Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 551

Search results for: Nasiru Ibrahim

551 Phytochemical Screening, Anti-Microbial and Mineral Determination of Stachtarpheta indica Extract

Authors: Ibrahim Isah Lakan, Nasiru Ibrahim

Abstract:

These Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activities and mineral Determination of aqueous extract of Stachtarpheta indica were assessed. The result reveals the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and anthraquinones. The disc diffusion of aqueous extract showed Escherichia coli, 13 and antibiotic, 19 mm; Bacillus subtilis, 10 and anti –biotic, 17 mm; Klebsiller pnemuoniae , 14 and antibiotic, 24mm and Pseudmonas aeruginosa, 24 and antibiotic, 36 mm which are all comparable with the standard antibiotic cyprotomycin. The mineral content determination by flame photometer revealed that 1.25 (Na+), 0.85 (K +), 1.75 (Ca 2+) % which is a clear indication of the safety of the extract for the hypertensive patients and could be used to lower blood pressure.

Keywords: microbials, mineral, phytochemicals, stachtarpheta indica extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
550 Evaluation of Raw Diatomaceous Earth and Plant Powders in the Control of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) on Stored Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) (Verdc.) Seeds

Authors: Ibrahim Nasiru Dole, Audu Abdullahi, Dike Michiel Chidozie, Lawal Mansur

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut is an important grain legume and the seeds in storage suffer infestation by Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of raw diatomaceous earth (RDE) and plant powders (Jatropha curcas (L.), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh.) and Melia azedarach (L.) against C. subinnotatus infesting stored bambara groundnut seeds. Rearing of the insects and the experiments were conducted in Agricultural Biology Laboratory of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto - Nigeria under ambient conditions (29-33oC and a relative humidity of 44-56%). Four treatments at three levels: RDE at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g while plant powders at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g, standard/check (2.0 g of Actellic dust), and a control. These were separately admixed with 100 g of sterilized seeds in glass jars. Each jar was later infested with thirty, 1-2-days old C. subinnotatus of mixed sexes. Adult mortality was assessed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, F1 and F2 progenies, seed damage, weight loss and viability were also assessed after 90 days. Eighty-nine (89%) percent adult mortality was recorded in the highest dose of RDE after 96 hours of exposure. These treatments significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed F1 and F2 progenies emergence in relation to the control. The control suffered significantly (P < 0.05) higher seed damage (51.0 %) and weight loss (40.8%) thereby recording lower seed germination. Therefore, RDE and plant powders could be used against C. subinnotatus on stored bambara groundnut seeds.

Keywords: bambara, callosobruchus subinnotatus, plant powders, raw diatomaceous earth,

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
549 Development of a Compact Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor Using Soft Magnetic Composite

Authors: Nasiru Aliyu, Glyn Atkinson, Nick Stannard

Abstract:

With increasing demand for electric motors used in nearly all sectors of our day to day activities, which range from the motor that rotates the washing machine and dishwasher to the tens of thousands of motors used in domestic appliance. The number of applications for soft magnetic composites (SMC) material is growing significantly. This paper presents the development of a compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor using soft magnetic composite as core for reducing core losses and cost. The effects of changing the flux carrying component to pressed SMC parts are investigated based on a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the material. A 3-D finite-element analysis is performed for accurate parameter calculation. To validate the simulation, a new static test measurement was fully conducted on a prototype motor and agree with the theoretical calculations and old measured static test.

Keywords: SMC, compact development, axial field motor, 3DFA

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
548 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim

Abstract:

Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensors

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
547 Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for Determination of Supply Chain Performance Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Ibrahim Cil, Onur Kurtcu, H. Ibrahim Demir, Furkan Yener, Yusuf. S. Turkan, Muharrem Unver, Ramazan Evren

Abstract:

Fuzzy AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method is decision-making way at the end of integrating the current AHP method with fuzzy structure. In this study, the processes of production planning, inventory management and purchasing department of a system were analysed and were requested to decide the performance criteria of each area. At this point, the current work processes were analysed by various decision-makers and comparing each criteria by giving points according to 1-9 scale were completed. The criteria were listed in order to their weights by using Fuzzy AHP approach and top three performance criteria of each department were determined. After that, the performance criteria of supply chain consisting of three departments were asked to determine. The processes of each department were compared by decision-makers at the point of building the supply chain performance system and getting the performance criteria. According to the results, the criteria of performance system of supply chain by using Fuzzy AHP were determined for which will be used in the supply chain performance system in the future.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy, performance evaluation, supply chain

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546 Instructional Leadership and Competency in Capacity Development among Principals: A Mediation with Self Efficacy in Moderate Performing Schools

Authors: Mohd Ibrahim K. Azeez, Mohammed Sani Ibrahim, Rosemawati Mustapa, Maisarah A. Malik, Chandrakala Varatharajoo, Wee Akina Sia Seng Lee

Abstract:

The leadership of the principals is known to be a key indicator in development and school performance. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the extent of the influence of instructional leadership in the field of supervision and curriculum focus on capacity development competence in the field of communication and teamwork. In addition, this study also examines self-efficacy mediator school leadership in the field of self-improvement and self-management of school principals. The study involved 383 guest teachers from 55 secondary schools for leadership in schools. Data was analyzed using SEM aid program AMOS 21. The final result shows partial mediation model was the best model fit to obtain the best goodness of fit of (X2/df = 4.663, CFI = 0.922, GFI = 0.778, TLI = 0914, NFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.098) compared to the direct effect model of the findings (X2/df = 5.319, CFI = 0.908, GFI = 0755, TLI = 0.899, NFI = 0.889, and RMSEA = 0.106). While the findings of the fully mediator model with a self-efficacy refers principals as a mediator as follows (X2/df = 4.838, CFI = 0918, GFI = 0772, TLI = 0.910, NFI = 0.899, and RMSEA = 0.100). Therefore, it can be concluded that the findings clearly demonstrate self-efficacy variables principals become a mediator in the relationship between instructional leadership capacity and competency development.

Keywords: instructional leadership, capacity development, self-efficacy, competency

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545 In Vivo Maltase and Sucrase Inhibitory Activities of Five Underutilized Nigerian Edible Fruits

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Isa Yunusa, Nafisa Kabir, Shazali Ali Baba, Amina Muhammad Yushau, Suraj Suraj Ibrahim, Zaharaddeen Idris Bello, Suleiman Haruna Suleiman, Murtala Bindawa Isah

Abstract:

Background: Inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase prevents postprandial blood glucose excursions which are beneficial in ameliorating diabetes-associated complications. Objective: In this study, the inhibitory effects of fruit extracts of Parinari macrophylla, Detarium microcarpum, Ziziphus spina-christi, Z. mairei and Parkia biglobosa were investigated against intestinal maltase and sucrase. Methods: Rats were given co-administration of the fruit extracts with maltose or sucrose and blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 30, 90 and 120 min. Results: The glucose-time curves indicated that all the fruits had the most potent inhibitory effects on both maltase and sucrase within the first 30 min. The computed Area Under the Curves (AUC0-120)for all the fruits indicated more potent inhibitory effects against intestinal maltase than sucrase.The ED50 range for the fruits extract against maltase and sucrase were 647.15-1118.35 and 942.44-1851.94 mg/kg bw respectively. Conclusion: The data suggests that the fruits could prevent postprandial hyperglycemia via inhibition of intestinal maltase and sucrase.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fruits, α-glucosidases, maltase, sucrase

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
544 Challenges of Domestic Water Security for Sustainable Development in North Central Belt of Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Ibbi Ibrahim, Isaiah Ndalassan Ibrahim

Abstract:

Accessibility and availability of good quality water have become a major concern among different users. This paper examines the caustic importance of water security in relation to people’s desire for survival. It observed the democratic ideology of national policy on domestic water supply and demand and its implementation for national and societal development. It used analogy on equilibrium approach to ascertain the household water security. In most communities, it is glaring that several public water management in operation for several years are hardly performing efficiently to reach equilibrium demand. Moreover most settlements being rural or urban lack effective public water system that could ensure regular supplies to the population. The terrain and gradual declining of efficient rainfall northward poses great challenge to the region in managing water supply and demand adequately. This study itemized the need for the government to get clear strategy for a sustainable development on better water efficiency. Partnership in providing workable policy on water security is considered apparently important. It is also suggested that water plant treatment should be established in every medium-sized towns in the country.

Keywords: good quality of water, water accessibility, water availability, water sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
543 Foreign Direct Investment, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from WAIFEM Member Countries

Authors: Nasiru Inuwa, Haruna Usman Modibbo, Yahya Zakari Abdullahi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth on carbon emissions in context of WAIFEM member countries. The Im-Pesaran-Shin panel unit root test, Kao residual based test panel cointegration technique and panel Granger causality tests over the period 1980-2012 within a multivariate framework were applied. The results of cointegration test revealed a long run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions, economic growth and foreign direct investment. The results of Granger causality tests revealed a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries at the 5% level. Also, Granger causality runs from economic growth to foreign direct investment without feedback. However, no causality relationship between foreign direct investment and CO2 emissions for the panel of WAIFEM countries was observed. The study therefore, suggest that policy makers from WAIFEM member countries should design policies aim at attracting more foreign direct investments inflow as well the adoption of cleaner production technologies in order to reduce CO2 emissions.

Keywords: economic growth, CO2 emissions, causality, WAIFEM

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542 Online Social Network Vital to Hospitality and Tourism Marketing and Management

Authors: Nureni Asafe Yekini, Olawale Nasiru Lawal, Bola Dada, Gabriel Adeyemi Okunlola

Abstract:

This study is focused on the strengths and challenges associated with using the online social network as a rapidly evolving medium in marketing tourism services and businesses among the youths in Nigeria. The paper examines the Nigerian tourists’ attitude, mainly towards three aspects: application of Internet for travel and tourism; usage of online social networks in sharing travel and tourism experiences; and trust in electronic-media for marketing tourism businesses and services. The aim of this research is to determine the level of application of internet tools in marketing tourism businesses and services in Nigeria. This study reports an empirical analysis based on data obtained from a survey among 1004 Nigerian tourists. The outcome confirms the research hypothesis and points to crucial importance of introducing online social network site for marketing tourism businesses and services in Nigeria, and increasing the awareness for Nigeria as a tourist destination. Moreover, the paper strongly recommends the use of online social network as a tool for marketing tourism businesses and services, and the need for identifying effective framework for application of ICT tools in marketing tourism businesses and services in Nigeria at large.

Keywords: tourism business, internet, online social networks, tourism services, ICT

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
541 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan

Abstract:

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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540 Assessment of Some Heavy Metals (Manganese, Copper, Nickel and Zinc) in Muscle and Liver of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ilushi River, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua I. Izegaegbe, Femi F. Oloye, Catherine E. Nasiru

Abstract:

This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the extent of contamination. Heavy metal determination of digested fish samples was done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results show that the muscles and livers were contaminated to varying levels with the presence of some non-metallic elements. The heavy metal load revealed that zinc had the highest mean concentration of 0.217±0.008µg/g in liver and 0.130±0.006µg/g in muscle, while copper recorded the least concentration in liver 0.063±0.004µg/g and 0.027±0.003µg/gin muscle. The distribution of the heavy metals in the muscles and livers of Clarias gariepinus showed significant variations and the results also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu,Ni and Mn) found in the liver was higher than those found in the muscle. This indicates that the liver is a better accumulator of heavy metal in Clarias gariepinus than the muscles. On comparison with WHO/FAO/FEPA/USFDA standards, the study shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver and muscle were within permissible limits safe for human consumption.

Keywords: clarias gariepinus, heavy metals, liver, muscle

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
539 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert

Abstract:

Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
538 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden

Abstract:

Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
537 Health Outcomes and Economic Growth Nexus: Testing for Long-run Relationships and Causal Links in Nigeria

Authors: Haruna Modibbo Usman, Mustapha Muktar, Nasiru Inuwa

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This paper examined the long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria from 1961 to 2012. Using annual time series data, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is conducted to check the stochastic properties of the variables. Also, the long run relationship among the variables is confirmed based on Johansen Multivariate Cointegration approach whereas the long run and short run dynamics are observed using Vector Error Correction Mechanism (VECM). In addition, VEC Granger causality test is employed to examine the direction of causality among the variables. On the whole, the results obtained revealed the existence of a long run relationship between health outcomes and economic growth in Nigeria and that both life expectancy and crude death rate as measures of health are found to have a long run negative and statistically significant impact on the economic growth over the study period. This is further buttressed by the results of Granger causality test which indicated the existence of unidirectional causality running from life expectancy and crude death rate to economic growth. The study therefore, calls for governments at various levels to create preconditions for health improvements in Nigeria in order to boost the level of health outcomes.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, Granger causality, health outcomes, VECM

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
536 Investigation of Corrosion Inhibition Potential of Acalypha chamaedrifolia Leaves Extract towards Mild Steel in Acid Medium

Authors: Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Zaharaddeen Nasiru Garba, Sani Shamsudeen, David Ebuka Authur

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium using Acalypha chamaedrifolia leaves extract as potential green inhibitor was investigated. Gravimetric (weight loss) technique was used for the corrosion studies. Mild steel coupons of 2cm × 1cm × 0.27 cm dimensions were exposed for varying durations of between 24 to 120 hours, in 1M HCl medium containing a varying concentrations of the leaves extract (0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L). The results show that corrosion rates dropped from a value of 0.49 mgcm-2hr-1 for the uninhibited medium to a value of 0.15 mgcm-2hr-1 for the inhibited medium of 1M HCl in 0.25 g/l of the extract. Values of corrosion inhibition efficiencies of 70.38-85.11% were observed as the concentration of the inhibitor were increased from 0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L. Corrosion Inhibition was found to increase with increase in immersion time and temperature. The magnitude of the Ea indicates that the interaction between the metal surface and the inhibitor was chemisorptions. The Adsorption process fit into the Langmuir isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Evidence from molecular dynamics model shows that Methyl stearate (Line 5) and (3Z, 13Z)-2-methyloctadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (line 11) were found to have the highest binding energy of -197.69 ± 3.12 and-194.56 ± 10.04 in kcal/mol respectively. The binding energy of these compounds indicates that they would be a very good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel and other Fe related materials.

Keywords: binding energy, corrosion, inhibitor, langmuir isotherm, mild steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
535 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
534 Studies on Mechanisms of Corrosion Inhibition of Acalypha chamaedrifolia Leaves Extract towards Mild Steel in Acid Medium

Authors: Stephen Eyije Abechi, Casimir Emmanuel Gimba, Zaharaddeen Nasiru Garba, Sani Shamsudeen, David Ebuka Authur

Abstract:

The mechanisms of corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid medium using Acalypha chamaedrifolia leaves extract as potential green inhibitor were investigated. Gravimetric (weight loss) technique was used for the corrosion studies. Mild steel coupons of 2cm × 1cm × 0.27 cm dimensions were exposed for varying durations of between 24 to 120 hours, in 1M HCl medium containing a varying concentrations of the leaves extract (0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L). The results show that corrosion rates dropped from a value of 0.49 mgcm-2hr-1 for the uninhibited medium to a value of 0.15 mgcm-2hr-1 for the inhibited medium of 1M HCl in 0.25 g/l of the extract. Values of corrosion inhibition efficiencies of 70.38-85.11% were observed as the concentration of the inhibitor were increased from 0.25g/L, - 1.25g/L. Corrosion Inhibition was found to increase with increase in immersion time and temperature. The magnitude of the Ea indicates that the interaction between the metal surface and the inhibitor was chemisorptions. The Adsorption process fit into the Langmuir isotherm model with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. Evidence from molecular dynamics model shows that Methyl stearate (Line 5) and (3Z, 13Z)-2-methyloctadeca-3,13-dien-1-ol (line 11) were found to have the highest binding energy of -197.69 ± 3.12 and-194.56 ± 10.04 in kcal/mol respectively. The binding energy of these compounds indicates that they would be a very good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel and other Fe related materials.

Keywords: binding energy, corrosion, inhibitor, Langmuir isotherm, mild steel.

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
533 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh

Abstract:

Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
532 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

Abstract:

Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
531 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah

Procedia PDF Downloads 571
530 ICT for Smart Appliances: Current Technology and Identification of Future ICT Trend

Authors: Abubakar Uba Ibrahim, Ibrahim Haruna Shanono

Abstract:

Smart metering and demand response are gaining ground in industrial and residential applications. Smart Appliances have been given concern towards achieving Smart home. The success of Smart grid development relies on the successful implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in power sector. Smart Appliances have been the technology under development and many new contributions to its realization have been reported in the last few years. The role of ICT here is to capture data in real time, thereby allowing bi-directional flow of information/data between producing and utilization point; that lead a way for the attainment of Smart appliances where home appliances can communicate between themselves and provide a self-control (switch on and off) using the signal (information) obtained from the grid. This paper depicts the background on ICT for smart appliances paying a particular attention to the current technology and identifying the future ICT trends for load monitoring through which smart appliances can be achieved to facilitate an efficient smart home system which promote demand response program. This paper grouped and reviewed the recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, so that the reader can be provided with a comprehensive and insightful review of where ICT for smart appliances stands and is heading to. The paper also presents a brief overview of communication types, and then narrowed the discussion to the load monitoring (Non-intrusive Appliances Load Monitoring ‘NALM’). Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of the ICT framework are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

Keywords: communication technology between appliances, demand response, load monitoring, smart appliances, smart grid

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529 Chamba Encroachment into Jukum Territory and Its Impact 1830-1900

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

Abstract:

The period between the late 18th and early 19th centuries was characterized by conflict of ethnic nationalities in the Benue valley region. This conflict was exacerbated by the introduction of the Fulani jihad that began in Hausa land into the Benue valley region. Fulani in this region launched the Jihad movement which pushed out some ethnic groups from their natural abode or ancestral home to live a nomad live until they could settle and established a stayed in a particular place. The Chamba were being displaced by the Fulani jihad that took place around Faro deo in about 1809. It was from there that most of the Chamba migrated out, some into the Cameroon republic, while others moved into the Benue valley region. Among those that entered into the Benue valley region are the Sama, Kola, Gayam etc, and could be found in Donga local Government area of Taraba state. Those Chamba clan that later on cameo into the Benue Valley are Pyeri, Kashimbila etc. The sudden movement of the Chamba or migrations into the Jukun territory co-in ceded with the period that the Jihad had already had a severe and consequential effect or impact on the Jukun territory cause by Yakubu Ibrahim of Bzuchi, and Buba Yero of Gombe, and Hamaruwa of Muri Emirate. This ne authorities in Kwararafa Kingdom cut the Jukun King out of contact with Borno and Hausa-land. This paper set to examine the chiefdom that the Chamba established right within the Jukun headquarters of Wukari. Sources to be used are published books, Journals, Archival materials, and M.A. Thesis to enable us know the impact of Chamba migrations on the Jukun territory and reactions of the Jukun’s to this new comers.

Keywords: Chamba people, encroachment, migration, ethnic nationalities

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528 The Vulnerability of Climate Change to Farmers, Fishermen and Herdsmen in Nigeria

Authors: Nasiru Medugu Idris

Abstract:

This research is aimed at assessing the vulnerability of climate change to rural communities (farmers, herdsmen and fishermen) in Nigeria with the view to study the underlying causes and degree of vulnerability to climate change and examine the conflict between farmers and herdsmen as a result of climate change. This research employed the use of quantitative and qualitative means of data gathering techniques as well as physical observations. Six states (Kebbi, Adamawa, Nasarawa, Osun, Ebonyi, and Akwa Ibom) have been selected on the ground that they are key food production areas in the country and are therefore essential to continual food security in the country. So also, they also double as fishing communities in order to aid the comprehensive study of all the effects on climate on farmers and fishermen alike. Community focus group discussions were carried out in the various states for an interactive session and also to have firsthand information on their level of awareness on climate change. Climate data from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency over the past decade were collected for the purpose of analyzing trends in climate. The study observed that the level of vulnerability of rural dwellers most especially farmers, herdsmen and fishermen to climate change is very high due to their socioeconomic, ethnic and historical perspective of their trend. The study, therefore, recommends that urgent step needs to be put in place to help control natural hazards and man-made disasters and serious measures are also needed in order to minimize severe societal, economic and political crises; some of which may either escalate to violent conflicts or could be avoided by efforts of conflict resolution and prevention by the initiation of a process of de-escalation. So this study has recommended the best-fit adaptive and mitigation measures to climate change vulnerability in rural communities of Nigeria.

Keywords: adaptation, farmers, fishermen, herdsmen

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527 Fuel Cells and Offshore Wind Turbines Technology for Eco-Friendly Ports with a Case Study

Authors: Ibrahim Sadek Sedik Ibrahim, Mohamed M. Elgohary

Abstract:

Sea ports are considered one of the factors affecting the progress of economic globalization and the international trade; consequently, they are considered one of the sources involved in the deterioration of the maritime environment due to the excessive amount of exhaust gases emitted from their activities. The majority of sea ports depend on the national electric grid as a source of power for the domestic and ships’ electric demands. This paper discusses the possibility of shifting ports from relying on the national grid electricity to green power-based ports. Offshore wind turbines and hydrogenic PEM fuel cell units appear as two typical promising clean energy sources for ports. As a case study, the paper investigates the prospect of converting Alexandria Port in Egypt to be an eco-friendly port with the study of technical, logistic, and financial requirements. The results show that the fuel cell, followed by a combined system of wind turbines and fuel cells, is the best choice regarding electricity production unit cost by 0.101 and 0.107 $/kWh, respectively. Furthermore, using of fuel cells and offshore wind turbine as green power concept will achieving emissions reduction quantity of CO₂, NOx, and CO emissions by 80,441, 20.814, and 133.025 ton per year, respectively. Finally, the paper highlights the role that renewable energy can play when supplying Alexandria Port with green energy to lift the burden on the government in supporting the electricity, with a possibility of achieving a profit of 3.85% to 22.31% of the annual electricity cost compared with the international prices.

Keywords: fuel cells, green ports, IMO, national electric grid, offshore wind turbines, port emissions, renewable energy

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526 The Effects of High Velocity Low Amplitude Thrust Manipulation versus Low Velocity Low Amplitude Mobilization in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein, Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar

Abstract:

Background: High-velocity low amplitude thrust (HVLAT) manipulation and low-velocity low amplitude (LVLA) mobilization are an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP). Purpose: This study compared the effects of HVLAT versus LVLA on pain, functional deficits and segmental mobility in treatment of chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Ninety patients suffering from chronic mechanical LBP are classified to three groups; Thirty patients treated by HVLAT (group I), thirty patients treated by LVLA (group II) and thirty patients as control group (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 28.00±2.92, 27.83±2.28 and 28.07±3.05 years and BMI 27.98±2.60, 28.80±2.40 and 28.70±2.53 kg/m2 for group I, II and III respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and modified schoper test were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted two weeks before and after treatment with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The treatment program group one was two weeks single session per week, and for group II two sessions per week for two weeks. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and Oswestry score compared with group II two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mobility in modified schoper increased significantly and the pain scores and Oswestry scores decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: HVLAT is preferable to LVLA mobilization, possibly due to a beneficial neurophysiological effect by Stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule.

Keywords: low back pain, manipulation, mobilization, low velocity

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525 Development of E-Tendering Models for Nigerian Public Procuring Entities

Authors: Bello Abdullahi, Kabir Bala, Yahaya M. Ibrahim, Ahmed D. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Public sector tendering has traditionally been conducted using manual paper-based processes which are known to be inefficient, less transparent, and more prone to manipulations and errors. However, the advent of the Internet and its associated technologies has led to the development of numerous e-Tendering systems that addressed many of the problems associated with the manual paper-based tendering system. Currently, in Nigeria, the public tendering processes are largely conducted based on manual paper-based system that is bedevilled by a number of problems such as inordinate delays, inefficiencies, manipulation of the tender evaluation process, corruption, lack of transparency and competition, among other problems. These problems can be addressed through the adoption of existing web-based e-Tendering systems which are known to address most of these problems. However, these existing e-Tendering systems that have been developed are not based on the Nigerian legal procurement processes and as such their suitability for local application is very limited. This paper is part of a larger study that attempt to address this problem through the development of an e-Tendering system that is based on the requirements of the Nigerian public procuring entities. In this paper, the identified tendering processes commonly used by Nigerian public procuring entities in the selection of construction sources are presented. A multi-methods research approach was used to identify those tendering processes. Specifically, 19 existing business use cases used by Nigerian public procuring entities were identified and 61 system use cases were prescribed based on the identified business use cases. The use cases were used as the basis for the development of domain and software conceptual models. The models were successfully used to guide the development of an e-Tendering system called NPS-eTender. Ripple and Unified Process were adopted as the software development methodologies.

Keywords: e-tendering, e-procurement, requirement model, conceptual model, public sector tendering, public procurement

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524 Gender and Political Participation in Africa

Authors: Ibrahim Baba

Abstract:

The work examines the nature and causes of differential politics in Africa with particular reference to the sub-Saharan region of the continent. It also among other objectives provides alternative panacea to gender discrimination in African politics and offers solutions on how to promote political inclusion of all citizens in respect of gender differences in Africa. The work is conducted using library base documentation analysis.

Keywords: gender, political, participation, differential politics, sub-Saharan Africa

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523 Bayesian Approach for Moving Extremes Ranked Set Sampling

Authors: Said Ali Al-Hadhrami, Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari

Abstract:

In this paper, Bayesian estimation for the mean of exponential distribution is considered using Moving Extremes Ranked Set Sampling (MERSS). Three priors are used; Jeffery, conjugate and constant using MERSS and Simple Random Sampling (SRS). Some properties of the proposed estimators are investigated. It is found that the suggested estimators using MERSS are more efficient than its counterparts based on SRS.

Keywords: Bayesian, efficiency, moving extreme ranked set sampling, ranked set sampling

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522 Design and Synthesis of Some Pyrimidine Derivatives as Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Hematologic Malignancies

Authors: Ibrahim M. Labouta, Gina N. Tageldin, Salwa M. Fahmy, Hayam M. Ashour, Mounir A. Khalil, Tamer M. Ibrahim, Nefertiti A. El-Nikhely

Abstract:

Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling transduction. It regulates B cell proliferation, development and survival. Since BTK is widely expressed in many B cell leukaemias and lymphomas, targeting BTK by small molecules inhibitors became an attractive idea as new treatment modalities for B cell mediated hematologic malignancies. Ibrutinib is the 1st generation BTK inhibitor, approved by FDA for treatment of relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It binds irreversibly to the unique cysteine (Cys481) within the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. Besides ibrutinib, many irreversible covalent BTK inhibitors comprising pyrimidine nucleus such as spebrutinib (phase IIb) showed high selectivity and potency when compared to it. In this study, the designed compounds were based on 5-cyano-2-methylsulfanyl pyrimidine core and decorated with electrophilic warheads which are essential for the optimal activity for targeted covalent inhibition (TCI). However, modifications at pyrimidine C4 or C6 were made by introduction of substituted amines which are provided to behave differently. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their anticancer activity in leukemia cell lines (e.g. THP-1). Results showed that, some derivatives exhibited antiproliferative activity with IC50 ranged from 5-50 μM, The in vitro enzymatic inhibitory assay for these compounds against BTK is still under investigation. Nevertheless, we could conclude from the initial biological screening that, the synthesized 4 or 6-subsitituted aminopyrimidines represent promising and novel antileukemic agents. Meanwhile, further studies are still needed to attribute this activity through targeting BTK enzyme and inhibition of BCR signaling pathway.

Keywords: BTK inhibitors, hematologic malignancies, structure based drug design (SBDD), targeted covalent inhibitors (TCI)

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