Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 494

Search results for: Seriki Idowu Ibrahim

494 Exploring Challenges Faced by Small Business Owners on Poverty Reduction in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Akinwale Olusola Mokayode, Emaanuel Adu, Seriki Idowu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Small business can serve as a tool for poverty reduction in South Africa, but it requires adequate support and development for its continuous sustenance in spite of rigorous challenges, especially in the rural environment. This study explored the challenges faced by the small business owners in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The objective of the study is to identify the challenges faced by small business owners in the case study area and to examine the effects of those challenges on poverty rate. Survey research design was adopted, with the distribution of structured questionnaire for data collection through a simple random sampling method. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that small business owners face various challenges in their commercial operations. It was also made clearer that these challenges have effects on the poverty rate as well as crime rate. In conclusion, in other for small businesses to be effective instrument to tackle poverty, certain measure must be taken into considerations. This therefore necessitates recommendation from the researcher that potential and current business owners must seek valuable advice from the more experienced business tycoon and seek information about the business assistance programmes provided by government and private sectors.

Keywords: Rural, Poverty, Small Business, Poverty Reduction, eastern cape, sustainable livelihood

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493 An Investigation into the Strategies Adopted by Women Entrepreneurs to Ensure Small Business Success in Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Agholor Deborah Ewere, Emmanuel Ade, Seriki Idowu

Abstract:

The role women entrepreneur plays to combat unemployment should not be underestimated, especially in countries with growing unemployment rates such as South Africa. Women entrepreneurs contribute significantly to economic development in South Africa, but their contribution has not been adequately studied and developed. Hence, the study identified business strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs to sustain growth and development of entrepreneurship. Survey research design approach was adopted and convenience sampling method was used for sample selection. The structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents. The findings revealed some of the operational challenges women entrepreneur faced to include lack of finance, marketing skills and planning and also showed that the strategies adopted by women entrepreneurs have a positive effect on the success of small businesses. It was recommended among others that the women entrepreneurs should take some time to study the nature of challenges other women have faced in business and possibly provide solutions to such issues before starting their own business. It was however concluded that unless the operational challenges named above are resolved, the role of women entrepreneurs in the developing nations will continue to experience deprived economic growth, development and display substandard competitiveness.

Keywords: Business, Women, Entrepreneurs, Strategies, Small, success

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492 Aspects of Semantics of Standard British English and Nigerian English: A Contrastive Study

Authors: Chris Adetuyi, Adeola Adeniran

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The concept of meaning is a complex one in language study when cultural features are added. This is mandatory because language cannot be completely separated from the culture in which case language and culture complement each other. When there are two varieties of a language in a society, i.e. two varieties functioning side by side in a speech community, there is a tendency to view one of the varieties with each other. There is, therefore, the need to make a linguistic comparative study of varieties of such languages. In this paper, a semantic contrastive study is made between Standard British English (SBE) and Nigerian English (NB). The semantic study is limited to aspects of semantics: semantic extension (Kinship terms, metaphors), semantic shift (lexical items considered are ‘drop’ ‘befriend’ ‘dowry’ and escort) acronyms (NEPA, JAMB, NTA) linguistic borrowing or loan words (Seriki, Agbada, Eba, Dodo, Iroko) coinages (long leg, bush meat; bottom power and juju). In the study of these aspects of semantics of SBE and NE lexical terms, conservative statements are made, problems areas and hierarchy of difficulties are highlighted with a view to bringing out areas of differences are highlighted in this paper are concerned. The study will also serve as a guide in further contrastive studies in some other area of languages.

Keywords: Semantics, English, Nigeria, aspect, British

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491 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Nasiru Ibrahim, Ibrahim Isah Lakan

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: Mineral, Phytochemicals, microbials, stachtarpheta indica extracts

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490 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim

Abstract:

Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: Plasmonics, Thin Films, Optical Sensors, Polarimetry

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489 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren

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Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Performance Evaluation, Fuzzy, AHP

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488 Conceptual Perimeter Model for Estimating Building Envelope Quantities

Authors: Ka C. Lam, Oluwafunmibi S. Idowu

Abstract:

Building girth is important in building economics and mostly used in quantities take-off of various cost items. Literature suggests that the use of conceptual quantities can improve the accuracy of cost models. Girth or perimeter of a building can be used to estimate conceptual quantities. Hence, the current paper aims to model the perimeter-area function of buildings shapes for use at the conceptual design stage. A detailed literature review on existing building shape indexes was carried out. An empirical approach was used to study the relationship between area and the shortest length of a four-sided orthogonal polygon. Finally, a mathematical approach was used to establish the observed relationships. The empirical results obtained were in agreement with the mathematical model developed. A new equation termed “conceptual perimeter equation” is proposed. The equation can be used to estimate building envelope quantities such as external wall area, external finishing area and scaffolding area before sketch or detailed drawings are prepared.

Keywords: Building Envelope, ‎girth‎, building shape index, conceptual quantities, cost modelling

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487 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik

Abstract:

The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: Self-efficacy, Competency, capacity development, instructional leadership

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486 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

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485 Analysis of Weather Variability Impact on Yields of Some Crops in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Idowu Ojo, Oluwatobi Peter Olowo

Abstract:

The study developed a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database and mapped inter-annual changes in crop yields of cassava, cowpea, maize, rice, melon and yam as a response to inter-annual rainfall and temperature variability in Southwest, Nigeria. The aim of this project is to study the comparative analysis of the weather variability impact of six crops yield (Rice, melon, yam, cassava, Maize and cowpea) in South Western States of Nigeria (Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos) from 1991 – 2007. The data was imported and analysed in the Arch GIS 9 – 3 software environment. The various parameters (temperature, rainfall, crop yields) were interpolated using the kriging method. The results generated through interpolation were clipped to the study area. Geographically weighted regression was chosen from the spatial statistics toolbox in Arch GIS 9.3 software to analyse and predict the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the different crops (Cowpea, maize, rice, melon, yam, and cassava).

Keywords: GIS, temperature, Rainfall, Comparative Analysis, crop yields, weather variability

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484 Challenges of Domestic Water Security for Sustainable Development in North Central Belt of Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim, Isaiah Ndalassan Ibrahim

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Accessibility and availability of good quality water have become a major concern among different users. This paper examines the caustic importance of water security in relation to people’s desire for survival. It observed the democratic ideology of national policy on domestic water supply and demand and its implementation for national and societal development. It used analogy on equilibrium approach to ascertain the household water security. In most communities, it is glaring that several public water management in operation for several years are hardly performing efficiently to reach equilibrium demand. Moreover most settlements being rural or urban lack effective public water system that could ensure regular supplies to the population. The terrain and gradual declining of efficient rainfall northward poses great challenge to the region in managing water supply and demand adequately. This study itemized the need for the government to get clear strategy for a sustainable development on better water efficiency. Partnership in providing workable policy on water security is considered apparently important. It is also suggested that water plant treatment should be established in every medium-sized towns in the country.

Keywords: water accessibility, water availability, good quality of water, water sustainable

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483 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan

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Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: antitumor activity, nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, quinazoline ring

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482 Mathematical Analysis of Simple Supported Euler-Bernoulli Beam on a Variable Elastic Foundation under a Partially Distributed Moving Load

Authors: I. A. Idowu, A. A. Owolabi, S. O. Sogunro, F. O. Akinpelu

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The dynamic responses of an elastically supported Euler- Bernoulli beam on variable elastic foundation under partially distributed moving loads were investigated. The governing equation is fourth order partial differential equation, which was reduced to second order ordinary differential equation by using the analytical method in terms of series solution and solved by a numerical method using mathematical software (Maple). The numerical analysis shows that the response amplitude of the moving mass and moving force for variable pre-stressed increase as mass of the load M increases. It was found that the response displacement of the beam decreases as the value of the elastic foundation K increases. Also, the response displacement of the beam decreases as the value of the pre-stressed N increase. Comparison of moving mass and moving force shown that moving mass is greater than that of moving force.

Keywords: moving load, elastic foundation, Euler-Bernoulli beam, Variable pre-stressed, partially distributed, moving force

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481 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Paul Lambert

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Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: Corrosion, Hydrogen embrittlement, cathodic protection, pre-stressed concrete

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480 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Caner Erden, Halil Ibrahim Demir, Ibrahim Cil, Tarık Cakar, Muharrem Dugenci

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Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: Process Planning, Genetic Algorithm, random search, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment

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479 Estimation of Source Parameters Using Source Parameters Imaging Method From Digitised High Resolution Airborne Magnetic Data of a Basement Complex

Authors: O. T. Oluriz, O. D. Akinyemi, J. A.Olowofela, O. A. Idowu, S. A. Ganiyu

Abstract:

This study was carried out using aeromagnetic data which record variation in the magnitude of the earth magnetic field in order to detect local changes in the properties of the underlying geology. The aeromagnetic data (Sheet No. 261) was acquired from the archives of Nigeria Geological Survey Agency of Nigeria, obtained in 2009. The study present estimation of source parameters within an area of about 3,025 square kilometers on geographic latitude to and longitude to within Ibadan and it’s environs in Oyo State, southwestern Nigeria. The area under study belongs to part of basement complex in southwestern Nigeria. Estimation of source parameters of aeromagnetic data was achieve through the application of source imaging parameters (SPI) techniques that provide delineation, depth, dip contact, susceptibility contrast and mineral potentials of magnetic signatures within the region. The depth to the magnetic sources in the area ranges from 0.675 km to 4.48 km. The estimated depth limit to shallow sources is 0.695 km and depth to deep sources is 4.48 km. The apparent susceptibility values of the entire study area obtained ranges from 0.01 to 0.005 [SI]. This study has shown that the magnetic susceptibility within study area is controlled mainly by super paramagnetic minerals.

Keywords: aeromagnetic, basement complex, meta-sediment, precambrian

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478 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, Interlukin-18, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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477 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh

Abstract:

Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, Nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

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476 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

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Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: Muscle Strength, anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale

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475 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdelazim Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla

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Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Protection, rock, Stabilization, slope, Makkah

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474 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Yoruba Language Teaching

Authors: Ayoola Idowu Olasebikan

Abstract:

The global community has become increasingly dependent on various kinds of technologies out of which Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) appear to be the most prominent. ICTs have become multipurpose tools which have had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live in it. Yoruba is the most widely spoken African language outside Africa but it remains one of the badly spoken language in the world as a result of its outdated teaching method in the African schools which prevented its standard version from being spoken and written. This paper conducts a critical review of the traditional methods of teaching Yoruba language. It then examines the possibility of leveraging on ICTs for improved methods of teaching Yoruba language to achieve global standard and spread. It identified key ICT platforms that can be deployed for the teaching of Yoruba language and the constraints facing each of them. The paper concludes that Information and Communication Technologies appear to provide veritable opportunity for paradigm shift in the methods of teaching Yoruba Language. It also opines that Yoruba language has the potential to transform economic fortune of Africa for sustainable development provided its teaching is taken beyond the brick and mortar classroom to the virtual classroom/global information super highway called internet or any other ICTs medium. It recommends that students and teachers of Yoruba language should be encouraged to acquire basic skills in computer and internet technology in order to enhance their ability to develop and retrieve electronic Yoruba language teaching materials.

Keywords: ICT, Africa, Yoruba language, teaching method

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
473 Driving towards Better Health: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence and Correlates of Obesity among Commercial Drivers in East London, South Africa

Authors: Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Daniel Ter Goon, Aanuoluwa O. Adedokun, Eyitayo Omolara Owolabi

Abstract:

Background: The unhealthy food choices and sedentary lifestyle of commercial drivers predisposes them to obesity and obesity related diseases. Yet, no attention has been paid to obesity burden among this high risk group in South Africa. This study examines the prevalence of obesity and its risk factors among commercial drivers in East London, South Africa. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized the WHO STEP wise approach to screen for obesity among 403 drivers in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), South Africa. Anthropometric, blood pressure and blood glucose measurements were taken following a standard procedure. Overweight and obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 kgm⁻²–29.9 kg/m² and≥ 30 kg/ m², respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the prevalence and determinants of obesity. Result: The mean age of the participants was 43.3 (SD12.5) years, mean height (cm) and weight (kg) were 170.1(6.2cm) and 83(SD18.7), respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 34.0% and 38.0%, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, only age (OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.7), hypertension (OR 3.6, CI 2.3-5.7) and non-smoking (OR 2.0, CI 1.3-3.1) were independent predictors of obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among commercial drivers. Age, hypertension, and non-smoking were independent predictors of obesity among the sample. Measures aimed at promoting health and reducing obesity should be prioritized among this group.

Keywords: Risk Factors, South Africa, obesity and overweight, commercial taxi drivers

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472 Sources of Occupational Stress among Teachers in Command Secondary Schools of Nigerian Army

Authors: Mary Esere, Mogbekeloluwa Fakokunde, Adetoun Idowu

Abstract:

Background: Working in a military setting could elicit some amount of stressful doses into ones system because of the attendant peculiar characteristics found in the military environment. Thus, this study was carried out to find out the sources of occupational stress among teachers in various Command Secondary Schools within 2 Division of Nigerian Army. Method: The study employed a survey method. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the schools in the Division. A total of 200 respondents participated in the study. Sources of Teachers’ Occupational Stress Questionnaire (STOSQ) was administered to the respondents to collect relevant data. The t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were used to test the hypotheses. Findings: From the study, it was discovered that teachers in this setting do experience occupational stress. Their major sources of stress bother on issues relating to salaries and allowances and staff welfare concerns. The findings also revealed that there were no significant differences in the sources of occupational stress among the teachers in respect to gender and marital status. Discussion: Based on these findings, it was recommended that the Appropriate Superior Authority (ASA) should reconstitute the proscribed Armed Forces Schools Management Board (AFSMB) where issues, such as staff salaries and welfare concerns for teachers working in the schools under the three services (Army, Navy, Airforce) will always be addressed. This will go a long way in enhancing the psychological well-being of the teachers.

Keywords: Teachers, Sources, Occupational Stress, Nigerian army

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471 Influence of Information and Communication Technology on Dress Culture among Senior Secondary School Students in Ife East Local Government, Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Idowu J. Diyaolu, Ebenezer O. Obayomi, Taiwo A. Bamidele

Abstract:

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been observed to have influence on the lifestyle of youths in general. Dressing styles, fashion consciousness and choice of role model are some of the areas of influence. The study was carried out to examine the perception and influence of ICT on the clothing culture of selected Senior Secondary School Students in Ife-East Local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Two hundred Senior Secondary School Students from public and private schools were randomly selected. Data was collected using structured questionnaire. The result showed that 79.0% were computer literate, 64.5% have facebook account and 93.5% browse with phones. Based on their perception on the influence of ICT, 74.5% of the respondents agreed that frequent use of ICT has increased their level of fashion consciousness while 60.5% were motivated by the images and dressing pattern in magazines, on TV and the internet. Also, large proportions (60.5%) were influenced by the dressing styles of their friends on social media. Male students were significantly more engaged in ICT related activities than females (t = 1.29, P < 0.05), whereas there is no significant difference in the involvement in ICT activities between private and public school students (t = 0.325, P > 0.05). Since ICT has influence on dressing, appropriate dressing pattern should be encouraged on mass media.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technology, Fashion Trend, dress culture, role model

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470 Physical and Chemical Parameters of Lower Ogun River, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: F.I. Adeosun, A.A. Idowu, D.O. Odulate

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The aims of carrying out this experiment were to determine the water quality and to investigate if the various human and ecological activities around the river have any effect on the physico-chemical parameters of the river’s resources with a view to effectively utilizing these resources. Water samples were collected from two stations on the surface water of Lower Ogun River Akomoje biweekly for a period of 5 months (January to May, 2011). Results showed that temperature ranged between 24.0-30.7oC, transparency (0.53-1.00 m), depth (1.0-3.88 m), alkalinity (4.5-14.5 mg/l), nitrates (0.235-5.445 mg/l), electrical conductivity (140-190µS/cm), dissolved oxygen (4.12-5.32 mg/l), phosphates (0.02 mg/l-0.7 5 mg/l) and total dissolved solids (70-95).The parameters at the deep end (station A) accounted for the bulk of the highest values; there was however no significant differences between the stations at P˂0.05 with the exception of transparency, depth, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. The phosphate value was relatively low which accounted for the low productivity and high transparency. The results obtained from the physico-chemical parameters agreed with the limits set by both national and international bodies for drinking and fish growth. It was however observed that during the period of data collection, catch was low and this could be attributed to low level of primary productivity due to the quality of physico-chemical parameters of the water. It is recommended that the agencies involved in the management of the river should put the right policies in place that will effectively enhance proper exploitation of the water resources. More research should also be carried out on the physico-chemical parameters since this work only studied the water for five months.

Keywords: Chemical, Physical, Water Quality, parameters, Ogunriver

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469 Variability of Climatic Elements in Nigeria Over Recent 100 Years

Authors: T. Salami, O. S. Idowu, N. J. Bello

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Climatic variability is an essential issue when dealing with the issue of climate change. Variability of some climate parameter helps to determine how variable the climatic condition of a region will behave. The most important of these climatic variables which help to determine the climatic condition in an area are both the Temperature and Precipitation. This research deals with Longterm climatic variability in Nigeria. Variables examined in this analysis include near-surface temperature, near surface minimum temperature, maximum temperature, relative humidity, vapour pressure, precipitation, wet-day frequency and cloud cover using data ranging between 1901-2010. Analyses were carried out and the following methods were used: - Regression and EOF analysis. Results show that the annual average, minimum and maximum near-surface temperature all gradually increases from 1901 to 2010. And they are in the same case in a wet season and dry season. Minimum near-surface temperature, with its linear trends are significant for annual, wet season and dry season means. However, the diurnal temperature range decreases in the recent 100 years imply that the minimum near-surface temperature has increased more than the maximum. Both precipitation and wet day frequency decline from the analysis, demonstrating that Nigeria has become dryer than before by the way of rainfall. Temperature and precipitation variability has become very high during these periods especially in the Northern areas. Areas which had excessive rainfall were confronted with flooding and other related issues while area that had less precipitation were all confronted with drought. More practical issues will be presented.

Keywords: Climate, variability, Flooding, excessive rainfall

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468 ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend

Authors: Abubakar Uba Ibrahim, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono

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Smart metering and demand response are gaining ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector. Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time, thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring ‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Smart Appliances, Demand Response, communication technology between appliances, load monitoring

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467 Chamba Encroachment into Jukum Territory and Its Impact 1830-1900

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

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The period between the late 18th and early 19th centuries was characterized by conflict of ethnic nationalities in the Benue valley region. This conflict was exacerbated by the introduction of the Fulani jihad that began in Hausa land into the Benue valley region. Fulani in this region launched the Jihad movement which pushed out some ethnic groups from their natural abode or ancestral home to live a nomad live until they could settle and established a stayed in a particular place. The Chamba were being displaced by the Fulani jihad that took place around Faro deo in about 1809. It was from there that most of the Chamba migrated out, some into the Cameroon republic, while others moved into the Benue valley region. Among those that entered into the Benue valley region are the Sama, Kola, Gayam etc, and could be found in Donga local Government area of Taraba state. Those Chamba clan that later on cameo into the Benue Valley are Pyeri, Kashimbila etc. The sudden movement of the Chamba or migrations into the Jukun territory co-in ceded with the period that the Jihad had already had a severe and consequential effect or impact on the Jukun territory cause by Yakubu Ibrahim of Bzuchi, and Buba Yero of Gombe, and Hamaruwa of Muri Emirate. This ne authorities in Kwararafa Kingdom cut the Jukun King out of contact with Borno and Hausa-land. This paper set to examine the chiefdom that the Chamba established right within the Jukun headquarters of Wukari. Sources to be used are published books, Journals, Archival materials, and M.A. Thesis to enable us know the impact of Chamba migrations on the Jukun territory and reactions of the Jukun’s to this new comers.

Keywords: Migration, Chamba people, encroachment, ethnic nationalities

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466 Modelling Conceptual Quantities Using Support Vector Machines

Authors: Ka C. Lam, Oluwafunmibi S. Idowu

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Uncertainty in cost is a major factor affecting performance of construction projects. To our knowledge, several conceptual cost models have been developed with varying degrees of accuracy. Incorporating conceptual quantities into conceptual cost models could improve the accuracy of early predesign cost estimates. Hence, the development of quantity models for estimating conceptual quantities of framed reinforced concrete structures using supervised machine learning is the aim of the current research. Using measured quantities of structural elements and design variables such as live loads and soil bearing pressures, response and predictor variables were defined and used for constructing conceptual quantities models. Twenty-four models were developed for comparison using a combination of non-parametric support vector regression, linear regression, and bootstrap resampling techniques. R programming language was used for data analysis and model implementation. Gross soil bearing pressure and gross floor loading were discovered to have a major influence on the quantities of concrete and reinforcement used for foundations. Building footprint and gross floor loading had a similar influence on beams and slabs. Future research could explore the modelling of other conceptual quantities for walls, finishes, and services using machine learning techniques. Estimation of conceptual quantities would assist construction planners in early resource planning and enable detailed performance evaluation of early cost predictions.

Keywords: Modelling, Reinforced Concrete, Bootstrapping, support vector regression, conceptual quantities

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465 The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer on Women in Nigeria: Implication for Socio-Economic Development

Authors: Tolulope Allo, Mofoluwake P. Ajayi, Adenike E. Idowu, Emmanuel O. Amoo, Fadeke Esther Olu-Owolabi

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Breast cancer which was more prevalent in Europe and America in the past is gradually being mirrored across the world today with greater economic burden on low and middle income countries (LMCs). Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally and current studies have shown that a woman dies with the diagnosis of breast cancer every thirteen minutes. The economic cost of breast cancer is overwhelming particularly for developing economies. While it causes billion of dollar in losses of national income, it pushes millions of people below poverty line. This study examined the economic burden of breast cancer on Nigerian women, its impacts on their standard of living and its effects on Nigeria’s socio economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research approach using the in-depth interview technique to elicit valuable information from respondents with cancer experience from the Southern part of Nigeria. Respondents constituted women in their reproductive age (15-49 years) that have experienced and survived cancer and also those that are currently receiving treatment. Excerpts from the interviews revealed that the cost of treatment is one of the major factors contributing to the late presentation of breast cancer incidences among women as many of them could not afford to pay for their own treatment. The study also revealed that many women prefer to explore other options such as herbal treatments and spiritual consultations which is less expensive and affordable. The study therefore concludes that breast cancer diagnosis and treatment should be subsidized by the government in order to facilitate easy access and affordability thereby promoting early detection and reducing the economic burden of treatment on women.

Keywords: Development, Women, Breast Cancer, economic burden

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