Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2382

Search results for: external anal sphincter muscle

2382 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

Abstract:

Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
2381 Pelvic Floor Electrophysiology Patterns Associated with Obstructed Defecation

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat

Abstract:

Pelvic floor electrophysiological tests are essential for assessment of patients with obstructed defecation. The present study was conducted to determine the different patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated with obstructed defecation. The present cross sectional study included 25 patients with obstructed defecation. A control group of 20 apparently healthy subjects were included. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, proctosigmoidoscopy, lateral proctography (evacuation proctography), dynamic pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, anal manometry and electrophysiological studies. Electrophysiological studies were including pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, needle electromyography of external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The control group was subjected to electrophysiological studies which included pudendal nerve motor conduction study, pudendo-anal reflex, pudendal somatosensory evoked potential and tibial somatosensory evoked potential. The most common pelvic floor electrodiagnostic pattern characteristics of obstructed defecation was pudendal neuropathy, denervation and anismus of external anal sphincter and puborectalis with complete interference pattern of external anal sphincter and puborectalis at squeezing and cough and no localized defect in external anal sphincter. In conclusion, there were characteristic pelvic floor electrodiagnostic patterns associated with obstructed defecation.

Keywords: obstructed defecation, pudendal nerve terminal motor latency, pudendoanal reflex, sphincter electromyography

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
2380 Risk Factors for Significant Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury in a District General Hospital

Authors: A. Wahid Uddin

Abstract:

Obstetric anal sphincter injury carries significant morbidity for a woman and affects the quality of life to the extent of permanent damage to anal sphincter musculature. The study was undertaken in a district general hospital by retrospectively reviewing random 63 case notes of patients diagnosed with a significant third or fourth-degree perineal tear admitted between the year of 2015 to 2018. The observations were collected by a pre-designed questionnaire. All variables were expressed as percentages. The major risk factors noted were nulliparity (37%), instrumental delivery (25%), and birth weight of more than 4 kg (14%). Forceps delivery with or without episiotomy was the major contributing factor (75%). In the majority of the cases (71%), no record of any perineal protection measures undertaken. The study concluded that recommended perineal protection measures should be adopted as a routine practise.

Keywords: forceps, obstetrics, perineal, sphincter

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
2379 Transperineal Repair Is Ideal for the Management of Rectocele with Faecal Incontinence

Authors: Tia Morosin, Marie Shella De Robles

Abstract:

Rectocele may be associated with symptoms of both obstructed defecation and faecal incontinence. Currently, numerous operative techniques exist to treat patients with rectocele; however, no single technique has emerged as the optimal approach in patients with post-partum faecal incontinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome in a consecutive series of patients who underwent transperineal repair of rectocele for patients presenting with faecal incontinence as the predominant symptom. Twenty-three consecutive patients from April 2000 to July 2015 with symptomatic rectocele underwent transperineal repair by a single surgeon. All patients had a history of vaginal delivery, with or without evidence of associated anal sphincter injury at the time. The median age of the cohort was 53 years (range 21 to 90 years). The median operating time and length of hospital stay were 2 hours and 7 days, respectively. Two patients developed urinary retention post-operatively, which required temporary bladder catheterization. One patient had wound dehiscence, which was managed by absorbent dressing applied by the patient and her carer. There was no operative mortality. In all patients with rectocele, there was a concomitant anal sphincter disruption. All patients had satisfactory improvement with regard to faecal incontinence on follow-up. This study suggests this method provides excellent anatomic and physiologic results with minimal morbidity. However, because none of the patients gained full continence postoperatively, pelvic floor rehabilitation might be also needed to achieve better sphincter function in patients with incontinence.

Keywords: anal sphincter defect, faecal incontinence, rectocele, transperineal repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2378 Risk Factor of Anal Incontinence among Women in Makassar

Authors: Azizah Nurdin, Trika Irianta, Mardiah Tahir, Maisuri T. Chalid

Abstract:

Background: Studies of anal incontinence in the general population are rare however its financial healthcare cost is significant. Women attended Hasanuddin University Teaching Hospital and its networking in Makassar, Indonesia was surveyed between February to April 2015 about their obstetrical and gynecological history. Aims: To establish obstetrical risk factor of anal incontinence among women in Makassar. Methods: In a cross sectional face to face interview study, 135 women aged 30 years or more were selected randomly. Participants were asked to complete an anal incontinence questionnaire. Results: From a total sample of 135 respondents, 42,2 % reported has flatulence incontinence. Parity, history of anal sphincter laceration, history of having large baby, history of assisted vaginal delivery were shown have no significant association with anal incontinence, while history of episiotomy was shown have a significant association with anal incontinence (p value < 0.05). The risk of flatulence incontinence was higher among women with history of episiotomy (OR : 2,85, 95 % CI = 1,58- 5,13) Conclusions: This study has confirmed that fecal incontinence is a fairly common symptom. Flatulence incontinence is the most frequent even. An obstetrical factor like episiotomy is one of risk factor that could be avoided in order to prevent anal incontinence.

Keywords: anal incontinence, flatulence incontinence, obstetrical risk factor, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2377 Bridging the Gap between Obstetric and Colorectal Services after Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injuries

Authors: Shachi Joshi

Abstract:

Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pelvic dysfunction symptoms following OASI. The secondary aim was to assess the scope of a dedicated perineal trauma clinic in identifying and investigating women that have experienced faecal incontinence after OASI and if a transitional clinic arrangement to colorectal surgeons would be useful. Methods: The clinical database was used to identify and obtain information about 118 women who sustained an OASI (3rd/ 4th degree tear) between August 2016 and July 2017. A questionnaire was designed to assess symptoms of pelvic dysfunction; this was sent via the post in November 2018. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 45 women (38%). Faecal incontinence was experienced by 42% (N=19), flatus incontinence by 47% (N=21), urinary incontinence by 76% (N=34), dyspareunia by 49% (N=22) and pelvic pain by 33% (N=15). Of the questionnaire respondents, only 62% (N=28) had attended a perineal trauma clinic appointment. 46% (N=13) of these women reported having experienced difficulty controlling flatus or faeces in the questionnaire, however, only 23% (N=3) of these reported ongoing symptoms at the time of clinic attendance and underwent an endoanal ultrasound scan. Conclusion: Pelvic dysfunction symptoms are highly prevalent following an OASI. Perineal trauma clinic attendance alone is not sufficient for identification and follow up of symptoms. Transitional care is needed between obstetric and colorectal teams, to recognize and treat women with ongoing faecal incontinence.

Keywords: incontinence, obstetric anal sphincter, injury, repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
2376 Radiofrequency Ablation: A Technique in the Management of Low Anal Fistula

Authors: R. Suresh, C. B. Singh, A. K. Sarda

Abstract:

Background: Over the decades, several surgical techniques have been developed to treat anal fistulas with variable success rates and complications. Large amount of work has been done in radiofrequency excision of the fistula for several years but no work has been done for ablating the tract. Therefore one can consider for obliteration ofanal fistula by Radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Material and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Lok Nayak Hospital, where a total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study and they were randomly assigned to Group I (fistulectomy)(n=20) and Group II (RFA) (n=20). Aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of RFA of fistula versus fistulectomy in the treatment of a low anal fistula and to evaluate RFA as an effective alternative to fistulectomy with respect to time taken for wound healing as primary outcome and post-operative pain, time taken to return to work as secondary outcomes. Patients with simple low anal fistulas, single internal and external opening, not more than two secondary tracts were included. Patients with high complex fistula, fistulas communicating with cavity, fistula due to condition like tuberculosis, Crohn's, malignancy were excluded from the study. Results: Both groups were comparable with respect to age, sex ratio, type of fistula. Themean healing time was significantly shorter in group II (41.02 days) than in group I(62.68 days).The mean operative time was significantly shorter in groupII (21.40 min) than in group I(28.50 min). The mean time taken to return to work was significantly shorter in group II(8.30 days)than in group I(12.01 days).There was no significant difference in the post operative hospital stay, mean postoperative pain score, wound infection and recurrence between the two groups. Conclusion: The patients who underwent RFA of fistula had shorter wound healing time, operative time and time taken to return to work when compared to those who underwent fistulectomy and therefore RFA shows outcome comparable to fistulectomy in the treatment of low anal fistula.

Keywords: fistulectomy, low anal fistula, radio frequency ablation, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2375 Contraction and Membrane Potential of C2C12 with GTXs

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto

Abstract:

Culture techniques of skeletal muscle cells are advanced in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle. As applied research of cultured muscle, myopathy (muscles disease) treatment is expected and development bio of actuator is also expected in biomedical engineering. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) is known as neurotoxins that enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as well as a phytotoxin. In this study, we investigated the effect of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. Contraction of myotubes is induced by applied external electrical stimulation. Contraction and membrane potential change of skeletal muscle cells are induced by injection of current. We, therefore, concluded that effect of Grayanotoxins on contraction and membrane potential of C2C12 relate to acute toxicity of GTXs.

Keywords: skeletal muscle cells C2C12, grayanotoxins, contraction, membrane potential, acute toxicity, pytotoxin, motubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
2374 Effect of Grayanotoxins on Skeletal Muscle Cell C2C12

Authors: Bayan Almofty, Yuto Yamaki, Tadamasa Terai, Sadahito Uto

Abstract:

Myopathy (muscles disease) treatment are expected in the field of regenerative medicine and applied research of cultured muscle to bio actuator is performed in Biomedical Engineering as applied research of cultured muscle. This study is about cultured myoblast C2C12 from mouse skeletal muscle and a mechanism of cultured muscle contraction by electric stimulation is investigated. Grayanotoxins (GTXs) belong to neurotoxins known to enhance the permeability of cell membrane for Na ions. Grayanotoxins are extracted from a famous Pieris japonica and Ericaceae as a phytotoxin. We investigated the functional role of GTXs on muscle cells (C2C12) contraction and membrane potential. A change in membrane potential is measured using a micro glass tube electrode contraction of myotubes is induced by applying an external electrical stimulation. The contraction and membrane potential change induced by injection of current using the micro glass electrode are also measured. From the result, contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells was affected by GTXs treatment, suggesting that the diverse chemical structures of GTXs are responsible for contraction and membrane potential of muscle cells.

Keywords: skeletal muscle, C2C12, myoblast, myotubes, contraction, Grayanotoxins, membrane potential, neurotoxins, phytotoxin

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2373 Effect of Two Bouts of Eccentric Exercise on Knee Flexors Changes in Muscle-Tendon Lengths

Authors: Shang-Hen Wu, Yung-Chen Lin, Wei-Song Chang, Ming-Ju Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated whether the repeated bout effect (RBE) of knee flexors (KF) eccentric exercise would be changed in muscle-tendon lengths. Eight healthy university male students used their KF of non-dominant leg and performed a bout of 60 maximal isokinetic (30°/s) eccentric contractions (MaxECC1). A week after MaxECC1, all subjects used the same KF to perform a subsequent bout of MaxECC2. Changes in maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque (MVC-CON), muscle soreness (SOR), relaxed knee joint angle (RANG), leg circumference (CIR), and ultrasound images (UI; muscle-tendon length and muscle angle) were measured before, immediately after, 1-5 days after each bout. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all the dependent variables. After MaxECC1, all the dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON: ↓30%, muscle-tendon length: ↑24%, muscle angle: ↑15%) showed significantly change. Following MaxECC2, all the above dependent variables (e.g. MVC-CON:↓21%, tendon length: ↑16%, muscle angle: ↑6%) were significantly smaller than those of MaxECC1. These results of this study found that protective effect conferred by MaxECC1 against MaxECC2, and changes in muscle damage indicators, muscle-tendon length and muscle angle following MaxECC2 were smaller than MaxECC1. Thus, the amount of shift of muscle-tendon length and muscle angle was related to the RBE.

Keywords: eccentric exercise, maximal isokinetic voluntary contraction torque, repeated bout effect, ultrasound

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2372 Optimal Rest Interval between Sets in Robot-Based Upper-Arm Rehabilitation

Authors: Virgil Miranda, Gissele Mosqueda, Pablo Delgado, Yimesker Yihun

Abstract:

Muscular fatigue affects the muscle activation that is needed for producing the desired clinical outcome. Integrating optimal muscle relaxation periods into a variety of health care rehabilitation protocols is important to maximize the efficiency of the therapy. In this study, four muscle relaxation periods (30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds) and their effectiveness in producing consistent muscle activation of the muscle biceps brachii between sets of elbow flexion and extension task was investigated among a sample of 10 subjects with no disabilities. The same resting periods were then utilized in a controlled exoskeleton-based exercise for a sample size of 5 subjects and have shown similar results. On average, the muscle activity of the biceps brachii decreased by 0.3% when rested for 30 seconds, and it increased by 1.25%, 0.76%, and 0.82% when using muscle relaxation periods of 60, 90, and 120 seconds, respectively. The preliminary results suggest that a muscle relaxation period of about 60 seconds is needed for optimal continuous muscle activation within rehabilitation regimens. Robot-based rehabilitation is good to produce repetitive tasks with the right intensity, and knowing the optimal resting period will make the automation more effective.

Keywords: rest intervals, muscle biceps brachii, robot rehabilitation, muscle fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
2371 Smartphone Application for Social Inclusion of Deaf Parents and Children About Sphincter Training

Authors: Júlia Alarcon Pinto, Carlos João Schaffhausser, Gustavo Alarcon Pinto

Abstract:

Introduction: The deaf people in Brazil communicate through the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS), which is restricted to this minority and people that received training. However, there is a lack of prepared professionals in the health system to deal with these patients. Therefore, effective communication, health education, quality of support and assistance are compromised. It is of utmost importance to develop measures that ensure the inclusion of deaf parents and children since there are frequent doubts about sphincter training and an absence of tools to promote effective communication between doctors and their patients. Objective: Use of an efficient, rapid and cheap communication method to promote social inclusion and patient education of deaf parents and children during pediatrics appointments. Results; The application demonstrates how to express phrases and symptoms within seconds and this allows patients to fully understand the information provided during the appointment and are capable to evaluate the signs of readiness, learn the correct approaches with the child, what are the adequate instruments, possible obstacles and the importance to execute medical orientations in order to achieve success in the process. Consequently, patients feel more satisfied, secured and embraced by professionals in the health system care. Conclusion: It is of utmost importance to use efficient and cheap methods that support patient care and education in order to promote health and social inclusion.

Keywords: application, deaf patients, social inclusion, sphincter training

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2370 An Anatomic Approach to the Lingual Artery in the Carotid Triangle in South Indian Population

Authors: Ashwin Rai, Rajalakshmi Rai, Rajanigandha Vadgoankar

Abstract:

Lingual artery is the chief artery of the tongue and the neighboring structures pertaining to the oral cavity. At the carotid triangle, this artery arises from the external carotid artery opposite to the tip of greater cornua of hyoid bone, undergoes a tortuous course with its first part being crossed by the hypoglossal nerve and runs beneath the digastric muscle. Then it continues to supply the tongue as the deep lingual artery. The aim of this study is to draw surgeon's attention to the course of lingual artery in this area since it can be accidentally lesioned causing an extensive hemorrhage in certain surgical or dental procedures. The study was conducted on 44 formalin fixed head and neck specimens focusing on the anatomic relations of lingual artery. In this study, we found that the lingual artery is located inferior to the digastric muscle and the hypoglossal nerve contradictory to the classical description. This data would be useful during ligation of lingual artery to avoid injury to the hypoglossal nerve in surgeries related to the anterior triangle of neck.

Keywords: anterior triangle, digastric muscle, hypoglossal nerve, lingual artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2369 The Effect of Fibre Orientation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Skeletal Muscle: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Christobel Gondwe, Yongtao Lu, Claudia Mazzà, Xinshan Li

Abstract:

Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the human body system and function by generating voluntary forces and facilitating body motion. However, The mechanical properties and behaviour of skeletal muscle are still not comprehensively known yet. As such, various robust engineering techniques have been applied to better elucidate the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle. It is considered that muscle mechanics are highly governed by the architecture of the fibre orientations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different fibre orientations on the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle.In this study, a continuum mechanics approach–finite element (FE) analysis was applied to the left bicep femoris long head to determine the contractile mechanism of the muscle using Hill’s three-element model. The geometry of the muscle was segmented from the magnetic resonance images. The muscle was modelled as a quasi-incompressible hyperelastic (Mooney-Rivlin) material. Two types of fibre orientations were implemented: one with the idealised fibre arrangement, i.e. parallel single-direction fibres going from the muscle origin to insertion sites, and the other with curved fibre arrangement which is aligned with the muscle shape.The second fibre arrangement was implemented through the finite element method; non-uniform rational B-spline (FEM-NURBs) technique by means of user material (UMAT) subroutines. The stress-strain behaviour of the muscle was investigated under idealised exercise conditions, and will be further analysed under physiological conditions. The results of the two different FE models have been outputted and qualitatively compared.

Keywords: FEM-NURBS, finite element analysis, Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic, muscle architecture

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2368 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah

Abstract:

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced to the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and has globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. EMS is known as the application of electrical current transcutaneous to muscles through electrodes to induce involuntary contractions that can lead to the increment of muscle mass and strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasi-experimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Keywords: body composition, EMS, skeletal muscle mass, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
2367 Development of 3D Neck Muscle to Analyze the Effect of Active Muscle Contraction in Whiplash Injury

Authors: Nisha Nandlal Sharma, Julaluk Carmai, Saiprasit Koetniyom, Bernd Markert

Abstract:

Whiplash Injuries are mostly experienced in car accidents. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies, neck pain and headaches are two most common symptoms observed. The whiplash Injury mechanism is poorly understood. In present study, hybrid neck muscle model were developed with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Solid tetrahedral elements represents passive part of the muscle whereas, 1D beam elements represents active part. To simulate the active behavior of the muscle, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.

Keywords: finite element model, muscle activation, THUMS, whiplash injury mechanism

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2366 The Effect of Manual Acupuncture-induced Injury as a Mechanism Contributing to Muscle Regeneration

Authors: Kamal Ameis

Abstract:

This study aims to further improve our understanding of the underlying mechanism of local injury that occurs after manual acupuncture needle manipulation, and that initiates the muscle regeneration process, which is essential for muscle maintenance and adaptation. Skeletal muscle is maintained by resident stem cells called muscle satellite cells. These cells are normally in quiescent state, but following muscle injury, they re-enter the cell cycle and execute a myogenic program resulting in muscle fiber regeneration. Our previous work in young rats demonstrated that acupuncture treatment induced injury that activated resident satellite (stem) cells, which leads to muscle regeneration. Skeletal muscle regeneration is an adaptive response to injury that requires a tightly orchestrated event between signaling pathways activated by growth factor and intrinsic regulatory program controlled by myogenic transcription factor. We identified several gene expressions uniquely important for muscle regeneration in response to acupuncture treatment at different time course using different biological techniques, including Immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and Real Time PCR. This study uses a novel but non-invasive model of injury induced by manual acupuncture to further our current understanding of regenerative mechanism of muscle stem cells. From a clinical perspective, this model of injury induced by manual acupuncture may be easily translatable into a clinical tool that can be used as an alternative to physical exercise for patients challenged by bed rest or forced inactivity. Finally, the knowledge gained from this research could be useful for studies of the local effects of various modalities of induced injury, such as the traditional method of healing by cupping (hijamah), which may enhanced muscle stem cells and muscle fiber regeneration.

Keywords: acupuncture, injury, regeneration, muscle stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2365 Effect of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, IGF₁, and Physical Performance of Volleyball Players

Authors: Menan M. Elsayed, Hussein A. Heshmat

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to assess the effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical performance of volleyball players of Physical Education College, Helwan University. The researcher used the experimental method of pre-post measurements of one group of 10 volleyball players. The execution of the program was through the period of 12/8/2018 to 12/10/2018; included 24 training units, 3 training units weekly for 8 weeks. The training program revealed an improvement in post measurement of muscle strength, IGF₁ (insulin-like growth factor 1), and physical performance of players. It may be concluded that the resistance training may include changes in hormones and muscle fibers leading to hypertrophy of the muscle and physical performance. It is recommended to use the results of the study in rationing the loads and training programs.

Keywords: IGF₁, muscle strength, physical performance, resistance training, volleyball players

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2364 Myoelectric Analysis for the Assessment of Muscle Functions and Fatigue Monitoring of Upper Extremity for Stroke Patients Performing Robot-Assisted Bilateral Training

Authors: Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ching-Yi Wu, Yan-Zou Lin, Yo Chiao, Ya-Ju Chang

Abstract:

Robot-assisted bilateral arm training has demonstrated useful to improve motor control in stroke patients and save human resources. In clinics, the efficiency of this treatment is mostly performed by comparing functional scales before and after rehabilitation. However, most of these assessments are based on behavior evaluation. The underlying improvement of muscle activation and coordination is unknown. Moreover, stroke patients are easier to have muscle fatigue under robot-assisted rehabilitation due to the weakness of muscles. This safety issue is still less studied. In this study, EMG analysis was applied during training. Our preliminary results showed the co-contraction index and co-contraction area index can delineate the improved muscle coordination of biceps brachii vs. flexor carpiradialis. Moreover, the smoothed, normalized cycle-by-cycle median frequency of left and right extensor carpiradialis decreased as the training progress, implying the occurrence of muscle fatigue.

Keywords: robot-assisted rehabilitation, strokes, muscle coordination, muscle fatigue

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2363 Relationship Between Pain Intensity at the Time of the Hamstring Muscle Injury and Hamstring Muscle Lesion Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Grange Sylvain, Plancher Ronan, Reurink Guustav, Croisille Pierre, Edouard Pascal

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study was to analyze the potential correlation between the pain experienced at the time of a hamstring muscle injury and the volume of the lesion measured on MRI. The secondary objectives were to analyze a correlation between this pain and the lesion grade as well as the affected hamstring muscle. We performed a retrospective analysis of the data collected in a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional cohort study (HAMMER). Patients with suspected hamstring muscle injury had an MRI after the injury and at the same time were evaluated for their pain intensity experienced at the time of the injury with a Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) from 0 to 10. A total of 61 patients were included in the present analysis. MRIs were performed in an average of less than 8 days. There was a significant correlation between pain and the injury volume (r=0.287; p=0.025). There was no significant correlation between the pain and the lesion grade (p>0.05), nor between the pain and affected hamstring muscle (p>0.05). Pain at the time of injury appeared to be correlated with the volume of muscle affected. These results confirm the value of a clinical approach in the initial evaluation of hamstring injuries to better select patients eligible for further imaging.

Keywords: hamstring muscle injury, MRI, volume lesion, pain

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2362 Acute Effects of Active Dynamic, Static Stretching and Passive Static Stretching Exercise on Hamstrings Flexibility and Muscle Strength

Authors: Yi Tse Wang, Che Hsiu Chen, Zih Jian Huang, Hon Wen Cheng

Abstract:

Stretching treatments enhanced flexibility. On the other hand, decreases in hamstrings strength have been reported after stretching, especially with static stretching or passive stretching. Stretching has been shown to be more effective than static stretching to improve muscle performance, but a clear consensus for the effect of dynamic stretching on muscle performance has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of a dynamic stretching, static stretching and eccentric exercise protocol on hamstrings stiffness, flexibility and muscle strength. Forty-five healthy active men (height 179.9 cm; weight 71.5 kg; age 22.5 years) were participated in 3 randomly ordered testing sessions: dynamic stretching (DS), active static stretching (ASS), and passive static stretching (PSS). All the stretch were performed 30 seconds and repeated 6 times. There was a 30-second interval between repetitions. The outcome measures were isokinetic concentric contraction (60°/s), eccentric contraction (30°/s) peak torque, muscle flexibility after stretching. The results showed that the muscle flexibility (3.6%, 3.9% and 1.59%, respectively) increased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hamstring isokinetic concentric peak torque (-6.4%, -8.0% and -5.8%, respectively) and eccentric peak torque (-5.8%, -4.5% and -5.4%, respectively) decreased significantly after DS, PSS and ASS. Hence, although the stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, reduced hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric peak torque.

Keywords: hamstrings injury, warm-up, muscle performance, muscle stretching

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2361 Correlation between Dynamic Knee Valgus with Isometric Hip External Rotators Strength during Single Leg Landing

Authors: Ahmed Fawzy, Khaled Ayad, Gh. M. Koura, W. Reda

Abstract:

The excessive frontal plane motion of the lower extremity during sports activities is thought to be a contributing factor to many traumatic and overuse injuries of the knee joint, little is known about the biomechanical factors that contribute to this loading pattern. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between hip external rotators isometric strength and the value of frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) during single leg landing tasks in normal male subjects. Methods: One hundred (male) subjects free from lower extremity injuries for at least six months ago participated in this study. Their mean age was (23.25 ± 2.88) years, mean weight was (74.76 ± 13.54) (Kg), mean height was (174.23 ± 6.56) (Cm). The knee frontal plane projection angle was measured by digital video camera using single leg landing task. Hip external rotators isometric strength were assessed by portable hand held dynamometer. Muscle strength had been normalized to the body weight to obtain more accurate measurements. Results: The results demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between hip external rotators isometric strength and the value of FPPA during single leg landing tasks in normal male subjects. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there is no relationship between hip external rotators isometric strength and the value of FPPA during functional activities in normal male subjects.

Keywords: 2-dimensional motion analysis, hip strength, kinematics, knee injuries

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2360 Two Cases of VACTERL Association in Pregnancy with Lymphocyte Therapy

Authors: Seyed Mazyar Mortazavi, Masod Memari, Hasan Ali Ahmadi, Zhaleh Abed

Abstract:

Introduction: VACTERL association is a rare disorder with various congenital malformations. The aetiology remains unknown. Combination of at least three congenital anomalies of the following criteria is required for diagnosis: vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb defects. Case presentation: The first case was 1-day old male neonate with multiple congenital anomalies was bore from 28 years old mother. The mother had history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. His anomalies included: defects in thoracic and lumbar vertebral, anal atresia, bilateral hydronephrosis, atrial septal defect, and lower limb abnormality. Other anomalies were cryptorchidism and nasal canal narrowing. The second case was born with 32 weeks gestational age from mother with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy. He had thoracic vertebral defect, cardiac anomalies and renal defect. Conclusion: diagnosis based on clinical finding is VACTERL association. Early diagnosis is very important to investigation and treatment of other coexistence anomalies. VACTERL association in mothers with history of pregnancy with lymphocyte therapy has suggested possibly of relationship between VACTERL association and this method of pregnancy.

Keywords: anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula, atrial septal defect, lymphocyte therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
2359 Governing External Innovation: Lessons from Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android

Authors: Amir Mohagheghzadeh, Solaleh Salimi, Ramin Tafazzoli

Abstract:

Ecosystem and networks plays significant roles in product innovation. External innovation within developing firms can bring a wide range of advantages for a firm in a competitive market. Using external innovation can be mentioned as one of the most significant concepts regarding the firm’s transition phase into openness. Derivative concepts such as open or shared platform and app stores are the main result of this thinking within the firms. However, adopting this concept and leverage the defined advantages of external innovation should be aligned with other strategies and policies of a firm. Consequently, one of the key aspects that have been raised while using external innovation is how to govern external innovation within a developing firm. This paper describes the frameworks that two pioneer companies in mobile operating system development have used in order to control and govern external innovation through platform.

Keywords: external innovation, open innovation, governance, governance mechanisms, innovation, Apple, iOS, Google, Android

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
2358 Learning Example of a Biomedical Project from a Real Problem of Muscle Fatigue

Authors: M. Rezki, A. Belaidi

Abstract:

This paper deals with a method of learning to solve a real problem in biomedical engineering from a technical study of muscle fatigue. Electromyography (EMG) is a technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles (viewpoint: anatomical and physiological). EMG is used as a diagnostics tool for identifying neuromuscular diseases, assessing low-back pain and muscle fatigue in general. In order to study the EMG signal for detecting fatigue in a muscle, we have taken a real problem which touches the tramway conductor the handle bar. For the study, we have used a typical autonomous platform in order to get signals at real time. In our case study, we were confronted with complex problem to do our experiments in a tram. This type of problem is recurring among students. To teach our students the method to solve this kind of problem, we built a similar system. Through this study, we realized a lot of objectives such as making the equipment for simulation, the study of detection of muscle fatigue and especially how to manage a study of biomedical looking.

Keywords: EMG, health platform, conductor’s tram, muscle fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
2357 A Study on Human Musculoskeletal Model for Cycle Fitting: Comparison with EMG

Authors: Yoon- Ho Shin, Jin-Seung Choi, Dong-Won Kang, Jeong-Woo Seo, Joo-Hack Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Dae-Hyeok Kim, Seung-Tae Yang, Gye-Rae Tack

Abstract:

It is difficult to study the effect of various variables on cycle fitting through actual experiment. To overcome such difficulty, the forward dynamics of a musculoskeletal model was applied to cycle fitting in this study. The measured EMG data were compared with the muscle activities of the musculoskeletal model through forward dynamics. EMG data were measured from five cyclists who do not have musculoskeletal diseases during three minutes pedaling with a constant load (150 W) and cadence (90 RPM). The muscles used for the analysis were the Vastus Lateralis (VL), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Bicep Femoris (BF), and Gastrocnemius Medial (GM). Person’s correlation coefficients of the muscle activity patterns, the peak timing of the maximum muscle activities, and the total muscle activities were calculated and compared. BIKE3D model of AnyBody (Anybodytech, Denmark) was used for the musculoskeletal model simulation. The comparisons of the actual experiments with the simulation results showed significant correlations in the muscle activity patterns (VL: 0.789, TA: 0.503, BF: 0.468, GM: 0.670). The peak timings of the maximum muscle activities were distributed at particular phases. The total muscle activities were compared with the normalized muscle activities, and the comparison showed about 10% difference in the VL (+10%), TA (+9.7%), and BF (+10%), excluding the GM (+29.4%). Thus, it can be concluded that muscle activities of model & experiment showed similar results. The results of this study indicated that it was possible to apply the simulation of further improved musculoskeletal model to cycle fitting.

Keywords: musculoskeletal modeling, EMG, cycle fitting, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
2356 Measurement of Rheologic Properties of Soft Tissue (Muscle Tissue) by Device Called Myotonometer

Authors: Petr Sifta, Vaclav Bittner, Martin Kysela, Matej Kolar

Abstract:

The purpose of the research described in this work is to answer how to measure the rheologic (viscoelastic) properties tendo–deformational characteristics of soft tissue. The method would also resemble muscle palpation examination as it is known in clinical practice. For this purpose, an instrument with the working name “myotonometer” has been used. At present, there is lack of objective methods for assessing the muscle tone by viscous and elastic properties of soft tissue. That is why we decided to focus on creating or finding quantitative and qualitative methodology capable of specifying muscle tone.

Keywords: rheologic properties, tendo–deformational characteristics, viscosity, elasticity, hypertonus

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
2355 Relationship Between Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatitis B

Authors: Eyüp S. Akbas, Betul Ayaz, Beyza S. Haksever, Sema Basat

Abstract:

We aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance, muscle mass and muscle strength in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. In our study, there were 65 patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in Child A and B group and 65 healthy control individual. Control group was chosen between patients who admitted to the internal medicine clinic and had no pathological values in a routine examination. Muscle mass index was calculated with bioimpedance analysis for both groups to determine muscle strength and muscle mass. Handgrip strength, arm, and calf circumference were measured. In both groups, HOMA-IR was calculated to determine insulin resistance. Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value was detected 3,47±3,80 in the study group and 1,83±1,20 in control group. There were significant differences between the two groups in arm circumference, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and total cholesterol parameters. The correlation coefficient between muscle mass and insulin resistance was statistically insignificant, especially in the study group. In healthy individuals group and all the groups, there wasn’t a correlation between muscle mass and insulin resistance. The upper limit for HOMA-IR was determined as 3,2. In control group, %78,9 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3.2) group and %21,1 of them were in ( ≥ 3,2) group. In study group, %68,3 of individuals were in HOMA-IR ( < 3,2) group and %31.7 were in HOMA-IR ( ≥ 3,2) group. In our study, we did not find a relationship between muscle mass and insulin resistance in patients with liver cirrhosis. In the study group, we detected a positive relationship between muscle mass, handgrip strength, and calf circumference. We did not find a relationship between insulin resistance and handgrip strength in our study.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatitis B, Insulin resistance, muscle mass

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2354 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho

Abstract:

Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.

Keywords: chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2353 Usage of Military Spending, Debt Servicing and Growth for Dealing with Emergency Plan of Indian External Debt

Authors: Sahbi Farhani

Abstract:

This study investigates the relationship between external debt and military spending in case of India over the period of 1970–2012. In doing so, we have applied the structural break unit root tests to examine stationarity properties of the variables. The Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach is used to test whether cointegration exists in presence of structural breaks stemming in the series. Our results indicate the cointegration among external debt, military spending, debt servicing, and economic growth. Moreover, military spending and debt servicing add in external debt. Economic growth helps in lowering external debt. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis and Granger causality test reveal that military spending and economic growth cause external debt. The feedback effect also exists between external debt and debt servicing in case of India.

Keywords: external debt, military spending, ARDL approach, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 219