Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: polarimetry

7 Chiral Diphosphine Ligands and Their Transition Metal Diphosphine Complexes in Asymmetric Catalysis

Authors: Shannen Lorraine, Paul Maragh, Tara Dasgupta, Kamaluddin Abdur-Rashid

Abstract:

(R)-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (R-Ph-Garphos), and (S)-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (S-Ph-Garphos) are novel, nucleophilic, chiral atropisomeric ligands. The research explored the synthesis of chiral transition metal complexes containing these ligands and their applications in various asymmetric catalytic transformations. Herein, the transition metal complexes having ruthenium(II), rhodium(I) and iridium(I) metal centres will be discussed. These are air stable complexes and were characterized by CHN analysis, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry. Currently, there is an emphasis on 'greener' catalysts and the need for 'green' solvents in asymmetric catalysis. As such, the Ph-Garphos ligands were demethylated thereby introducing hydroxyl moieties unto the ligand scaffold. The facile tunability of the biaryl diphosphines led to the preparation of the (R)-(4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (R-Ph-Garphos-OH), and (S)-(4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (S-Ph-Garphos-OH) ligands. These were successfully characterized by CHN analysis, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry. The use of the Ph-Garphos and Ph-Garphos-OH ligands and their transition metal complexes in asymmetric hydrogenations will be reported. Additionally, the scope of the research will highlight the applicability of the Ph-Garphos-OH ligand and its transitional metal complexes as 'green' catalysts.

Keywords: catalysis, asymmetric hydrogenation, diphosphine transition metal complexes, Ph-Garphos ligands

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6 A Review on the Future Canadian RADARSAT Constellation Mission and Its Capabilities

Authors: Mohammed Dabboor

Abstract:

Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems are active remote sensing systems independent of weather and sun illumination, two factors which usually inhibit the use of optical satellite imagery. A SAR system could acquire single, dual, compact or fully polarized SAR imagery. Each SAR imagery type has its advantages and disadvantages. The sensitivity of SAR images is a function of the: 1) band, polarization, and incidence angle of the transmitted electromagnetic signal, and 2) geometric and dielectric properties of the radar target. The RADARSAT-1 (launched on November 4, 1995), RADARSAT-2 ((launched on December 14, 2007) and RADARSAT Constellation Mission (to be launched in July 2018) are three past, current, and future Canadian SAR space missions. Canada is developing the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) using small satellites to further maximize the capability to carry out round-the-clock surveillance from space. The Canadian Space Agency, in collaboration with other government-of-Canada departments, is leading the design, development and operation of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission to help addressing key priorities. The purpose of our presentation is to give an overview of the future Canadian RCM SAR mission with its satellites. Also, the RCM SAR imaging modes along with the expected SAR products will be described. An emphasis will be given to the mission unique capabilities and characteristics, such as the new compact polarimetry SAR configuration. In this presentation, we will summarize the RCM advancement from previous RADARSAT satellite missions. Furthermore, the potential of the RCM mission for different Earth observation applications will be outlined.

Keywords: compact polarimetry, RADARSAT, SAR mission, SAR applications

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5 Mapping Intertidal Changes Using Polarimetry and Interferometry Techniques

Authors: Khalid Omari, Rene Chenier, Enrique Blondel, Ryan Ahola

Abstract:

Northern Canadian coasts have vulnerable and very dynamic intertidal zones with very high tides occurring in several areas. The impact of climate change presents challenges not only for maintaining this biodiversity but also for navigation safety adaptation due to the high sediment mobility in these coastal areas. Thus, frequent mapping of shorelines and intertidal changes is of high importance. To help in quantifying the changes in these fragile ecosystems, remote sensing provides practical monitoring tools at local and regional scales. Traditional methods based on high-resolution optical sensors are often used to map intertidal areas by benefiting of the spectral response contrast of intertidal classes in visible, near and mid-infrared bands. Tidal areas are highly reflective in visible bands mainly because of the presence of fine sand deposits. However, getting a cloud-free optical data that coincide with low tides in intertidal zones in northern regions is very difficult. Alternatively, the all-weather capability and daylight-independence of the microwave remote sensing using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can offer valuable geophysical parameters with a high frequency revisit over intertidal zones. Multi-polarization SAR parameters have been used successfully in mapping intertidal zones using incoherence target decomposition. Moreover, the crustal displacements caused by ocean tide loading may reach several centimeters that can be detected and quantified across differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR). Soil moisture change has a significant impact on both the coherence and the backscatter. For instance, increases in the backscatter intensity associated with low coherence is an indicator for abrupt surface changes. In this research, we present primary results obtained following our investigation of the potential of the fully polarimetric Radarsat-2 data for mapping an inter-tidal zone located on Tasiujaq on the south-west shore of Ungava Bay, Quebec. Using the repeat pass cycle of Radarsat-2, multiple seasonal fine quad (FQ14W) images are acquired over the site between 2016 and 2018. Only 8 images corresponding to low tide conditions are selected and used to build an interferometric stack of data. The observed displacements along the line of sight generated using HH and VV polarization are compared with the changes noticed using the Freeman Durden polarimetric decomposition and Touzi degree of polarization extrema. Results show the consistency of both approaches in their ability to monitor the changes in intertidal zones.

Keywords: SAR, degree of polarization, DInSAR, Freeman-Durden, polarimetry, Radarsat-2

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4 Polarimetric Study of System Gelatin / Carboxymethylcellulose in the Food Field

Authors: Sihem Bazid, Meriem El Kolli, Aicha Medjahed

Abstract:

Proteins and polysaccharides are the two types of biopolymers most frequently used in the food industry to control the mechanical properties and structural stability and organoleptic properties of the products. The textural and structural properties of these two types of blend polymers depend on their interaction and their ability to form organized structures. From an industrial point of view, a better understanding of mixtures protein / polysaccharide is an important issue since they are already heavily involved in processed food. It is in this context that we have chosen to work on a model system composed of a fibrous protein mixture (gelatin)/anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Gelatin, one of the most popular biopolymers, is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and photographic applications, because of its unique functional and technological properties. Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) is an anionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose. It is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications. The functional properties of this anionic polysaccharide can be modified by the presence of proteins with which it might interact. Another factor may also manage the interaction of protein-polysaccharide mixtures is the triple helix of the gelatin. Its complex synthesis method results in an extracellular assembly containing several levels. Collagen can be in a soluble state or associate into fibrils, which can associate in fiber. Each level corresponds to an organization recognized by the cellular and metabolic system. Gelatin allows this approach, the formation of gelatin gel has triple helical folding of denatured collagen chains, this gel has been the subject of numerous studies, and it is now known that the properties depend only on the rate of triple helices forming the network. Chemical modification of this system is quite controlled. Observe the dynamics of the triple helix may be relevant in understanding the interactions involved in protein-polysaccharides mixtures. Gelatin is central to any industrial process, understand and analyze the molecular dynamics induced by the triple helix in the transitions gelatin, can have great economic importance in all fields and especially the food. The goal is to understand the possible mechanisms involved depending on the nature of the mixtures obtained. From a fundamental point of view, it is clear that the protective effect of NaCMC on gelatin and conformational changes of the α helix are strongly influenced by the nature of the medium. Our goal is to minimize the maximum the α helix structure changes to maintain more stable gelatin and protect against denaturation that occurs during such conversion processes in the food industry. In order to study the nature of interactions and assess the properties of mixtures, polarimetry was used to monitor the optical parameters and to assess the rate of helicity gelatin.

Keywords: gelatin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, interaction gelatin-NaCMC, the rate of helicity, polarimetry

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3 Optimal Configuration for Polarimetric Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

Authors: Ibrahim Watad, Ibrahim Abdulhalim

Abstract:

Conventional spectroscopic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used, both in fundamental research and environmental monitoring as well as healthcare diagnostics. However, they still lack the low limit of detection (LOD) and there still a place for improvement. SPR conventional sensors are based on the detection of a dip in the reflectivity spectrum which is relatively wide. To improve the performance of these sensors, many techniques and methods proposed either to reduce the width of the dip or to increase the sensitivity. Together with that, profiting from the sharp jump in the phase spectrum under SPR, several works suggested the extraction of the phase of the reflected wave. However, existing phase measurement setups are in general more complicated compared to the conventional setups, require more stability and are very sensitive to external vibrations and noises. In this study, a simple polarimetric technique for phase extraction under SPR is presented, followed by a theoretical error analysis and an experimental verification. The advantages of the proposed technique upon existing techniques will be elaborated, together with conclusions regarding the best polarimetric function, and its corresponding optimal metal layer range of thicknesses to use under the conventional Kretschmann-Raether configuration.

Keywords: plasmonics, polarimetry, thin films, optical sensors

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2 Mueller Matrix Polarimetry for Analysis Scattering Biological Fluid Media

Authors: S. Cherif, A. Medjahed, M. Bouafia, A. Manallah

Abstract:

A light wave is characterized by 4 characteristics: its amplitude, its frequency, its phase and the direction of polarization of its luminous vector (the electric field). It is in this last characteristic that we will be interested. The polarization of the light was introduced in order to describe the vectorial behavior of the light; it describes the way in which the electric field evolves in a point of space. Our work consists in studying diffusing mediums. Different types of biological fluids were selected to study the evolution of each with increasing scattering power of the medium, and in the same time to make a comparison between them. When crossing these mediums, the light undergoes modifications and/or deterioration of its initial state of polarization. This phenomenon is related to the properties of the medium, the idea is to compare the characteristics of the entering and outgoing light from the studied medium by a white light. The advantage of this model is that it is experimentally accessible workable intensity measurements with CCD sensors and allows operation in 2D. The latter information is used to discriminate some physical properties of the studied areas. We chose four types of milk to study the evolution of each with increasing scattering power of the medium.

Keywords: light polarization, Mueller matrix, Mueller images, diffusing medium, milk

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1 Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Classification Using Support Vector Machine and Mahalanobis Distance

Authors: Najoua El Hajjaji El Idrissi, Necip Gokhan Kasapoglu

Abstract:

Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar-based imaging is a powerful technique used for earth observation and classification of surfaces. Forest evolution has been one of the vital areas of attention for the remote sensing experts. The information about forest areas can be achieved by remote sensing, whether by using active radars or optical instruments. However, due to several weather constraints, such as cloud cover, limited information can be recovered using optical data and for that reason, Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) is used as a powerful tool for forestry inventory. In this [14paper, we applied support vector machine (SVM) and Mahalanobis distance to the fully polarimetric AIRSAR P, L, C-bands data from the Nezer forest areas, the classification is based in the separation of different tree ages. The classification results were evaluated and the results show that the SVM performs better than the Mahalanobis distance and SVM achieves approximately 75% accuracy. This result proves that SVM classification can be used as a useful method to evaluate fully polarimetric SAR data with sufficient value of accuracy.

Keywords: classification, synthetic aperture radar, SAR polarimetry, support vector machine, mahalanobis distance

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