Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: inulin

14 Extraction of Inulin from Cichorium Intybus and Its Application as Fat Replacer in Yoghurt

Authors: Hafiz Khuram Wasim Aslam, Muhammad Saeed, Azam Shakeel, Muhammad Inam Ur Raheem, Moazzam Rafiq Khan, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

Abstract:

Inulin is significant ingredient used in food industry that functions technologically as a fat replacer often without compromising taste and texture. In this study inulin was extracted from the chicory roots and the effect of inulin addition as a fat replacer on the physiochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of non-fat yogurt was investigated. The supplementation of chicory inulin reduced the magnitude of firmness in comparison with non-inulin ¬supplemented non-fat yoghurt. Higher values of acidity were observed due to the more microbial fermentation in the inulin containing yogurt as compared to non-inulin yogurt and were in the range of 0.56 to 0.75 during storage days. Syneresis in control sample increased from 43.9% to 47.9% during the storage study. However inulin addition at different treatment enhanced syneresis from 44.5% to 47.6%. Inulin addition at various concentrations caused an increase in the TPC due to its probiotic effect. No effects of inuline addition on fat and protein contents were observed. Non-fat yoghurt supplemented with inulin demonstrated sensory behavior better than that of the control yoghurt. The most important effect of the addition of inulin to non-fat yoghurt is an increase in the sensory attributes appearance, body and texture, taste and mouth feel, overall acceptability. On an average, yoghurt supplemented with 1 to 2% inulin was better in overall acceptance as compared to control yoghurt.

Keywords: inulin, fat replacer, yoghurt, sensory evaluation, low fat

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13 The Effect of Incorporation of Inulin as a Fat Replacer on the Quality of Milk Products Vis-À-Vis Ice Cream

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma

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The influence of different levels of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of ice cream was investigated. The physicochemical, rheological and textural properties of control ice cream and ice cream prepared with inulin in different proportions were determined and correlated to the different parameters using Pearson correlation and Principle Component Analysis (PCA). Based on the overall acepectability, ice cream with 4% inulin was found best and was selected for preparation of ice cream with inulin:SPI in different proportions. Compared with control ice cream, Inulin:SPI showed different rheological properties, resulting in significantly higher apparent viscosities, consistency coefficient and greater deviations from Newtonian flow. In addition, both hardness and melting resistance significantly increased with increase in the SPI content in ice cream prepared with inulin: SPI. Also hardness value increased for inulin based ice cream compared to control ice cream but it melted significantly faster than the latter. Colour value significantly decreased in both the cases compared to the control sample. The deliberation shall focus on the effect of incorporation of inulin on the quality of ice-cream.

Keywords: fat replacer, inulin, ice cream, viscosity, principal component analysis

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12 The Effects of Inulin on the Stabilization and Stevioside as Sugar-Replacer of Sourcherry Juice-Milk Mixture

Authors: S. Teimouri, S. Abbasi

Abstract:

Milk-fruit juice mixture is a type of soft drinks, which can be produced by mixing milk with pieces of fruits, fruit juices, or fruit juices concentrates. The major problem of these products, mainly the acidic ones, is phase separation which occurs during formulation and storage due to the aggregation of caseins at low pH Short-chain inulin (CLR), long-chain inulin (TEX), native inulin (IQ) and Long-chain inulin (TEX) and short-chain inulin (CLR) combined in different proportions (2o:80, 50:50, and 80:20) were added (2-10 %) to sourcherry juice-milk mixture and their stabilization mechanisms were studied with using rheological and microstructural observations. Stevioside as a bio-sweetener and sugar-replacer was added at last step. Finally, sensory analyses were taken place on stabilized samples. According to the findings, TEX stabilized the mixture at concentration of 8%. MIX and IQ reduced phase separation at high concentration but had not complete effect on stabilization. CLR did not effect on stabilization. Rheological changes and inulin aggregates formation were not observed in CLR samples during the one month storage period. However TEX, MIX and IQ samples formed inulin aggregates and became more thixotropic, elastic and increased the viscosity of mixture. The rate of the inulin aggregates formation and viscosity increasing was in the following order TEX > MIX > IQ. Consequently the mixture which stabilized with inulin and sweetened with stevioside had the prebiotic properties which may suggest to diabetic patients and children.

Keywords: prebiotic, inulin, casein, stabilization, stevioside

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11 Development of a Symbiotic Milk Chocolate Using Inulin and Bifidobacterium Lactis

Authors: Guity Karim, Valiollah Ayareh

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Probiotic dairy products are those that contain biologically active components that may affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond their adequate nutritional effects. As far as chocolate milk is a popular dairy product in the country especially among children and youth, production of a symbiotic (probiotic + peribiotic) new product using chocolate milk, Bifidobacterium lactis (DSM, Netherland) and inulin (Bene, Belgium) would help to promote the nutritional and functional properties of this product. Bifidobacterium Lactis is used as a probiotic in a variety of foods, particularly dairy products like yogurt and as a probiotic bacterium has benefit effects on the human health. Inulin as a peribiotic agent is considered as functional food ingredient. Experimental studies have shown its use as bifidogenic agent. Chocolate milk with different percent of fat (1 and 2 percent), 6 % of sugar and 0.9 % cacao was made, sterilized (UHT) and supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis and inulin (0.5 %) after cooling . A sample was made without inulin as a control. Bifidobacterium lactis population was enumerated at days 0, 4, 8 and 12 together with measurement of pH, acidity and viscosity of the samples. Also sensory property of the product was evaluated by a 15 panel testers. The number of live bacterial cells was maintained at the functional level of 106-108 cfu/ml after keeping for 12 days in refrigerated temperature (4°C). Coliforms were found to be absent in the products during the storage. Chocolate milk containing 1% fat and inulin has the best effect on the survival and number of B. lactis at day 8 and after that. Moreover, the addition of inulin did not affect the sensorial quality of the product. In this work, chocolate has been evaluated as a potential protective carrier for oral delivery of B. lactis and inulin.

Keywords: chocolate milk, synbiotic, bifidobacterium lactis, inulin

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10 The Effects of Prebiotic, Probiotic and Synbiotic Diets Containing Bacillus coagulans and Inulin on Serum Lipid Profile in the Rat

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic). Rats were fed the treatments for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholestrol of rats fed with inulin in synbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

Keywords: bacillus coagulans, inulin, rat, lipid profile, synbiotic diet

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9 The Effect of Inulin on Aflatoxin M1 Binding Ability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yoghurt

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Banu Sancak, Mevlude Kizil

Abstract:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) represents mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties, and shows adverse effect on human health. Recently the use of probiotics are focused on AFM1 detoxification because of the fact that probiotic strains have a binding ability to AFM1. Moreover, inulin is a prebiotic to improve the ability of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inulin on AFM1 binding ability of some probiotic bacteria. Yoghurt samples were manufactured by using skim milk powder artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml. Different samples were prepared for the study as: first sample consists of yoghurt starter bacteria (L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus), the second sample consists of starter and L. plantarum, starter and B. bifidum ATCC were added to the third sample, starter and B. animalis ATCC 27672 were added to the forth sample, and the fifth sample is a binary culture consisted of starter and B. bifidum and B. animalis. Moreover, the same work groups were prepared with inulin (4%). The samples were incubated at 42°C for 4 hours, then stored for three different time interval (1,5 and 10 days). The toxin was measured by the ELISA. When inulin was added to work groups, there was significant change on AFM1 binding ability at least one sample in all groups except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (68.7%) in samples with inulin were found in the group which B. bifidum was added, whereas the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (44.4%) in samples with inulin was found in the fifth sample. The most impressive effect of inulin was found on B.bifidum. In this study, it was obtained that there was a significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in the all groups with inulin except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). Consequently, results show that AFM1 detoxification by probiotics have a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Besides, inulin has different effects on AFM1 binding ability of each probiotic bacteria strain.

Keywords: aflatoxin M1, inulin, probiotics, storage

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8 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda

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Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: blood pressure, inulin, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference

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7 Effect of Diet Inulin Prebiotic on Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Composition and Resistance to Environmental Stresses in Zebra Danio (Danio rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar

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In this research, the effects of different levels (control group (T0), (T1)1, (T2)2 and (T3)3 gr Inulin per Kg diet) of prebiotic Inulin as nutritional supplement on Danio rerio were investigated for 4 month. Since the beginning of feeding larvae until adult (average weight: 67.1 g, length: 4.5 cm) were fed with experimental diets. The survival rate of fish had no significant effect on rate survival (P > 0.05). The highest food conversion ratio (FCR) was in control group and the lowest was observed in T3. Treatment of T3 significantly caused the best feed conversion ratio in Zebra fish (P < 0.05). By increasing the inulin diet during the experiment, specific growth rate increased. The highest and the lowest body weight gain and condition factor were observed in T3 and control, respectively (P < 0.05). Adding 3 gr inulin in Zebra fish diet can improve the performance of the growth indices and final biomass, also this prebiotic can be considered as a suitable supplement for Cyprinidae diet. In the first sampling stage for feeding fish, fat and muscle protein was significantly higher than the second sampling stage (P < 0.05). Given that the second stage fish were full sexual maturity, the amount of fat in muscle decreased (P < 0.05). Moisture and ash levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the second stage sampling than the first stage. Overall, different stage of living affected on muscle chemical composition muscle. Reproductive performance in treatment T2 and T3 were significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). According to the results, the prebiotic inulin does not have a significant impact on the sex ratio in zebrafish (P > 0.05). Based on histology of the gonads, the use of dietary inulin accelerates the process of gonad development in zebrafish.

Keywords: inulin, zebrafish, reproduction, histology

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6 The Effects of Orally Administered Bacillus Coagulans and Inulin on Prevention and Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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Probiotics have been considered as an approach to treat and prevent a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic, inulin, also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic B. coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on down regulate immune responses and progression of rheumatoid arthritis using induced arthritis rat model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups and fed as follow: 1) control: Normal healthy rats fed by standard diet, 2) Disease control (RA): Arthritic induced (RA) rats fed by standard diet, 3) Prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin, 4) Probiotic (PRO): RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) Synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans and 6) Treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with mentioned diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for Fibrinogen (Fn), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α and Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28 and 35 (1, 2 and 3 weeks post RA induction). Pretreatment with PRE, PRO and SYN diets significantly inhibit SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, was seen in PRE, PRO and SYN groups (P < 0.001) which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin. Further, there were no significant anti-inflammatory effects observed following different treatments using α1AGp as a RA indicator. Pretreatment with all supplied diets significantly inhibited the development of paw swelling induced by CFA (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Results of this study support that oral intake of probiotic B. coagulans and inulin are able to improve biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, bacillus coagulans, inulin, animal model

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5 In Vitro Fermentation Of Rich In B-glucan Pleurotus Eryngii Mushroom: Impact On Faecal Bacterial Populations And Intestinal Barrier In Autistic Children

Authors: Georgia Saxami, Evangelia N. Kerezoudi, Evdokia K. Mitsou, Marigoula Vlassopoulou, Georgios Zervakis, Adamantini Kyriacou

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex group of developmental disorders of the brain, characterized by social and communication dysfunctions, stereotypes and repetitive behaviors. The potential interaction between gut microbiota (GM) and autism has not been fully elucidated. Children with autism often suffer gastrointestinal dysfunctions, while alterations or dysbiosis of GM have also been observed. Treatment with dietary components has been postulated to regulate GM and improve gastrointestinal symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches in autism, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the effects of Pleurotus eryngii mushroom (candidate prebiotic) and inulin (known prebiotic compound) on gut microbial composition, using faecal samples from autistic children in an in vitro batch culture fermentation system. Selected members of GM were enumerated at baseline (0 h) and after 24 h fermentation by quantitative PCR. After 24 h fermentation, inulin and P. eryngii mushroom induced a significant increase in total bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii compared to the negative control (gut microbiota of each autistic donor with no carbohydrate source), whereas both treatments induced a significant increase in levels of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Prevotella spp. compared to baseline (t=0h) (p for all <0.05). Furthermore, this study evaluated the impact of fermentation supernatants (FSs), derived from P. eryngii mushroom or inulin, on the expression levels of tight junctions’ genes (zonulin-1, occludin and claudin-1) in Caco-2 cells stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Pre-incubation of Caco-2 cells with FS from P. eryngii mushroom led to a significant increase in the expression levels of zonulin-1, occludin and claudin-1 genes compared to the untreated cells, the cells that were subjected to LPS and the cells that were challenged with FS from negative control (p for all <0.05). In addition, incubation with FS from P. eryngii mushroom led to the highest mean expression values for zonulin-1 and claudin-1 genes, which differed significantly compared to inulin (p for all <0.05). Overall, this research highlighted the beneficial in vitro effects of P. eryngii mushroom on the composition of GM of autistic children after 24 h of fermentation. Also, our data highlighted the potential preventive effect of P. eryngii FSs against dysregulation of the intestinal barrier, through upregulation of tight junctions’ genes associated with the integrity and function of the intestinal barrier. This research has been financed by "Supporting Researchers with Emphasis on Young Researchers - Round B", Operational Program "Human Resource Development, Education and Lifelong Learning."

Keywords: gut microbiota, intestinal barrier, autism spectrum disorders, Pleurotus Eryngii

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4 Effect of Fat Percentage and Prebiotic Composition on Proteolysis, ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Yogurt

Authors: Mohammad B. HabibiNajafi, Saeideh Sadat Fatemizadeh, Maryam Tavakoli

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In recent years, the consumption of functional foods, including foods containing probiotic bacteria, has come to notice. Milk proteins have been identified as a source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme )ACE( inhibitory peptides and are currently the best-known class of bioactive peptides. In this study, the effects of adding prebiotic ingredients (inulin and wheat fiber) and fat percentage (0%, 2% and 3.5%) in yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity within 21 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C were evaluated. The results of statistical analysis showed that the application of prebiotic compounds led to a significant increase in water holding capacity, proteolysis and ACE-inhibitory of samples. The degree of proteolysis in yogurt increases as storage time elapses (P < 0.05) but when proteolysis exceeds a certain threshold, this trend begins to decline. Also, during storage time, water holding capacity reduced initially but increased thereafter. Moreover, based on our findings, the survival of Lactobacillus casei in samples treated with inulin and wheat fiber increased significantly in comparison to the control sample (P < 0.05) whereas the effect of fat percentage on the survival of probiotic bacteria was not significant (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the effect of prebiotic ingredients and the presence of probiotic cultures on the antioxidant activity of samples was significant (P < 0.05).

Keywords: probiotic yogurt, proteolysis, ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant activity

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3 Effect of Burdock Root Extract Concentration on Physiochemical Property of Coated Jasmine Rice by Using Top-Spay Fluidized Bed Coating Technique

Authors: Donludee Jaisut, Norihisa Kato, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Kiyoshi Kawai, Somkiat Prachayawarakorn, Patchalee Tungtrakul

Abstract:

Jasmine Rice is a principle food of Thai people. However, glycemic index of jasmine rice is in high level, risk of type II diabetes after consuming. Burdock root is a good source of non-starch polysaccharides such as inulin. Inulin acts as prebiotic and helps reduce blood-sugar level. The purpose of this research was to reduce digestion rate of jasmine rice by coating burdock root extract on rice surface, using top-spay fluidized bed coating technique. Coating experiments were performed by spraying burdock root solution onto Jasmine rice kernels (Khao Dawk Mali-105; KDML), which had an initial moisture content of 11.6% wet basis, suspended in the fluidized bed. The experimental conditions were: solution spray rates of 31.7 mL/min, atomization pressure of 1.5 bar, spray time of 10 min, time of drying after spraying of 30 s, superficial air velocity of 3.2 m/s and drying temperatures of 60°C. The coated rice quality was evaluated in terms of the moisture content, texture, whiteness and digestion rate. The results showed that initial and final moisture contents of samples were the same in concentration 8% (v/v) and 10% (v/v). The texture was insignificantly changed from that of uncoated sample. The whiteness values were varied on concentration of burdock root extract. Coated samples were slower digested.

Keywords: burdock root, digestion, drying, rice

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2 Rheological and Sensory Attributes of Dough and Crackers Including Amaranth Flour (Amaranthus spp.)

Authors: Claudia Cabezas-Zabala, Jairo Lindarte-Artunduaga, Carlos Mario Zuluaga-Dominguez

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Amaranth is an emerging pseudocereal rich in such essential nutrients as protein and dietary fiber, which was employed as an ingredient in the formulation of crackers to evaluate the rheological performance and sensory acceptability of the obtained food. A completely randomized factorial design was used with two factors: (A) ratio of wheat and amaranth flour used in the preparation of the dough, in proportion 90:10 and 80:20 (% w/w) and (B) two levels of inulin addition of 8.4% and 16.7 %, having two control doughs made from amaranth and wheat flour, respectively. Initially, the functional properties of the formulations mentioned were measured, showing no significant differences in the water absorption capacity (WAC) and swelling power (SP), having mean values between 1.66 and 1.81 g/g for WAC and between 1.75 and 1.86 g/g for SP, respectively. The amaranth flour had the highest water holding capacity (WHR) of 8.41 ± 0.15 g/g and emulsifying activity (EA) of 74.63 ± 1.89 g/g. Moreover, the rheological behavior, measured through the use of farinograph, extensograph, Mixolab, and falling index, showed that the formulation containing 20% of amaranth flour and 7.16% of inulin had a rheological behavior similar to the control produced exclusively with wheat flour, being the former, the one selected for the preparation of crackers. For this formulation, the farinograph showed a mixing tolerance index of 11 UB, indicating a strong and cohesive dough; likewise, the Mixolab showed dough reaches stability at 6.47 min, indicating a good resistance to mixing. On the other hand, the extensograph exhibited a dough resistance of 637 UB, as well as extensibility of 13.4 mm, which corresponds to a strong dough capable of resisting the laminate. Finally, the falling index was 318 s, which indicates the crumb will retain enough air to enhance the crispness of a characteristic cracker. Finally, a sensory consumer test did not show significant differences in the evaluation of aroma between the control and the selected formulation, while this latter had a significantly lower rating in flavor. However, a purchase intention of 70 % was observed among the population surveyed. The results obtained in this work give perspectives for the industrial use of amaranth in baked goods. Additionally, amaranth has been a product typically linked to indigenous populations in the Andean South American countries; therefore, the search for diversification and alternatives of use for this pseudocereal has an impact on the social and economic conditions of such communities. The technological versatility and nutritional quality of amaranth is an advantage for consumers, favoring the consumption of healthy products with important contributions of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: amaranth, crackers, rheology, pseudocereals, kneaded products

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1 Effect of a Nutritional Supplement Containing Euterpe oleracea Mart., Inulin, Phaseolus vulgaris and Caralluma fimbriata in Persons with Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Eduardo Cabrera-Rode, Janet Rodriguez, Aimee Alvarez, Ragmila Echevarria, Antonio D. Reyes, Ileana Cubas-Duenas, Silvia E. Turcios, Oscar Diaz-Diaz

Abstract:

Obex is a nutritional supplement to help weight loss naturally. In addition, this supplement has a satiating effect that helps control the craving to eat between meals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Obex in the metabolic syndrome (MS). This was an open label pilot study conducted in 30 patients with MS and ages between 29 and 60 years old. Participants received Obex, at a dose of one sachet before (30 to 45 minutes) the two main meals (lunch and dinner) daily (mean two sachets per day) for 3 months. The content of the sachets was dissolved in a glass of water or fruit juice. Obex ingredients: Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry, inulin, Phaseolus vulgaris, Caralluma fimbriata, inositol, choline, arginine, ornitine, zinc sulfate, carnitine fumarate, methionine, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine and folic acid. In addition to anthropometric measures and blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol and insulin were determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by HOMA-IR index. Three indirect indexes were used to calculate insulin sensitivity [QUICKI index (Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index), Bennett index and Raynaud index]. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. The JIS criteria require at least three of the following components: (1) abdominal obesity (waist circumference major or equal major or equal 94 cm for men or 80 cm for women), (2) triglycerides major or equal 1.7 mmol/L, (3) HDL cholesterol minor 1.03 mmol/L for men or minor 1.30 mmol/L for women, (4) systolic/diastolic blood pressure major or equal 130/85mmHg or use antihypertensive drugs, and (5) fasting plasma glucose major or equal 5.6 mmol/L or known treatment for diabetes. This study was approved by the Ethical and Research Committee of the National Institute of Endocrinology, Cuba and conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Obex is registered as a food supplement in the National Institute of Nutrition and Food, Havana, Cuba. Written consent was obtained from all patients before the study. The clinical trial had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. After three months of treatment, 43.3% (13/30) of participants decreased the frequency of MS. Compared to baseline, Obex significantly reduced body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio and improved HDL-c (p<0.0001) and in addition to lowering blood pressure (p<0.05). After Obex intake, subjects also have shown a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (p<0.0001) and insulin sensitivity was enhanced (p=0.001). No adverse effects were seen in any of the participants during the study. In this pilot study, consumption of Obex decreased the prevalence of MS due to the improved selected components of the metabolic syndrome, indicating that further studies are warranted. Obex emerges as an effective and well tolerated treatment for preventing or delaying MS and therefore potential reduction of cardiovascular risk.

Keywords: nutritional supplement, metabolic syndrome, weight loss, insulin resistance

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