust gas analysis was performed and the residual carbon content in the slag was determined. Gas analysis showed the following composition of the gas at the exit of gas purification unit, (vol.%): СO – 26.5, H2 – 44.6, N2–28.9. The total concentration of the syngas was 71.1%, which agreed well with the thermodynamic calculations. The discrepancy between experiment and calculation by the yield of the target syngas did not exceed 16%. Specific power consumption for SW gasification in the plasma reactor according to the results of experiments amounted to 2.25 kWh/kg of working substance. No harmful impurities were found in both gas and condensed products of SW plasma gasification. Comparison of experimental results and calculations showed good agreement. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.607.21.0118, project RFMEF160715X0118).

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma-fuel system, plasma generator

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311 Analysis of Coal Tar Compositions Produced from Sub-Bituminous Kalimantan Coal Tar

Authors: Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti, Astrilia Damayanti

Abstract:

Coal tar is a liquid by-product of coal pyrolysis processes. This liquid oil mixture contains various kind of useful compounds such as benzoic aromatic compounds and phenolic compounds. These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides, dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others. The coal tar was collected by pyrolysis process of coal obtained from PT Kaltim Prima Coal and Arutmin-Kalimantan. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a laboratory furnace at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550oC with a heating rate of 10oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. Nitrogen gas has been used to obtain the inert condition and to carry the gaseous pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis transformed organic materials into gaseous components, small quantities of liquid, and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed amount of carbon and ash. The composition of gas which is produced from the pyrolysis is carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, and other hydrocarbon compounds. The gas was condensed and the liquid containing oil/tar and water was obtained. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the coal tar components. The obtained coal tar has the viscosity of 3.12 cp, the density of 2.78 g/cm3, the calorific value of 11,048.44 cal/g, and the molecular weight of 222.67. The analysis result showed that the coal tar contained more than 78 chemical compounds such as benzene, cresol, phenol, xylene, naphtalene, etc. The total phenolic compounds contained in coal tar is 33.25% (PT KPC) and 17.58% (Arutmin-Kalimantan). The total naphtalene compounds contained in coal tar is 14.15% (PT KPC) and 17.13% (Arutmin-Kalimantan).

Keywords: coal tar, pyrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 196