Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4386

Search results for: phase equilibrium

4386 Phase Equilibria in Zn-Al-Sn Alloy for Lead-free Solder Application

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: lead-free solder, zn-al-sn alloy, phase equilibrium, rolling, microstructure, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4385 Effect of Transition Metal Addition on Aging Behavior of Invar Alloy

Authors: Young Sik Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight per cent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M2C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.

Keywords: Invar alloy, transition metals, phase equilibrium, aging behavior, microstructure, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
4384 Effect of Al Addition on Microstructure and Physical Properties of Fe-36Ni Invar Alloy

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High strength Fe-36Ni-base Invar alloys containing Al contents up to 0.3 weight percent were cast into ingots and thermodynamic equilibrium during solidification has been investigated in this study. From the thermodynamic simulation using Thermo-Calc®, it has been revealed that equilibrium phases which can be formed are two kinds of MC-type precipitates, MoC, and M2C carbides. The mu phase was also expected to form by addition of aluminum. Microstructure observation revealed the coarse precipitates in the as-cast ingots, which was non-equilibrium phase and could be resolved by the successive heat treatment. With increasing Al contents up to 0.3 wt.%, tensile strength of Invar alloy increased as 1400MPa after cold rolling and thermal expansion coefficient increased significantly. Cold rolling appeared to dramatically decrease thermal expansion coefficient.

Keywords: invar alloy, aluminum, phase equilibrium, thermal expansion coefficient, microstructure, tensile properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
4383 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

Abstract:

Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: rice bran, solubility, supercritical CO2, ϒ-orizanol

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
4382 Effect of Y Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The effect of Yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, which has been attracting intensive focus as a Pb-free solder material, was investigated in this study. Phase equilibrium has been calculated by using FactSage® to evaluate the composition and fraction of equilibrium intermetallic compounds and construct a phase diagram. In the case of Sn-8.8 Zn eutectic alloy, the as-cast microstructure was typical lamellar. With addition of 0.25 wt. %Y, a large amount of pro-eutectic phases have been observed and various YZnx intermetallic compounds were expected to successively form during cooling. Hardness of Sn-8.8 Zn alloy was not affected by Y-addition and both alloys could be rolled by 90% at room temperature.

Keywords: Sn-Zn eutectic alloy, yttrium, FactSage®, microstructure, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
4381 Pressure-Controlled Dynamic Equations of the PFC Model: A Mathematical Formulation

Authors: Jatupon Em-Udom, Nirand Pisutha-Arnond

Abstract:

The phase-field-crystal, PFC, approach is a density-functional-type material model with an atomic resolution on a diffusive timescale. Spatially, the model incorporates periodic nature of crystal lattices and can naturally exhibit elasticity, plasticity and crystal defects such as grain boundaries and dislocations. Temporally, the model operates on a diffusive timescale which bypasses the need to resolve prohibitively small atomic-vibration time steps. The PFC model has been used to study many material phenomena such as grain growth, elastic and plastic deformations and solid-solid phase transformations. In this study, the pressure-controlled dynamic equation for the PFC model was developed to simulate a single-component system under externally applied pressure; these coupled equations are important for studies of deformable systems such as those under constant pressure. The formulation is based on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the thermodynamics of crystalline solids. To obtain the equations, the entropy variation around the equilibrium point was derived. Then the resulting driving forces and flux around the equilibrium were obtained and rewritten as conventional thermodynamic quantities. These dynamics equations are different from the recently-proposed equations; the equations in this study should provide more rigorous descriptions of the system dynamics under externally applied pressure.

Keywords: driving forces and flux, evolution equation, non equilibrium thermodynamics, Onsager’s reciprocal relation, phase field crystal model, thermodynamics of single-component solid

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
4380 Electromagnetically-Vibrated Solid-Phase Microextraction for Organic Compounds

Authors: Soo Hyung Park, Seong Beom Kim, Wontae Lee, Jin Chul Joo, Jungmin Lee, Jongsoo Choi

Abstract:

A newly-developed electromagnetically vibrated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device for extracting nonpolar organic compounds from aqueous matrices was evaluated in terms of sorption equilibrium time, precision, and detection level relative to three other more conventional extraction techniques involving SPME, viz., static, magnetic stirring, and fiber insertion/retraction. Electromagnetic vibration at 300~420 cycles/s was found to be the most efficient extraction technique in terms of reducing sorption equilibrium time and enhancing both precision and linearity. The increased efficiency for electromagnetic vibration was attributed to a greater reduction in the thickness of the stagnant-water layer that facilitated more rapid mass transport from the aqueous matrix to the SPME fiber. Electromagnetic vibration less than 500 cycles/s also did not detrimentally impact the sustainability of the extracting performance of the SPME fiber. Therefore, electromagnetically vibrated SPME may be a more powerful tool for rapid sampling and solvent-free sample preparation relative to other more conventional extraction techniques used with SPME.

Keywords: electromagnetic vibration, organic compounds, precision, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), sorption equilibrium time

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
4379 The Unsteady Non-Equilibrium Distribution Function and Exact Equilibrium Time for a Dilute Gas Affected by Thermal Radiation Field

Authors: Taha Zakaraia Abdel Wahid

Abstract:

The behavior of the unsteady non-equilibrium distribution function for a dilute gas under the effect of non-linear thermal radiation field is presented. For the best of our knowledge this is done for the first time at all. The distinction and comparisons between the unsteady perturbed and the unsteady equilibrium velocity distribution functions are illustrated. The equilibrium time for the dilute gas is determined for the first time. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system (gas+the heated plate) are investigated. The results are applied to the Argon gas, for various values of radiation field intensity. 3D-Graphics illustrating the calculated variables are drawn to predict their behavior. The results are discussed.

Keywords: dilute gas, radiation field, exact solutions, travelling wave method, unsteady BGK model, irreversible thermodynamics, unsteady non-equilibrium distribution functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
4378 Experimental Quantification and Modeling of Dissolved Gas during Hydrate Crystallization: CO₂ Hydrate Case

Authors: Amokrane Boufares, Elise Provost, Veronique Osswald, Pascal Clain, Anthony Delahaye, Laurence Fournaison, Didier Dalmazzone

Abstract:

Gas hydrates have long been considered as problematic for flow assurance in natural gas and oil transportation. On the other hand, they are now seen as future promising materials for various applications (i.e. desalination of seawater, natural gas and hydrogen storage, gas sequestration, gas combustion separation and cold storage and transport). Nonetheless, a better understanding of the crystallization mechanism of gas hydrate and of their formation kinetics is still needed for a better comprehension and control of the process. To that purpose, measuring the real-time evolution of the dissolved gas concentration in the aqueous phase during hydrate formation is required. In this work, CO₂ hydrates were formed in a stirred reactor equipped with an Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) probe coupled to a Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer. A method was first developed to continuously measure in-situ the CO₂ concentration in the liquid phase during solubilization, supersaturation, hydrate crystallization and dissociation steps. Thereafter, the measured concentration data were compared with those of equilibrium concentrations. It was observed that the equilibrium is instantly reached in the liquid phase due to the fast consumption of dissolved gas by the hydrate crystallization. Consequently, it was shown that hydrate crystallization kinetics is limited by the gas transfer at the gas-liquid interface. Finally, we noticed that the liquid-hydrate equilibrium during the hydrate crystallization is governed by the temperature of the experiment under the tested conditions.

Keywords: gas hydrate, dissolved gas, crystallization, infrared spectroscopy

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4377 Salting Effect in Partially Miscible Systems of Water/Acétic Acid/1-Butanol at 298.15k: Experimental Study and Estimation of New Solvent-Solvent and Salt-Solvent Binary Interaction Parameters for NRTL Model

Authors: N. Bourayou, A. -H. Meniai, A. Gouaoura

Abstract:

The presence of salt can either raise or lower the distribution coefficient of a solute acetic acid in liquid- liquid equilibria. The coefficient of solute is defined as the ratio of the composition of solute in solvent rich phase to the composition of solute in diluents (water) rich phase. The phenomena are known as salting–out or salting-in, respectively. The effect of monovalent salt, sodium chloride and the bivalent salt, sodium sulfate on the distribution of acetic acid between 1-butanol and water at 298.15K were experimentally shown to be effective in modifying the liquid-liquid equilibrium of water/acetic acid/1-butanol system in favour of the solvent extraction of acetic acid from an aqueous solution with 1-butanol, particularly at high salt concentrations of both salts. All the two salts studied are found to have to salt out effect for acetic acid in varying degrees. The experimentally measured data were well correlated by Eisen-Joffe equation. NRTL model for solvent mixtures containing salts was able to provide good correlation of the present liquid-liquid equilibrium data. Using the regressed salt concentration coefficients for the salt-solvent interaction parameters and the solvent-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the same system without salt. The calculated phase equilibrium was in a quite good agreement with the experimental data, showing the ability of NRTL model to correlate salt effect on the liquid-liquid equilibrium.

Keywords: activity coefficient, Eisen-Joffe, NRTL model, sodium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4376 Effect of Sodium Chloride in the Recovery of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Aidaoui Ahleme, Hasseine Abdelmalek

Abstract:

Acetic acid is one of the simplest and most widely used carboxylic acids having many important chemical and industrial applications. Total worldwide production of acetic acid is about 6.5 million tonnes per year. A great deal of efforts has been made in developing feasible and economic method for recovery of carboxylic acids. Among them, Liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) has been demonstrated to be a highly efficient separation technique. The study of efficiently separating and recovering Acetic acid from aqueous solutions is an important significance on industry and environmentally sustainable development. Many research groups in different countries are working in this field and some methods are proposed in the literature. In this work, effect of sodium chloride with different content (5%, 10% and 20%) on the liquid-liquid equilibrium data of (water+ acetic acid+ DCM) system is investigated. The addition of the salt in an aqueous solution introduces ionic forces which affect liquid-liquid equilibrium and which influence directly the distribution coefficient of the solute. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that when the percentage of salt increases in the aqueous solution, the equilibrium between phases is modified in favor of the extracted phase.

Keywords: acetic acid recovery, aqueous solution, salting-effect, sodium chloride

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4375 MHD Equilibrium Study in Alborz Tokamak

Authors: Maryamosadat Ghasemi, Reza Amrollahi

Abstract:

Plasma equilibrium geometry has a great influence on the confinement and magnetohydrodynamic stability in tokamaks. The poloidal field (PF) system of a tokamak should be able to support this plasma equilibrium geometry. In this work the prepared numerical code based on radial basis functions are presented and used to solve the Grad–Shafranov (GS) equation for the axisymmetric equilibrium of tokamak plasma. The radial basis functions (RBFs) which is a kind of numerical meshfree method (MFM) for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) has appeared in the last decade and is developing significantly in the last few years. This technique is applied in this study to obtain the equilibrium configuration for Alborz Tokamak. The behavior of numerical solution convergences show the validation of this calculations.

Keywords: equilibrium, grad–shafranov, radial basis functions, Alborz Tokamak

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
4374 Mathematical Study of CO₂ Dispersion in Carbonated Water Injection Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Non-Equilibrium 2D Simulator

Authors: Ahmed Abdulrahman, Jalal Foroozesh

Abstract:

CO₂ based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques have gained massive attention from major oil firms since they resolve the industry's two main concerns of CO₂ contribution to the greenhouse effect and the declined oil production. Carbonated water injection (CWI) is a promising EOR technique that promotes safe and economic CO₂ storage; moreover, it mitigates the pitfalls of CO₂ injection, which include low sweep efficiency, early CO₂ breakthrough, and the risk of CO₂ leakage in fractured formations. One of the main challenges that hinder the wide adoption of this EOR technique is the complexity of accurate modeling of the kinetics of CO₂ mass transfer. The mechanisms of CO₂ mass transfer during CWI include the slow and gradual cross-phase CO₂ diffusion from carbonated water (CW) to the oil phase and the CO₂ dispersion (within phase diffusion and mechanical mixing), which affects the oil physical properties and the spatial spreading of CO₂ inside the reservoir. A 2D non-equilibrium compositional simulator has been developed using a fully implicit finite difference approximation. The material balance term (k) was added to the governing equation to account for the slow cross-phase diffusion of CO₂ from CW to the oil within the gird cell. Also, longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients have been added to account for CO₂ spatial distribution inside the oil phase. The CO₂-oil diffusion coefficient was calculated using the Sigmund correlation, while a scale-dependent dispersivity was used to calculate CO₂ mechanical mixing. It was found that the CO₂-oil diffusion mechanism has a minor impact on oil recovery, but it tends to increase the amount of CO₂ stored inside the formation and slightly alters the residual oil properties. On the other hand, the mechanical mixing mechanism has a huge impact on CO₂ spatial spreading (accurate prediction of CO₂ production) and the noticeable change in oil physical properties tends to increase the recovery factor. A sensitivity analysis has been done to investigate the effect of formation heterogeneity (porosity, permeability) and injection rate, it was found that the formation heterogeneity tends to increase CO₂ dispersion coefficients, and a low injection rate should be implemented during CWI.

Keywords: CO₂ mass transfer, carbonated water injection, CO₂ dispersion, CO₂ diffusion, cross phase CO₂ diffusion, within phase CO2 diffusion, CO₂ mechanical mixing, non-equilibrium simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4373 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
4372 The Behavior of Unsteady Non-Equilibrium Distribution Function and Exact Equilibrium Time for a Dilute Gas Mixture Affected by Thermal Radiation Field

Authors: Taha Zakaraia Abdel Wahid

Abstract:

In the present study, a development of the papers is introduced. The behavior of the unsteady non-equilibrium distribution functions for a rarefied gas mixture under the effect of non-linear thermal radiation field is presented. For the best of our knowledge this is done for the first time at all. The distinction and comparisons between the unsteady perturbed and the unsteady equilibrium velocity distribution functions are illustrated. The equilibrium time for the rarefied gas mixture is determined for the first time. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the system is investigated. The results are applied to the Argon-Neon binary gas mixture, for various values of both of molar fraction parameters and radiation field intensity. 3D-Graphics illustrating the calculated variables are drawn to predict their behavior and the results are discussed.

Keywords: radiation field, binary gas mixture, exact solutions, travelling wave method, unsteady BGK model, irreversible thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
4371 Scalar Equilibria for Normal-Form Games

Authors: Herbert W. Corley

Abstract:

A scalar equilibrium (SE) is an alternative type of equilibrium in pure strategies for an n-person normal-form game G. It is defined using optimization techniques to obtain a pure strategy for each player of G by maximizing an appropriate utility function over the acceptable joint actions. The players’ actions are determined by choice of the utility function. Such a utility function could be agreed upon by the players or chosen by an arbitrator. An SE is an equilibrium since no players of G can increase the value of this utility function by changing their strategies. SEs are formally defined, and examples are given. In a greedy SE, the goal is to assign actions to the players giving them the largest individual payoffs jointly possible. In a weighted SE, players select the degree to which they help other players get higher payoffs. In a compromise SE, each player wants a payoff in approximately the same percentile of their payoff range as the other players. In a parity SE, the players want their payoffs to be approximately equal. Finally, a satisficing SE achieves a target payoff value for each player. Except for the parity SE, the vector payoffs associated with each of these SEs are shown to be Pareto optimal.

Keywords: compromise equilibrium, greedy equilibrium, normal-form game, parity equilibrium, pure strategy, satisficing equilibrium, scalar equilibria, utility2functions, weighted equilibrium

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4370 Oryzanol Recovery from Rice Bran Oil: Adsorption Equilibrium Models Through Kinetics Data Approachments

Authors: A.D. Susanti, W. B. Sediawan, S.K. Wirawan, Budhijanto, Ritmaleni

Abstract:

Oryzanol content in rice bran oil (RBO) naturally has high antioxidant activity. Its reviewed has several health properties and high interested in pharmacy, cosmetics, and nutrition’s. Because of the low concentration of oryzanol in crude RBO (0.9-2.9%) then its need to be further processed for practical usage, such as via adsorption process. In this study, investigation and adjustment of adsorption equilibrium models were conducted through the kinetic data approachments. Mathematical modeling on kinetics of batch adsorption of oryzanol separation from RBO has been set-up and then applied for equilibrium results. The size of adsorbent particles used in this case are usually relatively small then the concentration in the adsorbent is assumed to be not different. Hence, the adsorption rate is controlled by the rate of oryzanol mass transfer from the bulk fluid of RBO to the surface of silica gel. In this approachments, the rate of mass transfer is assumed to be proportional to the concentration deviation from the equilibrium state. The equilibrium models applied were Langmuir, coefficient distribution, and Freundlich with the values of the parameters obtained from equilibrium results. It turned out that the models set-up can quantitatively describe the experimental kinetics data and the adjustment of the values of equilibrium isotherm parameters significantly improves the accuracy of the model. And then the value of mass transfer coefficient per unit adsorbent mass (kca) is obtained by curve fitting.

Keywords: adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, oryzanol, rice bran oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
4369 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath

Abstract:

The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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4368 Stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem with Oblateness up to Zonal Harmonic J₄ of Both Primaries

Authors: Kanshio Richard Tyokyaa, Jagadish Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, we examined the location and stability of Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points in the elliptic restricted three-body problem of an infinitesimal body when both primaries are taken as oblate spheroids with oblateness up to zonal harmonic J₄. The positions of the Equilibrium points L₆,₇ and their stability depend on the oblateness of the primaries and the eccentricity of their orbits. We explored the problem numerically to show the effects of parameters involved in the position and stability of the Out-Of-Plane Equilibrium points for the systems: HD188753 and Gliese 667. It is found that their positions are affected by the oblateness of the primaries, eccentricity and the semi-major axis of the orbits, but its stability behavior remains unchanged and is unstable.

Keywords: out-of-plane, equilibrium points, stability, elliptic restricted three-body problem, oblateness, zonal harmonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
4367 Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane

Authors: Peterson Thokozani Ngema, Paramespri Naidoo, Amir H. Mohammadi, Deresh Ramjugernath

Abstract:

Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.

Keywords: association, desalination, electrolytes, promoter

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4366 Cyclic Evolution of a Two Fluid Diffusive Universe

Authors: Subhayan Maity

Abstract:

Complete scenario of cosmic evolution from emergent phase to late time acceleration (i.e. non-singular ever expanding Universe) is a popular preference in the recent cosmology. Yet one can’t exclude the idea that other type of evolution pattern of the Universe may also be possible. Especially, the bouncing scenario is becoming a matter of interest now a days. The present work is an exhibition of such a different pattern of cosmic evolution where the evolution of Universe has been shown as a cyclic thermodynamic process. Under diffusion mechanism (non-equilibrium thermodynamic process), the cosmic evolution has been modelled as [ emergent - accelerated expansion - decelerated expansion - decelerated contraction - accelerated contraction - emergent] .

Keywords: non-equilibrium thermodynamics, non singular evolution of universe, cyclic evolution, diffusive fluid

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4365 Ultrafast Ground State Recovery Dynamics of a Cyanine Dye Molecule in Heterogeneous Environment

Authors: Tapas Goswami, Debabrata Goswami

Abstract:

We have studied the changes in ground state recovery dynamics of IR 144 dye using degenerate transient absorption spectroscopy technique when going from homogeneous solution phase to heterogeneous partially miscible liquid/liquid interface. Towards this aim, we set up a partially miscible liquid/liquid interface in which dye is insoluble in one solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) layer and soluble in other solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). A gradual increase in ground state recovery time of the dye molecule is observed from homogenous bulk solution to more heterogeneous environment interface layer. In the bulk solution charge distribution of dye molecule is in equilibrium with polar DMSO solvent molecule. Near the interface micro transportation of non-polar solvent, CCl₄ disturbs the solvent equilibrium in DMSO layer and it relaxes to a new equilibrium state corresponding to a new charge distribution of dye with a heterogeneous mixture of polar and non-polar solvent. In this experiment, we have measured the time required for the dye molecule to relax to the new equilibrium state in different heterogeneous environment. As a result, dye remains longer time in the excited state such that even it can populate more triplet state. The present study of ground state recovery dynamics of a cyanine dye molecule in different solvent environment provides the important characteristics of effect of solvation on excited life time of a dye molecule.

Keywords: excited state, ground state recovery, solvation, transient absorption

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4364 Non-Equilibrium Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Magnetic FeCoPt Nanocrystalline Alloys

Authors: O. Crisan, A. D. Crisan, I. Mercioniu, R. Nicula, F. Vasiliu

Abstract:

FePt-based systems are currently under scrutiny for their possible use as future materials for perpendicular magnetic recording. Another possible application is in the field of permanent magnets without rare-earths, magnets that are capable to operate at higher temperatures than the classic Nd-Fe-B magnets. Within this work, FeCoPt alloys prepared by rapid solidification from the melt are structurally and magnetically characterized. Extended transmission electron microscopy analysis shows the high degree of L10 ordering. X-ray diffraction is used to characterize the phase structure and to obtain the structural parameters of interest for L10 ordering. Co-existence of hard CoFePt and CoPt L10 phases with the soft fcc FePt phase is obtained within a refined microstructure made of alternatively disposed grains of around 5 to 20 nm in size. Magnetic measurements show increased remanence close to the parent L10 FePt phase and not so high coercivity due to the significant presence of the soft magnetic constituent phase. A Curie temperature of about 820K is reported for the FeCoPt alloy.

Keywords: melt-spinning, FeCoPt alloys, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), ordered L10 structure

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4363 GAC Adsorption Modelling of Metsulfuron Methyl from Water

Authors: Nathaporn Areerachakul

Abstract:

In this study, the adsorption capacity of GAC with metsulfuron methyl was evaluated by using adsorption equilibrium and a fixed bed. Mathematical modelling was also used to simulate the GAC adsorption behavior. Adsorption equilibrium experiment of GAC was conducted using a constant concentration of metsulfuron methyl of 10 mg/L. The purpose of this study was to find the single component equilibrium concentration of herbicide. The adsorption behavior was simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm. The Sips isotherm fitted the experimental data reasonably well with an error of 6.6 % compared with 15.72 % and 7.07% for the Langmuir isotherm and Freudrich isotherm. Modelling using GAC adsorption theory could not replicate the experimental results in fixed bed column of 10 and 15 cm bed depths after a period more than 10 days of operation. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of micro-organism (BAC) on the surface of GAC in addition to GAC alone.

Keywords: isotherm, adsorption equilibrium, GAC, metsulfuron methyl

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4362 Unsteady Natural Convection in a Square Cavity Partially Filled with Porous Media Using a Thermal Non-Equilibrium Model

Authors: Ammar Alsabery, Habibis Saleh, Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Unsteady natural convection and heat transfer in a square cavity partially filled with porous media using a thermal non-equilibrium model is studied in this paper. The left vertical wall is maintained at a constant hot temperature and the right vertical wall is maintained at a constant cold temperature, while the horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing equations are obtained by applying the Darcy model and Boussinesq approximation. COMSOL's finite element method is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations together with specified boundary conditions. The governing parameters of this study are the Rayleigh number, the modified thermal conductivity ratio, the inter-phase heat transfer coefficien and the time independent. The results presented for values of the governing parameters in terms of streamlines in both fluid/porous layer, isotherms of fluid and solid porous layer, isotherms of fluid layer, and average Nusselt number.

Keywords: unsteady natural convection, thermal non-equilibrium model, Darcy model

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4361 Using Axiomatic Design for Developing a Framework of Manufacturing Cloud Service Composition in the Equilibrium State

Authors: Ehsan Vaziri Goodarzi, Mahmood Houshmand, Omid Fatahi Valilai, Vahidreza Ghezavati, Shahrooz Bamdad

Abstract:

One important paradigm of industry 4.0 is Cloud Manufacturing (CM). In CM everything is considered as a service, therefore, the CM platform should consider all service provider's capabilities and tries to integrate services in an equilibrium state. This research develops a framework for implementing manufacturing cloud service composition in the equilibrium state. The developed framework using well-known tools called axiomatic design (AD) and game theory. The research has investigated the factors for forming equilibrium for measures of the manufacturing cloud service composition. Functional requirements (FRs) represent the measures of manufacturing cloud service composition in the equilibrium state. These FRs satisfied by related Design Parameters (DPs). The FRs and DPs are defined by considering the game theory, QoS, consumer needs, parallel and cooperative services. Ultimately, four FRs and DPs represent the framework. To insure the validity of the framework, the authors have used the first AD’s independent axiom.

Keywords: axiomatic design, manufacturing cloud service composition, cloud manufacturing, industry 4.0

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4360 Global Analysis in a Growth Economic Model with Perfect-Substitution Technologies

Authors: Paolo Russu

Abstract:

The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some features of an economic growth model with environmental negative externalities, giving rise to a three-dimensional dynamic system. In particular, we show that the economy, which is based on a Perfect-Substitution Technologies function of production, has no neither indeterminacy nor poverty trap. This implies that equilibrium select by economy depends on the history (initial values of state variable) of the economy rather than on expectations of economies agents. Moreover, by contrast, we prove that the basin of attraction of locally equilibrium points may be very large, as they can extend up to the boundary of the system phase space. The infinite-horizon optimal control problem has the purpose of maximizing the representative agent’s instantaneous utility function depending on leisure and consumption.

Keywords: Hopf bifurcation, open-access natural resources, optimal control, perfect-substitution technologies, Poincarè compactification

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4359 Pulse Method for Investigation of Zr-C Phase Diagram at High Carbon Content Domain under High Temperatures

Authors: Arseniy M. Kondratyev, Sergey V. Onufriev, Alexander I. Savvatimskiy

Abstract:

The microsecond electrical pulse heating technique which provides uniform energy input into an investigated specimen is considered. In the present study we investigated ZrC+C carbide specimens in a form of a thin layer (about 5 microns thick) that were produced using a method of magnetron sputtering on insulating substrates. Specimens contained (at. %): Zr–17.88; C–67.69; N–8.13; O–5.98. Current through the specimen, voltage drop across it and radiation at the wavelength of 856 nm were recorded in the experiments. It enabled us to calculate the input energy, specific heat (from 2300 to 4500 K) and resistivity (referred to the initial dimensions of a specimen). To obtain the true temperature a black body specimen was used. Temperature of the beginning and completion of a phase transition (solid–liquid) was measured.Temperature of the onset of melting was 3150 K at the input energy 2.65 kJ/g; temperature of the completion of melting was 3450 K at the input energy 5.2 kJ/g. The specific heat of the solid phase of investigated carbide calculated using our data on temperature and imparted energy, is close to 0.75 J/gК for temperature range 2100–2800 K. Our results are considered together with the equilibrium Zr-C phase diagram.

Keywords: pulse heating, zirconium carbide, high temperatures, melting

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4358 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Serife Parlayici, Erol Pehlivan

Abstract:

In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: plum-stone, activated carbon, copper and lead, isotherms

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4357 Simulation of Immiscibility Regions in Sodium Borosilicate Glasses

Authors: Djamila Aboutaleb, Brahim Safi

Abstract:

In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.

Keywords: sodium borosilicate, heat-resistant, isothermal treatments, immiscibility, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 268