Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 790

Search results for: grain refinement

790 Grain Refinement of Al-7Si-0.4Mg Alloy by Combination of Al-Ti-B and Mg-Al2Ca Mater Alloys and Their Effects on Tensile Property

Authors: Young-Ok Yoon, Su-Yeon Lee, Seong-Ho Ha, Gil-Yong Yeom, Bong-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Kyu Lim, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy (designated A356) is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industries as structural components due to an excellent combination of castability and mechanical properties. Grain refinement has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of castings, mainly since the distribution of secondary phase is changed. As a grain refiner, the Al-Ti-B master alloys containing TiAl3 and TiB2 particles have been widely used in Al foundries. The Mg loss and Mg based inclusion formation by the strong affinity of Mg to oxygen in the melting process of Mg contained alloys have been an issue. This can be significantly improved only by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy as an alloying element instead of pure Mg. Moreover, the eutectic Si modification and grain refinement is simultaneously obtained because Al2Ca behaves as Ca, a typical Si modifier. The present study is focused on the combined effects of Mg+Al2Ca and Al-Ti-B master alloys on the grain refiment of Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy and their proper ratio for the optimum effect. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate the change of the microstructure in Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy with different ratios of Ti and Al2Ca (detected Ca content) and their effects on the tensile property. The distribution and morphology of the secondary phases by the grain refinement will be discussed.

Keywords: Al-7Si-0.4Mg alloy, Al2Ca, Al-Ti-B alloy, grain refinement

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789 Dislocation Density-Based Modeling of the Grain Refinement in Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

Authors: Reza Miresmaeili, Asghar Heydari Astaraee, Fereshteh Dolati

Abstract:

In the present study, an analytical model based on dislocation density model was developed to simulate grain refinement in surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The correlation between SMAT time and development in plastic strain on one hand, and dislocation density evolution, on the other hand, was established to simulate the grain refinement in SMAT. A dislocation density-based constitutive material law was implemented using VUHARD subroutine. A random sequence of shots is taken into consideration for multiple impacts model using Python programming language by utilizing a random function. The simulation technique was to model each impact in a separate run and then transferring the results of each run as initial conditions for the next run (impact). The developed Finite Element (FE) model of multiple impacts describes the coverage evolution in SMAT. Simulations were run to coverage levels as high as 4500%. It is shown that the coverage implemented in the FE model is equal to the experimental coverage. It is depicted that numerical SMAT coverage parameter is adequately conforming to the well-known Avrami model. Comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements for residual stresses and depth of deformation layers confirms the performance of the established FE model for surface engineering evaluations in SMA treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of grain refinement, including resultant grain size and dislocation density, were conducted to validate the established model. The full width at half-maximum in XRD profiles can be used to measure the grain size. Numerical results and experimental measurements of grain refinement illustrate good agreement and show the capability of established FE model to predict the gradient microstructure in SMA treatment.

Keywords: dislocation density, grain refinement, severe plastic deformation, simulation, surface mechanical attrition treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
788 Effect of Zr Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti+B on Its Wear Resistance after Extrusion Condition

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Safwan M. A. Alqawabah

Abstract:

Review of the available literature on grain refinement of aluminum and its alloys reveals that little work is published on the effect of refiners on mechanical characteristics and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zr to Al grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical, mechanical characteristics and wear resistance both in the as cast and after extrusion condition are presented and discussed. It was found that Addition of Zr to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical strength and hardness, whereas it resulted in improvement of both of them when added to Al grain refined by Ti+B. Furthermore it was found that the direct extrusion process resulted in further increase of the mechanical strength and hardness of Al and its micro-alloys. Also it resulted in increase of their work hardening index, n, i.e. improved their formability, hence it reduces the number of stages required for forming at large strains in excess of the plastic instability before Zr addition.

Keywords: aluminum, grain refinement, titanium + boron, zirconium, mechanical characteristics, wear resistance, direct extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
787 The Effect of Electromagnetic Stirring during Solidification of Nickel Based Alloys

Authors: Ricardo Paiva, Rui Soares, Felix Harnau, Bruno Fragoso

Abstract:

Nickel-based alloys are materials well suited for service in extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. Some industrial applications for Nickel-based alloys are aerospace and jet engines, oil and gas extraction, pollution control and waste processing, automotive and marine industry. It is generally recognized that grain refinement is an effective methodology to improve the quality of casted parts. Conventional grain refinement techniques involve the addition of inoculation substances, the control of solidification conditions, or thermomechanical treatment with recrystallization. However, such methods often lead to non-uniform grain size distribution and the formation of hard phases, which are detrimental to both wear performance and biocompatibility. Stirring of the melt by electromagnetic fields has been widely used in continuous castings with success for grain refinement, solute redistribution, and surface quality improvement. Despite the advantages, much attention has not been paid yet to the use of this approach on functional castings such as investment casting. Furthermore, the effect of electromagnetic stirring (EMS) fields on Nickel-based alloys is not known. In line with the gaps/needs of the state-of-art, the present research work targets to promote new advances in controlling grain size and morphology of investment cast Nickel based alloys. For such a purpose, a set of experimental tests was conducted. A high-frequency induction furnace with vacuum and controlled atmosphere was used to cast the Inconel 718 alloy in ceramic shells. A coil surrounded the casting chamber in order to induce electromagnetic stirring during solidification. Aiming to assess the effect of the electromagnetic stirring on Ni alloys, the samples were subjected to microstructural analysis and mechanical tests. The results show that electromagnetic stirring can be an effective methodology to modify the grain size and mechanical properties of investment-cast parts.

Keywords: investment casting, grain refinement, electromagnetic stirring, nickel alloys

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786 Effect of Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Abdolvand, M. Riazat, H. Sohrabi, G. Faraji

Abstract:

An experimental investigation into the Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) process on AZ31 magnesium alloy is studied. Microstructures and grain size distribution of the specimens before and after TBE process are investigated by optical microscopy. Tensile and Vickers microhardness tests along extrusion direction were performed at room temperature. It is found that the average grain size is refined remarkably from the initial 33 µm down to 3.5 µm after TBE process. Also, the microhardness increased significantly to 58 HV after the process from an initial value of 36 HV.

Keywords: tube backward extrusion, AZ31, grain size distribution, grain refinement

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785 Investigation on the Effect of Titanium (Ti) Plus Boron (B) Addition to the Mg-AZ31 Alloy in the as Cast and After Extrusion on Its Metallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Raghad S. Hemeimat

Abstract:

Magnesium - aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength – to –weight -ratio. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly Aluminum and Zinc to add some required properties particularly for their high strength - to -weight ratio. Mg and its alloys oxidize rapidly therefore care should be taken during melting or machining them; but they are not fire hazardous. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical properties and the micro structure uniformity of the alloys. Grain refinement has been introduced in early fifties; when Cibula showed that the presence of Ti, and Ti+ B, produced a great refining effect in Al. since then it became an industrial practice to grain refine Al. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining Al and Zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys has not been previously investigated. This forms the main objective of the research work; where, the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, and the extrusion force & energy consumed in forward extrusion of Mg-AZ31 alloy is investigated and discussed in two conditions, first in the as cast condition and the second after extrusion. It was found that addition of Ti to Mg- AZ31 alloy has resulted in reduction of its grain size by 14%; the reduction in grain size after extrusion was much higher. However the increase in Vicker’s hardness was 3% after the addition of Ti in the as cast condition, and higher values for Vicker’s hardness were achieved after extrusion. Furthermore, an increase in the strength coefficient by 36% was achieved with the addition of Ti to Mg-AZ31 alloy in the as cast condition. Similarly, the work hardening index was also increased indicating an enhancement of the ductility and formability. As for the extrusion process, it was found that the force and energy required for the extrusion were both reduced by 57% and 59% with the addition of Ti.

Keywords: cast condition, direct extrusion, ductility, MgAZ31 alloy, super - plasticity

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784 The Effect of Addition of Some Rare Earth Materials to Zinc Aluminum Alloy ZA-22

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing several parts in the automobile and aircraft industries. The effect of grain refinement of these alloys by rare earth elements on their mechanical characteristics is scarce. The equal channel angular pressing is relatively recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials subjected to it resulting in refinement of their structure and enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. The phase diagram of these alloys indicates that large dendrites of large grain size can be formed during their solidification of the cast which tends to deteriorate their mechanical strength and surface quality. To overcome this problem they are normally grain refined by either titanium or titanium + boron to their melt prior to solidification. In this paper, comparison between the effect of adding either titanium, (Ti), titanium+boron, (Ti+B), or Molybdenum, Mo, to zinc-aluminum22, alloy, (ZA22) on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of either Ti, Ti+B, or Mo to the ZA22 alloy in the cast condition resulted in refining of their structure being more refined by the addition of Mo, then .Ti+B and less refining by Ti addition. Furthermore, the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the alloy micro structure except in case of Ti+B addition where poisoning i.e. coarsening of the grains has occurred. Regarding the addition of these element on the mechanical behavior; it was found that addition of Ti Or Ti+B resulted in little enhancement of the alloy strength factor and its flow stress at 20% true strain; whereas, the addition of resulted in deteriorating of its mechanical behavior as % decrease in the strength factor and % in its flow stress of 20%. As for the strain hardening index; addition of any of these elements resulted in decreasing the strain hardening index.

Keywords: addition, grain refinement, mechanical characteristics, microstructure, rare earth elements, ZA-22, Zinc- aluminum alloy

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783 Bake Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine Grained and Nano-Grained AA6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Hamid Alihosseini, Kamran Dehghani

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of grain size of AA6061 aluminum on the bake hardening have been investigated. The grains of sample sheets refined by applying 4, 8, and 12 passes of ECAP and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. EBSD and TEM studies of the sheets showed grain refinement, and the EBSD micrograph of the alloy ECAPed for 12 passes showed nano-grained (NG) ∼95nm in size. Then, the bake hardenability of processed sheet was compared by pre-straining to 6% followed by baking at 200°C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 200°C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 12, 8, and 4 passes, respectively. The maximum in bake hardenability (120 MPa) and final yield stress (583 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 6% followed by baking at 200◦C.

Keywords: bake hardening, ultrafine grain, nano grain, AA6061 aluminum,

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782 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Low Alloy Steel with Double Austenitizing Tempering Heat Treatment

Authors: Jae-Ho Jang, Jung-Soo Kim, Byung-Jun Kim, Dae-Geun Nam, Uoo-Chang Jung, Yoon-Suk Choi

Abstract:

Low alloy steels are widely used for pressure vessels, spent fuel storage, and steam generators required to withstand the internal pressure and prevent unexpected failure in nuclear power plants, which these may suffer embrittlement by high levels of radiation and heat for a long period. Therefore, it is important to improve mechanical properties of low alloy steels for the integrity of structure materials at an early stage of fabrication. Recently, it showed that a double austenitizing and tempering (DTA) process resulted in a significant improvement of strength and toughness by refinement of prior austenite grains. In this study, it was investigated that the mechanism of improving mechanical properties according to the change of microstructure by the second fully austenitizing temperature of the DAT process for low alloy steel required the structural integrity. Compared to conventional single austenitizing and tempering (SAT) process, the tensile elongation properties have improved about 5%, DBTTs have obtained result in reduction of about -65℃, and grain size has decreased by about 50% in the DAT process conditions. Grain refinement has crack propagation interference effect due to an increase of the grain boundaries and amount of energy absorption at low temperatures. The higher first austenitizing temperature in the DAT process, the more increase the spheroidized carbides and strengthening the effect of fine precipitates in the ferrite grain. The area ratio of the dimple in the transition area has increased by proportion to the effect of spheroidized carbides. This may the primary mechanisms that can improve low-temperature toughness and elongation while maintaining a similar hardness and strength.

Keywords: double austenitizing, Ductile Brittle transition temperature, grain refinement, heat treatment, low alloy steel, low-temperature toughness

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781 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: aluminum, fatigue, grain refinement, titanium, titanium+boron, vanadium

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780 Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd Eutectics Ribbons under Superplastic Tensile Test Regime

Authors: Edgar Ochoa, G. Torres-Villasenor

Abstract:

Superplastic deformation is shown by materials with a fine grain size, usually less than 10 μm, when they are deformed within the strain rate range 10-5 10-1 s-1 at temperatures greater than 0.5Tm, where Tm is the melting point in Kelvin. According to the constitutive equation for superplastic flow, refinement of the grain size would be expected to increase the optimum strain rate and decrease the temperature required for superplastic flow. Ribbons of eutectic Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd alloys were manufactured by using a single roller melt-spinning technique to obtain a fine grain structure for later test in superplastic regime. The eutectics ribbons were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction, and the grain size was determined using the image analysis software ImageJ. The average grain size was less than 1 μm. Tensile tests were carried out from 10-4 to 10-1 s-1, at room temperature, to evaluate the superplastic behavior. The largest deformation was shown by the Bi-Cd eutectic ribbons, Ɛ=140 %, despite that these ribbons have a hexagonal unit cell. On the other hand, Ag-Cu eutectic ribbons have a minor grain size and cube unit cell, however they showed a lower deformation in tensile test under the same conditions than Bi-Cd ribbons. This is because the Ag-Cu grew in a strong cube-cube orientation relationship.

Keywords: eutectic ribbon, fine grain, superplastic deformation, cube-cube orientation

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779 Effect of Molybdenum Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Titanium Plus Boron on Its Grain Size and Mechanical Characteristics in the Cast and After Pressing by the Equal Channel Angular Pressing Conditions

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid, A. M. Attieh, S. M. A. Al Qawabah

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys solidify in columnar structure with large grain size which tends to reduce their mechanical strength and surface quality. They are, therefore, grain refined by addition of either titanium or titanium plus boron to their melt before solidification. Equal channel angular pressing, ECAP, process is a recent forming method for producing heavy plastic deformation in materials. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition to aluminum grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics are investigated in the as cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process. It was found that addition of Mo or Ti+B alone or together to aluminum resulted in grain refining of its microstructure in the as cast condition, as the average grain size was reduced from 139 micron to 46 micron when Mo and Ti+B are added together. Pressing by the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the microstructure where 32 micron of average grain size was achieved in Al and the Al-Mo microalloy. Regarding the mechanical strength, addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical behavior but resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behavior when added together, increase of 10% in flow stress was achieved at 20% strain. However, pressing by ECAP addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical strength but reduced its strength when added together.

Keywords: ECAP, aluminum, cast, mechanical characteristics, Mo grain refiner

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778 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee

Abstract:

The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: aluminium, grain size, nitrogen, reheating, sizing strain, steel, vanadium

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777 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina

Abstract:

A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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776 The Role of Virtual Group Anonymity in the Generation, Selection, and Refinement of Ideas

Authors: Jonali Baruah, Keesha Green

Abstract:

This experimental study examines the effects of anonymity in video meeting groups across the stages of innovation (idea generation, selection, and refinement) on various measures of creativity. A sample of 92 undergraduate students participated in small groups of three to four members to complete creativity, decision-making, and idea-refinement task in either anonymous or identified conditions. The study followed two anonymity (anonymous and identified) X 3 stages of innovation (idea generation, idea selection, and idea refinement) in a mixed factorial design. Results revealed that the anonymous groups produced ideas of the highest average quality in the refinement phase of innovation. The results of this study enhanced our understanding of the productivity and creativity of groups in computer-mediated communication.

Keywords: creativity, anonymity, idea-generation, idea-refinement, innovation

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775 Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Cobalt Matrix with Nano SiC Particles

Authors: Dhuha Albusalih, David Weston, Simon Gill

Abstract:

Nanocomposites Co-SiC with well dispersed nanoparticles and Co nano grain size has produced using Pulse Reverse Plating (PRP) and using anionic surfactant. Different particle contents of nanocomposites were produced by altering the plating parameters. The method allows great control over the level of nanoparticles in the coating, without changing bath chemistry. Examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), TEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to characterize and study the strengthening mechanisms of these nanocomposites. The primary strengthening mechanisms were shown to be grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Tribological performances of the produced electroplated nanocomposite Co-SiC coatings were examined. Results showed that the coating with the higher volume fraction (vol. %) of SiC and the smallest grain size has the higher hardness and low wear rate.

Keywords: nanocomposites, pulse reverse plating, tribological performance of cobalt nanocomposites

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774 Performance Evaluation of Refinement Method for Wideband Two-Beams Formation

Authors: C. Bunsanit

Abstract:

This paper presents the refinement method for two beams formation of wideband smart antenna. The refinement method for weighting coefficients is based on Fully Spatial Signal Processing by taking Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT), and its simulation results are presented using MATLAB. The radiation pattern is created by multiplying the incoming signal with real weights and then summing them together. These real weighting coefficients are computed by IDFT method; however, the range of weight values is relatively wide. Therefore, for reducing this range, the refinement method is used. The radiation pattern concerns with five input parameters to control. These parameters are maximum weighting coefficient, wideband signal, direction of mainbeam, beamwidth, and maximum of minor lobe level. Comparison of the obtained simulation results between using refinement method and taking only IDFT shows that the refinement method works well for wideband two beams formation.

Keywords: fully spatial signal processing, beam forming, refinement method, smart antenna, weighting coefficient, wideband

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
773 Inoculation of Aerospace Grade Mg-Al-Zn-Mn Cast Magnesium Alloy with Carbon Nanopowder

Authors: Spartak Makovskyi, Volodymir Klochykhin, Valery Zakharchenko, Konstantyn Balushok, Eduard Tsyvirko, Anatoly Shalomeyev

Abstract:

A highly efficient, cost-effective grain refinement technique for ML5 magnesium alloy with a commercially pure carbon nanopowder has been proposed. An experimental casting of testing specimens with incremental additions of a carbon nanopowder (0.001 - 0.1 wt.% ) was performed. It has been found that the carbon nanoparticle inoculation of the alloy structure is efficient in a narrow concentration range. The additions of 0.005-0.01 wt. % the grain refiner in the alloy resulted in a maximum increase of ductility properties (appr. Twofold) and improved tensile strength. However, further expansion of the grain refiner content led to the deterioration of the alloy's mechanical properties. In particular, the introduction of 0.1 wt.% of the nanocarbon and more caused internal defects in the metal. The carbon nanoparticle inoculation is a promising way of improving the properties of the Mg-Al-Zn alloys for critical lightweight aerospace applications on an industrial scale.

Keywords: carbon nanopowder, inoculation, melt, tensile strength

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772 Optimisation of Nitrogen as a Protective Gas via the Alternating Shielding Gas Technique in the Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

Authors: M. P. E. E Silva, A. M. Galloway, A. I. Toumpis

Abstract:

An increasing concern exists in the welding industry in terms of faster joining processes. Methods such as the alternation between shielding gases such Ar, CO₂ and He have been able to provide improved penetration of the joint, reduced heat transfer to the workpiece, and increased travel speeds of the welding torch. Nitrogen as a shielding gas is not desirable due to its reactive behavior within the arc plasma, being absorbed by the molten pool during the welding process. Below certain amounts, nitrogen is not harmful. However, the nitrogen threshold is reduced during the solidification of the joint, and if its subsequent desorption is not completed on time, gas entrapment and blowhole formation may occur. The present study expanded the use of the alternating shielding gas method in the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process by alternately supplying Ar/5%N₂ and He. Improvements were introduced in terms of joint strength and grain refinement. Microstructural characterization findings showed porosity-free welds with reduced inclusion formation while mechanical tests such as tensile and bend tests confirmed the reinforcement of the joint by the addition of nitrogen. Additionally, significant reductions of the final distortion of the workpiece were found after the welding procedure as well as decreased heat affected zones and temperatures of the weld.

Keywords: alternating shielding gas method, GMAW, grain refinement, nitrogen, porosity, mechanical testing

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771 The Investigation of Niobium Addition on Mechanical Properties of Al11Si alloy

Authors: Kerem Can Dizdar, Semih Ateş, Ozan Güler, Gökhan Basman, Derya Dışpınar, Cevat Fahir Arısoy

Abstract:

Grain refinement and obtaining homogeneous microstructure is the key parameter in casting of aluminum alloys. Ti has been traditionally used as grain refiner, however, inconsistency and heterogeneous dendrite arms, as well as fading efficiency, have been the drawbacks of Ti. Alternatively, Nb (Niobium) has gained attention. In this work, the effect of Nb was investigated in case of both as cast and T6 heat treated conditions. Different ratios of Nb (0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 weight%) were added to AlSi11 alloy, mechanical properties were examined statistically, and relationship was established between microstructure and mechanical properties by examining the grain size and dendrite characteristics before and after heat treatment. Results indicate that in the case of as cast state; with the increasing addition of Nb has no significant effect on yield strength, however, it increases the tensile strength and elongation starting with 0.05wt% ratio, and it remains constant up to 0.1wt%. For the heat-treated condition; Nb addition provides increment at yield strength and tensile strength up to 0.05wt%, but it leads to decrementfrom 0.05 to 0.1wt%. The opposite is valid for the elongation; It decreases in between 0-0.05wt% then rises in range of 0.05-0.1wt%. Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were found T6 heat treated 0.05wt% Nb addition. 0.05wt% was found as critical Nbaddition ratio for mechanical properties of Al-11Si alloys. Grain refinement and obtaining homogeneous microstructure is the key parameter in casting of aluminum alloys. Ti has been traditionally used as grain refiner, however, inconsistency and heterogeneous dendrite arms, as well as fading efficiency, have been the drawbacks of Ti. Alternatively, Nb (Niobium) has gained attention. In this work, the effect of Nb was investigated in case of both as cast and T6 heat treated conditions. Different ratios of Nb (0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1 weight%) were added to AlSi11 alloy, mechanical properties were examined statistically, and relationship was established between microstructure and mechanical properties by examining the grain size and dendrite characteristics before and after heat treatment. Results indicate that in the case of as cast state; with the increasing addition of Nb has no significant effect on yield strength, however, it increases the tensile strength and elongation starting with 0.05wt% ratio, and it remains constant up to 0.1wt%. For the heat-treated condition; Nb addition provides increment at yield strength and tensile strength up to 0.05wt%, but it leads to decrement from 0.05 to 0.1wt%. The opposite is valid for the elongation; It decreases in between 0-0.05wt% then rises in range of 0.05-0.1wt%. Highest yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were found T6 heat treated 0.05wt% Nb addition. 0.05wt% was found as critical Nbaddition ratio for mechanical properties of Al-11Si alloys.

Keywords: al-si alloy, grain refinement, heat treatment, mechanical properties, microstructure, niobium, sand casting

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770 Numerical Modelling of Surface Waves Generated by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field for Silicon Refinement Process

Authors: V. Geza, J. Vencels, G. Zageris, S. Pavlovs

Abstract:

One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus. Therefore, a new approach could address this problem. We propose an approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which includes coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

Keywords: numerical modelling, silicon refinement, surface waves, VOF method

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
769 Grain Boundary Detection Based on Superpixel Merges

Authors: Gaokai Liu

Abstract:

The distribution of material grain sizes reflects the strength, fracture, corrosion and other properties, and the grain size can be acquired via the grain boundary. In recent years, the automatic grain boundary detection is widely required instead of complex experimental operations. In this paper, an effective solution is applied to acquire the grain boundary of material images. First, the initial superpixel segmentation result is obtained via a superpixel approach. Then, a region merging method is employed to merge adjacent regions based on certain similarity criterions, the experimental results show that the merging strategy improves the superpixel segmentation result on material datasets.

Keywords: grain boundary detection, image segmentation, material images, region merging

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768 Optimal Design of Propellant Grain Shape Based on Structural Strength Analysis

Authors: Chen Xiong, Tong Xin, Li Hao, Xu Jin-Sheng

Abstract:

Experiment and simulation researches on the structural integrity of propellant grain in solid rocket motor (SRM) with high volumetric fraction were conducted. First, by using SRM parametric modeling functions with secondary development tool Python of ABAQUS, the three dimensional parameterized modeling programs of star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain were accomplished. Then, the mechanical properties under different loads for star shaped grain were obtained with the application of automatically established finite element model in ABAQUS. Next, several optimization algorithms are introduced to optimize the star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain. After meeting the demands of burning surface changes and volumetric fraction, the optimum three dimensional shapes of grain were obtained. Finally, by means of parametric modeling functions, pressure data of SRM’s cold pressurization test was directly applied to simulation of grain in terms of mechanical performance. The results verify the reliability and practical of parameterized modeling program of SRM.

Keywords: cold pressurization test, ğarametric modeling, structural integrity, propellant grain, SRM

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767 Continuous Manufacturing of Ultra Fine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation Methods

Authors: Aslı Günay Bulutsuz, Mehmet Emin Yurci

Abstract:

Severe plastic deformation techniques are top-down deformation methods which enable superior mechanical properties by decreasing grain size. Different kind severe plastic deformation methods have been widely being used at various process temperature and geometries. Besides manufacturing advantages of severe plastic deformation technique, most of the types are being used only at the laboratory level. They cannot be adapted to industrial usage due to their continuous manufacturability and manufacturing costs. In order to enhance these manufacturing difficulties and enable widespread usage, different kinds of methods have been developed. In this review, a comprehensive literature research was fulfilled in order to highlight continuous severe plastic deformation methods.

Keywords: continuous manufacturing, severe plastic deformation, ultrafine grains, grain size refinement

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766 Design and Burnback Analysis of Three Dimensional Modified Star Grain

Authors: Almostafa Abdelaziz, Liang Guozhu, Anwer Elsayed

Abstract:

The determination of grain geometry is an important and critical step in the design of solid propellant rocket motor. In this study, the design process involved parametric geometry modeling in CAD, MATLAB coding of performance prediction and 2D star grain ignition experiment. The 2D star grain burnback achieved by creating new surface via each web increment and calculating geometrical properties at each step. The 2D star grain is further modified to burn as a tapered 3D star grain. Zero dimensional method used to calculate the internal ballistic performance. Experimental and theoretical results were compared in order to validate the performance prediction of the solid rocket motor. The results show that the usage of 3D grain geometry will decrease the pressure inside the combustion chamber and enhance the volumetric loading ratio.

Keywords: burnback analysis, rocket motor, star grain, three dimensional grains

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765 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova

Abstract:

Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
764 2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Grain Growth under Transient Conditions

Authors: K. R. Phaneesh, Anirudh Bhat, G. Mukherjee, K. T. Kashyap

Abstract:

Extensive Monte Carlo Potts model simulations were performed on 2D square lattice to investigate the effects of simulated higher temperatures effects on grain growth kinetics. A range of simulation temperatures (KTs) were applied on a matrix of size 10002 with Q-state 64, dispersed with a wide range of second phase particles, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1, and then run to 100,000 Monte Carlo steps. The average grain size, the largest grain size and the grain growth exponent were evaluated for all particle fractions and simulated temperatures. After evaluating several growth parameters, the critical temperature for a square lattice, with eight nearest neighbors, was found to be KTs = 0.4.

Keywords: average grain size, critical temperature, grain growth exponent, Monte Carlo steps

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763 Development of AA2024 Matrix Composites Reinforced with Micro Yttrium through Cold Compaction with Superior Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. H. S. Vidyasagar, D. B. Karunakar

Abstract:

In this present work, five different composite samples with AA2024 as matrix and varying amounts of yttrium (0.1-0.5 wt.%) as reinforcement are developed through cold compaction. The microstructures of the developed composite samples revealed that the yttrium reinforcement caused grain refinement up to 0.3 wt.% and beyond which the refinement is not effective. The microstructure revealed Al2Cu precipitation which strengthened the composite up to 0.3 wt.% yttrium reinforcement. Upon further increase in yttrium reinforcement, the intermetallics and the precipitation coarsen and their corresponding strengthening effect decreases. The mechanical characterization revealed that the composite sample reinforced with 0.3 wt.% yttrium showed highest mechanical properties like 82 HV of hardness, 276 MPa Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS), 229 MPa Yield Strength (YS) and an elongation (EL) of 18.9% respectively. However, the relative density of the developed composites decreased with the increase in yttrium reinforcement.

Keywords: mechanical properties, AA 2024 matrix, yttrium reinforcement, cold compaction, precipitation

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762 Some Yield Parameters of Wheat Genotypes

Authors: Shatha A. Yousif, Hatem Jasim, Ali R. Abas, Dheya P. Yousef

Abstract:

To study the effect of the cross direction in bead wheat, three hybrid combinations (Babyle 113 , Iratome), (Sawa , Tamose2) and (Al Hashymya Al Iraq) were tested for plant height, number of tillers/m, number of grains per spike, weight of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. The results revealed that the direction of the cross had significant effect the number of grain/spike, tillers/m and grain yields. Grain yield was positively and significantly correlated with 1000-grain weight, number of grains per spike and tillers. Depend on the result of heritability and genetic advance it was suggested that 1000-grain weight number of grains per spike and tillers should be given emphasis for future wheat yield improvement programs.

Keywords: correlation, genetic advance, heritability, wheat, yield traits

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761 The Impact of Distributed Epistemologies on Software Engineering

Authors: Thomas Smith

Abstract:

Many hackers worldwide would agree that, had it not been for linear-time theory, the refinement of Byzantine fault tolerance might never have occurred. After years of significant research into extreme programming, we validate the refinement of simulated annealing. Maw, our new framework for unstable theory, is the solution to all of these issues.

Keywords: distributed, software engineering, DNS, DHCP

Procedia PDF Downloads 273