Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi

25 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar


Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

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24 Pelvic Floor Electrophysiology Patterns Associated with Obstructed Defecation

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat


Pelvic floor electrophysiological tests are essential for assessment of patients with obstructed defecation. The present study was conducted to determine the different patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated with obstructed defecation. The present cross sectional study included 25 patients with obstructed defecation. A control group of 20 apparently healthy subjects were included. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, proctosigmoidoscopy, lateral proctography (evacuation proctography), dynamic pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, anal manometry and electrophysiological studies. Electrophysiological studies were including pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, needle electromyography of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The control group was subjected to electrophysiological studies which included pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The most common pelvic floor electrodiagnostic pattern characteristics of obstructed defecation was pudendal neuropathy, denervation and anismus of external anal sphincter and puborectalis with complete interference pattern of external anal sphincter and puborectalis at squeezing and cough and no localized defect in external anal sphincter. In conclusion, there were characteristic pelvic floor electrodiagnostic patterns associated with obstructed defecation.

Keywords: obstructed defecation, pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, pudendoanal reflex, sphincter electromyography

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
23 Genetic Algorithm to Construct and Enumerate 4×4 Pan-Magic Squares

Authors: Younis R. Elhaddad, Mohamed A. Alshaari


Since 2700 B.C the problem of constructing magic squares attracts many researchers. Magic squares one of most difficult challenges for mathematicians. In this work, we describe how to construct and enumerate Pan- magic squares using genetic algorithm, using new chromosome encoding technique. The results were promising within reasonable time.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, magic square, pan-magic square, computational intelligence

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22 Curve Designing Using an Approximating 4-Point C^2 Ternary Non-Stationary Subdivision Scheme

Authors: Muhammad Younis


A ternary 4-point approximating non-stationary subdivision scheme has been introduced that generates the family of $C^2$ limiting curves. The theory of asymptotic equivalence is being used to analyze the convergence and smoothness of the scheme. The comparison of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated using different examples with the existing 4-point ternary approximating schemes, which shows that the limit curves of the proposed scheme behave more pleasantly and can generate conic sections as well.

Keywords: ternary, non-stationary, approximation subdivision scheme, convergence and smoothness

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21 Symbolic Computation and Abundant Travelling Wave Solutions to Modified Burgers' Equation

Authors: Muhammad Younis


In this article, the novel (G′/G)-expansion method is successfully applied to construct the abundant travelling wave solutions to the modified Burgers’ equation with the aid of computation. The method is reliable and useful, which gives more general exact travelling wave solutions than the existing methods. These obtained solutions are in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions including solitary, singular and periodic solutions which have many potential applications in physical science and engineering. Some of these solutions are new and some have already been constructed. Additionally, the constraint conditions, for the existence of the solutions are also listed.

Keywords: traveling wave solutions, NLPDE, computation, integrability

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20 Assessment of Petrophysical Parameters Using Well Log and Core Data

Authors: Khulud M. Rahuma, Ibrahim B. Younis


Assessment of petrophysical parameters are very essential for reservoir engineer. Three techniques can be used to predict reservoir properties: well logging, well testing, and core analysis. Cementation factor and saturation exponent are very required for calculation, and their values role a great effect on water saturation estimation. In this study a sensitive analysis was performed to investigate the influence of cementation factor and saturation exponent variation applying logs, and core analysis. Measurements of water saturation resulted in a maximum difference around fifteen percent.

Keywords: porosity, cementation factor, saturation exponent, formation factor, water saturation

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19 Systems Versioning: A Features-Based Meta-Modeling Approach

Authors: Ola A. Younis, Said Ghoul


Systems running these days are huge, complex and exist in many versions. Controlling these versions and tracking their changes became a very hard process as some versions are created using meaningless names or specifications. Many versions of a system are created with no clear difference between them. This leads to mismatching between a user’s request and the version he gets. In this paper, we present a system versions meta-modeling approach that produces versions based on system’s features. This model reduced the number of steps needed to configure a release and gave each version its unique specifications. This approach is applicable for systems that use features in its specification.

Keywords: features, meta-modeling, semantic modeling, SPL, VCS, versioning

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18 Vibrancy in The City: The Problem of Sidi-Gaber Station Zone in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Gihan Mosaad, Bakr Gomaa, Rana Elbadri


Modern parts of Alexandria city lack in vibrancy, causing a number of problems such as urban areas with poor security measures as well as weak economic state. Vibrancy provides a livable, attractive and secure environments; it also boosts the city’s economy and social life. Vibrant city is a city full of energy and life. To achieve this, a number of resources are needed; namely specific urban density, the availability of alternative modes of transportation and finally diversity of land-uses. Literature review shows no comprehensive study that assesses vibrancy in the streets of modern Alexandria. This study aims to measure the vibrancy potential in Sidi-Gaber station area thought the assessment of existing resources performance. Methods include literature reviews, surveying of existing case, questionnaire as well as GIS techniques. Expected results include GIS maps defining the vibrancy potentials in land use, density and statistical study regarding public transportation use in the area.

Keywords: Alexandria, density, mixed use, transportation, vibrancy

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17 Mixed Frequency Excitation of an Electrostatically Actuated Resonator

Authors: Abdallah H. Ramini, Alwathiqbellah I. Ibrahim, Mohammad I. Younis


We investigate experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of a capacitive resonator under mixed frequency excitation of two AC harmonic signals. The resonator is composed of a proof mass suspended by two cantilever beams. Experimental measurements are conducted using a laser Doppler Vibrometer to reveal the interesting dynamics of the system when subjected to two-source excitation. A nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the theoretical investigation. The results reveal combination resonances of additive and subtractive type, which are shown to be promising to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance frequency. Our results also demonstrate the ability to shift the combination resonances to much lower or much higher frequency ranges. We also demonstrate the dynamic pull-in instability under mixed frequency excitation.

Keywords: electrostatically actuated resonator, multi-frequency excitation, nonlinear dynamics, AC harmonic signals

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16 Evaluation of the Role of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNA H19 as a Promising Biomarker in Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elbanna, Abeer Ibrahim, Gihan Khedr


Background: H19 is one of the long non coding RNAs (LncRNA) that is related to the progression of many diseases including cancers. This work was carried out to study the level of the long non-coding RNA; H119, in plasma of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to assess its significance in their clinical management. Methods: A total of sixty-two participants were enrolled in the present study. The first group included thirty-two GC patients, while the second group was formed of thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers serving as a control group. Plasma samples were used to assess H19 gene expression using real time quantitative PCR technique. Results: H19 expression was up-regulated in GC patients with positive correlation to TNM cancer stages. Conclusions: Up-regulation of H19 is closely associated with gastric cancer and correlates well with tumor staging. Convenient, efficient quantification of H19 in plasma using real time PCR technique implements its role as a potential noninvasive prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer, that predicts patient’s outcome and most importantly as a novel target in gastric cancer treatment with better performance achieved on using both CEA and H19 simultaneously.

Keywords: biomarker, gastric, cancer, LncRNA

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15 The Differences between Direct Examination and ELISA Test during the Diagnosis of Fasciolosis in Jaundiced Slaughtered Sheep in Iraq

Authors: Azad A. Meerkhan, Alaa Hani Razak, Bayan M. S. Younis


The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica was studied. 232 jaundiced sheep among 5208 sheep slaughter in the Duhok abattoir (regardless of the age and gender) between the period of May. 2012 to Oct. 2012 were examined by direct examination (Searching of adult flukes in the bile duct) and by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the prevalence of fascioliasis in the studied population which showed a high observed infection ratio in Sep. 2012 (12.2%) with the high (ELISA) result of infection in May. 2012 (25.36%). Significant differences were found between the two ways in all of the months with the highest difference in May. 2012 and the net deference between the both ways was 6.91%.

Keywords: fascioliasis, Fasciola hepatica, layers, liver fluk, ELISA, direct examination

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14 Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Skin Affection in Donkeys

Authors: Mohamed Z. Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed M. Ahdy, Emad E. Younis, Sabry A. El-Khodary


Little research information is available on the prevalence of diseases of donkeys in Egypt. Across sectional study was undertaken between March 2009 and February 2010 to verify the prevalence of skin affection of donkeys. A total of 1134 donkeys in northern Egypt were investigated. A questionnaire was constructed to verify the number of infected contact animals as well as the associated factors. Physical examination was carried out, and the distribution of skin lesions was recorded. Skin scraping and biopsy were obtained to perform bacteriological, mycological, and histopathological examinations. Thirty-five (3.09%) out of 1134 noticed donkeys had skin affections including mange (18/35), dermatophytosis (6/35), bacterial dermatitis (6/35) urticaria (2/35) and allergic dermatitis (3/35). The present results indicate that mange and dermatophytosis are the prevalent skin diseases in donkeys. Contact with other animal species of contaminated environment may contribute to the occurrence of the diseases.

Keywords: donkeys, Egypt, prevalence, skin affection

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13 Heavy Metal Contamination and Environmental Risk in Surface Sediments along the Coasts of Suez and Aqaba Gulfs, Egypt

Authors: Alaa M. Younis, Ismail S. Ismail, Lamiaa I. Mohamedein, Shimaa F. Ahmed


Sandy surface sediments collected from fourteen sites along the gulfs of Suez and Aqaba coasts, Egypt were analyzed for heavy metals including Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, Lead, Copper and Cadmium in order to evaluate the pollution status and environmental risk assessment of the study area. The obtained results showed that the concentrations of investigated metals are represented in the following sequence; For Gulf of Aqaba sediments Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Cd. While for Gulf of Suez Sediments Fe > Mn > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd. The degree of surface sediment contamination using Geo-accumulation index (I geo) and Metal Pollution Index (MPI) was computed. Higher MPI values were observed at the sites III (Nama Bay) and VIII (Rex Beach). According to Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) approach, Pb and Cu in the gulf of Suez at station IX (Kabanon Beach) had probably adverse ecological effects to marine organisms.

Keywords: heavy metal, environmental risk, Suez gulf, Aqaba gulf

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12 Spatio- Temporal Gender Based Patterns of Lung Cancer in the Punjab Province of Pakistan, 2008-2012

Authors: Rubab Z. Kahlon, Ibtisam Butt, Isma Younis, Aamer G. Mufti


Worldwide lung cancer 1.61 million cases were seen in both genders. Lung carcinoma is the major cause of both morbidity and mortality in the world. Purpose of the present study was to describe the spatio- temporal trends of lung cancer in both genders. A retrospective study was conducted. Total 1498 patients of lung carcinoma were examined. Only lung cancer patients from all over the Punjab were included in the present study. MS Excel 2010 was used for data tabulation and calculation while the Arc GIS version 9.3 was used for geographical representation of the data. 1498 cases of Lung cancer were found from 2008-2012. The number of male patients was 1236 and female was 262. Majority of the patients were from Lahore districts with 807 patients. Lung cancer was more prevalent in male as compared to female in our region. Increase in the prevalence of lung cancer was prominently seen in the most populated and industrial areas of the Punjab province. Time trend of five years showed fluctuation in the lung cancer incidence during the study period.

Keywords: districts, gender, lung cancer trends, Punjab province of Pakistan

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11 User’s Susceptibility Factors to Malware Attacks: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Awad A. Younis, Elise Stronberg, Shifa Noor


Malware attacks due to end-user vulnerabilities have been noticeably increased in the past few years. Investigating the factors that make an end-user vulnerable to those attacks is critical because they can be utilized to set up proactive strategies such as awareness and education to mitigate the impacts of those attacks. Some existing studies investigated demographic, behavioral, and cultural factors that make an end-user susceptible to malware attacks. However, it has been challenging to draw more general conclusions from individual studies due to the varieties in the type of end-users and different types of malware. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) of the existing research for end-user susceptibility factors to malware attacks. The results showed while some demographic factors are mostly associated with malware infection regardless of the end users' type, age, and gender are not consistent among the same and different types of end-users. Besides, the association of culture and personality factors with malware infection are consistent in most of the selected studies and for all type of end-users. Moreover, malware infection varies based on age, geographic location, and host types. We propose that future studies should carefully take into consideration the type of end-users because different end users may be exposed to different threats or be targeted based on their user domains’ characteristics. Additionally, as different types of malware use different tactics to trick end-users, taking the malware types into consideration is important.

Keywords: cybersecurity, malware, end-users, demographics, personality, culture, systematic literature review

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
10 Radial Basis Surrogate Model Integrated to Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Computation Intensive Black-Box Problems

Authors: Abdulbaset Saad, Adel Younis, Zuomin Dong


For design optimization with high-dimensional expensive problems, an effective and efficient optimization methodology is desired. This work proposes a series of modification to the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm for solving computation Intensive Black-Box Problems. The proposed methodology is called Radial Basis Meta-Model Algorithm Assisted Differential Evolutionary (RBF-DE), which is a global optimization algorithm based on the meta-modeling techniques. A meta-modeling assisted DE is proposed to solve computationally expensive optimization problems. The Radial Basis Function (RBF) model is used as a surrogate model to approximate the expensive objective function, while DE employs a mechanism to dynamically select the best performing combination of parameters such as differential rate, cross over probability, and population size. The proposed algorithm is tested on benchmark functions and real life practical applications and problems. The test results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is promising and performs well compared to other optimization algorithms. The proposed algorithm is capable of converging to acceptable and good solutions in terms of accuracy, number of evaluations, and time needed to converge.

Keywords: differential evolution, engineering design, expensive computations, meta-modeling, radial basis function, optimization

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9 Regression of Fibrosis by Apigenin in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis Rat Model through Suppression of HIF-1/FAK Pathway

Authors: Hany M. Fayed, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Alyaa F. Hessin, Hanan A. Ogaly, Gihan F. Asaad, Abeer A. A. Salama, Sahar Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Marwan Abd Elbaset Mohamed


Liver fibrosis is a serious global health problem that occurs as a result of a variety of chronic liver disorders. Apigenin, a flavonoid found in many plants, has several pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifibrotic efficacy of apigenin (APG) against experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats via using thioacetamide (TAA) and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was given three times each week for two weeks to induce liver fibrosis. After TAA injections, APG was given orally (5 and 10 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Biochemical, molecular, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on blood and liver tissue samples. The functioning of the liver, oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver fibrosis indicators were all evaluated. The findings showed that TAA markedly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with a reduction in albumin, total protein, A/G ratio, GSH content and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Moreover, TAA elevated the content of collagen I, α -smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and hydroxyproline in the liver. The treatment with APG in a dose-dependent manner has obviously prevented these alterations and amended the harmful effects induced by TAA. The histopathological and immunohistochemical observations supported this biochemical evidence. The higher dose of APG produced the most significant antifibrotic effect. As a result of these data, APG appears to be a promising antifibrotic drug and could be used as a new herbal medication or dietary supplement in the future for the treatment of liver fibrosis. This effect might be related to the inhibition of the HIF-1/FAK signaling pathway.

Keywords: apigenin, FAK, HIF-1, liver fibrosis, rat, thioacetamide

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8 E-Learning Platform for School Kids

Authors: Gihan Thilakarathna, Fernando Ishara, Rathnayake Yasith, Bandara A. M. R. Y.


E-learning is a crucial component of intelligent education. Even in the midst of a pandemic, E-learning is becoming increasingly important in the educational system. Several e-learning programs are accessible for students. Here, we decided to create an e-learning framework for children. We've found a few issues that teachers are having with their online classes. When there are numerous students in an online classroom, how does a teacher recognize a student's focus on academics and below-the-surface behaviors? Some kids are not paying attention in class, and others are napping. The teacher is unable to keep track of each and every student. Key challenge in e-learning is online exams. Because students can cheat easily during online exams. Hence there is need of exam proctoring is occurred. In here we propose an automated online exam cheating detection method using a web camera. The purpose of this project is to present an E-learning platform for math education and include games for kids as an alternative teaching method for math students. The game will be accessible via a web browser. The imagery in the game is drawn in a cartoonish style. This will help students learn math through games. Everything in this day and age is moving towards automation. However, automatic answer evaluation is only available for MCQ-based questions. As a result, the checker has a difficult time evaluating the theory solution. The current system requires more manpower and takes a long time to evaluate responses. It's also possible to mark two identical responses differently and receive two different grades. As a result, this application employs machine learning techniques to provide an automatic evaluation of subjective responses based on the keyword provided to the computer as student input, resulting in a fair distribution of marks. In addition, it will save time and manpower. We used deep learning, machine learning, image processing and natural language technologies to develop these research components.

Keywords: math, education games, e-learning platform, artificial intelligence

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7 A Cost-Evaluation Study on the Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation for Salvage of Infected Implant-Based Breast Reconstructions

Authors: S. Haque, M. Kanapathy, E. Bollen, I. Younis, A. Mosahebi


Background: Implant loss due to infection is the most devastating complication of implant-based breast reconstruction. The use of negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) for salvage of infected implant-based breast reconstructions has shown promising results to allow early reinsertion of a new implant as an alternative to current management of delayed reinsertion. This study compares the cost implication of NPWTi against current management of delayed reinsertion of infected breast implants. Methods: 20 cases of an infected breast implant treated with NPWTi (V.A.C. VERAFLO™ Therapy) followed by early re-insertion of a new implant were compared with 20 cases who had delayed reinsertion (non-NPWTi). Average cost per person was calculated using total operative expenses, cost of inpatient stay, cost of investigations, cost of antibiotics, and cost of outpatient visits. Results: Treatment with NPWTi allowed for earlier re-insertion of a new implant (NPWTi: 9.04 ± 2.92 days vs. non-NPWTi: 236.25 ± 123.89 days). The average cost per patient for NPWTi and non-NPWTi was £14,343.13 ± £2,786.70 and £8,920.31 ± £3,005.73 respectively. All patients treated with NPWTi had one admission and spent 11.9 ± 4.1days as an inpatient while non-NPWTi patients had 2.1 ± 0.3 admissions with total length of inpatient stay of 7.1 ± 5.8days. Patients treated with NPWTi had more surgeries (NPWTi: 3.35 ± 0.81 vs. non-NPWTi: 2.2 ± 0.41), however 3 non-NPWTi cases required flap reconstruction. Patients treated with NPWTi had fewer total outpatient visits (NPWTi: 12 ± 6 vs. non-NPWTi: 14.2 ± 6.3). Conclusion: Patients treated with NPWTi incurred higher average cost per patient, longer inpatient stay, and more procedures; however, had early re-insertion of new implants and fewer admissions and outpatient visits. A further study on patient-reported outcome is essential to compare cost against patient benefit.

Keywords: breast reconstruction, cost evaluation, infection, negative pressure wound therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6 Exploring Socio-Economic Barriers of Green Entrepreneurship in Iran and Their Interactions Using Interpretive Structural Modeling

Authors: Younis Jabarzadeh, Rahim Sarvari, Negar Ahmadi Alghalandis


Entrepreneurship at both individual and organizational level is one of the most driving forces in economic development and leads to growth and competition, job generation and social development. Especially in developing countries, the role of entrepreneurship in economic and social prosperity is more emphasized. But the effect of global economic development on the environment is undeniable, especially in negative ways, and there is a need to rethink current business models and the way entrepreneurs act to introduce new businesses to address and embed environmental issues in order to achieve sustainable development. In this paper, green or sustainable entrepreneurship is addressed in Iran to identify challenges and barriers entrepreneurs in the economic and social sectors face in developing green business solutions. Sustainable or green entrepreneurship has been gaining interest among scholars in recent years and addressing its challenges and barriers need much more attention to fill the gap in the literature and facilitate the way those entrepreneurs are pursuing. This research comprised of two main phases: qualitative and quantitative. At qualitative phase, after a thorough literature review, fuzzy Delphi method is utilized to verify those challenges and barriers by gathering a panel of experts and surveying them. In this phase, several other contextually related factors were added to the list of identified barriers and challenges mentioned in the literature. Then, at the quantitative phase, Interpretive Structural Modeling is applied to construct a network of interactions among those barriers identified at the previous phase. Again, a panel of subject matter experts comprised of academic and industry experts was surveyed. The results of this study can be used by policymakers in both the public and industry sector, to introduce more systematic solutions to eliminate those barriers and help entrepreneurs overcome challenges of sustainable entrepreneurship. It also contributes to the literature as the first research in this type which deals with the barriers of sustainable entrepreneurship and explores their interaction.

Keywords: green entrepreneurship, barriers, fuzzy Delphi method, interpretive structural modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
5 Building User Behavioral Models by Processing Web Logs and Clustering Mechanisms

Authors: Madhuka G. P. D. Udantha, Gihan V. Dias, Surangika Ranathunga


Today Websites contain very interesting applications. But there are only few methodologies to analyze User navigations through the Websites and formulating if the Website is put to correct use. The web logs are only used if some major attack or malfunctioning occurs. Web Logs contain lot interesting dealings on users in the system. Analyzing web logs has become a challenge due to the huge log volume. Finding interesting patterns is not as easy as it is due to size, distribution and importance of minor details of each log. Web logs contain very important data of user and site which are not been put to good use. Retrieving interesting information from logs gives an idea of what the users need, group users according to their various needs and improve site to build an effective and efficient site. The model we built is able to detect attacks or malfunctioning of the system and anomaly detection. Logs will be more complex as volume of traffic and the size and complexity of web site grows. Unsupervised techniques are used in this solution which is fully automated. Expert knowledge is only used in validation. In our approach first clean and purify the logs to bring them to a common platform with a standard format and structure. After cleaning module web session builder is executed. It outputs two files, Web Sessions file and Indexed URLs file. The Indexed URLs file contains the list of URLs accessed and their indices. Web Sessions file lists down the indices of each web session. Then DBSCAN and EM Algorithms are used iteratively and recursively to get the best clustering results of the web sessions. Using homogeneity, completeness, V-measure, intra and inter cluster distance and silhouette coefficient as parameters these algorithms self-evaluate themselves to input better parametric values to run the algorithms. If a cluster is found to be too large then micro-clustering is used. Using Cluster Signature Module the clusters are annotated with a unique signature called finger-print. In this module each cluster is fed to Associative Rule Learning Module. If it outputs confidence and support as value 1 for an access sequence it would be a potential signature for the cluster. Then the access sequence occurrences are checked in other clusters. If it is found to be unique for the cluster considered then the cluster is annotated with the signature. These signatures are used in anomaly detection, prevent cyber attacks, real-time dashboards that visualize users, accessing web pages, predict actions of users and various other applications in Finance, University Websites, News and Media Websites etc.

Keywords: anomaly detection, clustering, pattern recognition, web sessions

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4 A First Step towards Automatic Evolutionary for Gas Lifts Allocation Optimization

Authors: Younis Elhaddad, Alfonso Ortega


Oil production by means of gas lift is a standard technique in oil production industry. To optimize the total amount of oil production in terms of the amount of gas injected is a key question in this domain. Different methods have been tested to propose a general methodology. Many of them apply well-known numerical methods. Some of them have taken into account the power of evolutionary approaches. Our goal is to provide the experts of the domain with a powerful automatic searching engine into which they can introduce their knowledge in a format close to the one used in their domain, and get solutions comprehensible in the same terms, as well. These proposals introduced in the genetic engine the most expressive formal models to represent the solutions to the problem. These algorithms have proven to be as effective as other genetic systems but more flexible and comfortable for the researcher although they usually require huge search spaces to justify their use due to the computational resources involved in the formal models. The first step to evaluate the viability of applying our approaches to this realm is to fully understand the domain and to select an instance of the problem (gas lift optimization) in which applying genetic approaches could seem promising. After analyzing the state of the art of this topic, we have decided to choose a previous work from the literature that faces the problem by means of numerical methods. This contribution includes details enough to be reproduced and complete data to be carefully analyzed. We have designed a classical, simple genetic algorithm just to try to get the same results and to understand the problem in depth. We could easily incorporate the well mathematical model, and the well data used by the authors and easily translate their mathematical model, to be numerically optimized, into a proper fitness function. We have analyzed the 100 curves they use in their experiment, similar results were observed, in addition, our system has automatically inferred an optimum total amount of injected gas for the field compatible with the addition of the optimum gas injected in each well by them. We have identified several constraints that could be interesting to incorporate to the optimization process but that could be difficult to numerically express. It could be interesting to automatically propose other mathematical models to fit both, individual well curves and also the behaviour of the complete field. All these facts and conclusions justify continuing exploring the viability of applying the approaches more sophisticated previously proposed by our research group.

Keywords: evolutionary automatic programming, gas lift, genetic algorithms, oil production

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
3 Mathematical Toolbox for editing Equations and Geometrical Diagrams and Graphs

Authors: Ayola D. N. Jayamaha, Gihan V. Dias, Surangika Ranathunga


Currently there are lot of educational tools designed for mathematics. Open source software such as GeoGebra and Octave are bulky in their architectural structure. In addition, there is MathLab software, which facilitates much more than what we ask for. Many of the computer aided online grading and assessment tools require integrating editors to their software. However, there are not exist suitable editors that cater for all their needs in editing equations and geometrical diagrams and graphs. Some of the existing software for editing equations is Alfred’s Equation Editor, Codecogs, DragMath, Maple, MathDox, MathJax, MathMagic, MathFlow, Math-o-mir, Microsoft Equation Editor, MiraiMath, OpenOffice, WIRIS Editor and MyScript. Some of them are commercial, open source, supports handwriting recognition, mobile apps, renders MathML/LaTeX, Flash / Web based and javascript display engines. Some of the diagram editors are GeoKone.NET, Tabulae, Cinderella 1.4, MyScript, Dia, Draw2D touch, Gliffy, GeoGebra, Flowchart, Jgraph, JointJS, J painter Online diagram editor and 2D sketcher. All these software are open source except for MyScript and can be used for editing mathematical diagrams. However, they do not fully cater the needs of a typical computer aided assessment tool or Educational Platform for Mathematics. This solution provides a Web based, lightweight, easy to implement and integrate solution of an html5 canvas that renders on all of the modern web browsers. The scope of the project is an editor that covers equations and mathematical diagrams and drawings on the O/L Mathematical Exam Papers in Sri Lanka. Using the tool the students can enter any equation to the system which can be on an online remote learning platform. The users can also create and edit geometrical drawings, graphs and do geometrical constructions that require only Compass and Ruler from the Editing Interface provided by the Software. The special feature of this software is the geometrical constructions. It allows the users to create geometrical constructions such as angle bisectors, perpendicular lines, angles of 600 and perpendicular bisectors. The tool correctly imitates the functioning of rulers and compasses to create the required geometrical construction. Therefore, the users are able to do geometrical drawings on the computer successfully and we have a digital format of the geometrical drawing for further processing. Secondly, we can create and edit Venn Diagrams, color them and label them. In addition, the students can draw probability tree diagrams and compound probability outcome grids. They can label and mark regions within the grids. Thirdly, students can draw graphs (1st order and 2nd order). They can mark points on a graph paper and the system connects the dots to draw the graph. Further students are able to draw standard shapes such as circles and rectangles by selecting points on a grid or entering the parametric values.

Keywords: geometrical drawings, html5 canvas, mathematical equations, toolbox

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2 Numerical Erosion Investigation of Standalone Screen (Wire-Wrapped) Due to the Impact of Sand Particles Entrained in a Single-Phase Flow (Water Flow)

Authors: Ahmed Alghurabi, Mysara Mohyaldinn, Shiferaw Jufar, Obai Younis, Abdullah Abduljabbar


Erosion modeling equations were typically acquired from regulated experimental trials for solid particles entrained in single-phase or multi-phase flows. Evidently, those equations were later employed to predict the erosion damage caused by the continuous impacts of solid particles entrained in streamflow. It is also well-known that the particle impact angle and velocity do not change drastically in gas-sand flow erosion prediction; hence an accurate prediction of erosion can be projected. On the contrary, high-density fluid flows, such as water flow, through complex geometries, such as sand screens, greatly affect the sand particles’ trajectories/tracks and consequently impact the erosion rate predictions. Particle tracking models and erosion equations are frequently applied simultaneously as a method to improve erosion visualization and estimation. In the present work, computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based erosion modeling was performed using a commercially available software; ANSYS Fluent. The continuous phase (water flow) behavior was simulated using the realizable K-epsilon model, and the secondary phase (solid particles), having a 5% flow concentration, was tracked with the help of the discrete phase model (DPM). To accomplish a successful erosion modeling, three erosion equations from the literature were utilized and introduced to the ANSYS Fluent software to predict the screen wire-slot velocity surge and estimate the maximum erosion rates on the screen surface. Results of turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence intensity, dissipation rate, the total pressure on the screen, screen wall shear stress, and flow velocity vectors were presented and discussed. Moreover, the particle tracks and path-lines were also demonstrated based on their residence time, velocity magnitude, and flow turbulence. On one hand, results from the utilized erosion equations have shown similarities in screen erosion patterns, locations, and DPM concentrations. On the other hand, the model equations estimated slightly different values of maximum erosion rates of the wire-wrapped screen. This is solely based on the fact that the utilized erosion equations were developed with some assumptions that are controlled by the experimental lab conditions.

Keywords: CFD simulation, erosion rate prediction, material loss due to erosion, water-sand flow

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1 Chronic Pesticides Exposure and Certain Endocrine Functions Among Farmers in East Almnaif District, Ismailia, Egypt

Authors: Amani Waheed, Mostafa Kofi, Shaymaa Attia, Soha Younis, Basma Abdel Hadi


Background: Exposure to pesticides is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers in developing countries. Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. Objective: To investigate thyroid and reproductive hormones and fasting blood glucose levels among farmers chronically exposed to pesticide from East Almnaif district, Ismailia governorate. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 farmers with active involvement pesticides handling and 43 participants not occupationally exposed to pesticides as the control group. A structured interview questionnaire measuring the sociodemographic characteristics, pesticides exposure characteristics, and safety measures was used. General examination including measurements of height, weight, and blood pressure was done. Moreover, levels of plasma cholinesterase enzyme (PChE), glucose, as well as reproductive and thyroid hormones (TSH, T4, and testosterone) were determined. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding their age, educational level, smoking status, and body mass index. The mean duration of exposure was 20.60 11.06 years. Majority of farmers (76.7%) did not use any personal protective equipment (PPE) during pesticides handling. The mean systolic blood pressure among exposed farmers was greater (134.88 17.18 mm Hg) compared to control group (125 14.69 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). The mean diastolic blood pressure was higher (84.02 8.69 mm Hg) compared to control group (78.79 8.98 mm Hg) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.006). The pesticide exposed farmers had statistically significant lower level of PChE (3969.93 1841U/L) than control group (4879.29 1950.08 U/L). Additionally, TSH level was significantly higher in exposed farmers (median =1.39µIU/ml) compared to controls (median = 0.91 µIU/ml) (p=0.032). While, the exposed group had a lower T4 level (6.91 1.91 µg/dl) compared to the control group (7.79 2.10µg/dl), with the statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.045). The exposed group had significantly lower level of testosterone hormone (median=3.37 ng/ml) compared to the control group (median= 6.22 ng/ml) (p=0.003). While, the exposed farmers had statistically insignificant higher level of fasting blood glucose (median =89 mg/dl) than the controls (median=88 mg/dl). Furthermore, farmers who did not use PPE had statistically significant lower level of T4 (6.57 1.81µg/dl) than farmers who used PPE during handling of pesticides (8.01 1.89 µg/dl). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to pesticides exerts disturbing action on reproductive function and thyroid function of the male farmers.

Keywords: chronic occupational pesticide exposure, Diabetes mellitus, male reproductive hormones, thyroid function

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