Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: nonclassical antifolates

6 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan

Abstract:

Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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5 Role of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in the Monocyte Phenotype and Chemokine Receptor Levels after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Carolina N. França, Jônatas B. do Amaral, Maria C.O. Izar, Ighor L. Teixeira, Francisco A. Fonseca

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, characterized by lipid and fibrotic element deposition in large-caliber arteries. Conditions related to the development of atherosclerosis, as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are associated with endothelial dysfunction. There is a frequent recurrence of cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction and, at this sense, cycles of mobilization of monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate and nonclassical) secondary to myocardial infarction may determine the colonization of atherosclerotic plaques in different stages of the development, contributing to early recurrence of ischemic events. The recruitment of different monocyte subsets during inflammatory process requires the expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1, to promote the migration of monocytes to the inflammatory site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by six months in the monocyte phenotype and chemokine receptor levels of patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: This is a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoints) study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02428374). Adult patients (n=147) of both genders, ageing 18-75 years, were randomized in a 2x2 factorial design for treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 40 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day as well as ticagrelor 90 mg 2x/day and clopidogrel 75 mg, in addition to conventional AMI therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after one month and six months of treatment. Monocyte subtypes (classical - inflammatory, intermediate - phagocytic and nonclassical – anti-inflammatory) were identified, quantified and characterized by flow cytometry, as well as the expressions of the chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1) were also evaluated in the mononuclear cells. Results: After six months of treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of classical monocytes and reduction in the nonclassical monocytes (p=0.038 and p < 0.0001 Friedman Test), without differences for intermediate monocytes. Besides, classical monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 after treatment, without differences related to CCR2 (p < 0.0001 for CCR5 and CX3CR1; p=0.175 for CCR2). Intermediate monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 and lower expression of CCR2 (p = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Nonclassical monocytes had lower expressions of CCR2 and CCR5, without differences for CX3CR1 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.009 and p = 0.138, respectively). There were no differences after the comparison between the four treatment arms. Conclusion: The data suggest a time-dependent modulation of classical and nonclassical monocytes and chemokine receptor levels. The higher percentage of classical monocytes (inflammatory cells) suggest a residual inflammatory risk, even under preconized treatments to AMI. Indeed, these changes do not seem to be affected by choice of the lipid-lowering strategy.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, chemokine receptors, lipid-lowering treatment, monocyte subtypes

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4 Non Classical Photonic Nanojets in near Field of Metallic and Negative-Index Scatterers, Purely Electric and Magnetic Nanojets

Authors: Dmytro O. Plutenko, Alexei D. Kiselev, Mikhail V. Vasnetsov

Abstract:

We present the results of our analytical and computational study of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams scattering by spherical homogeneous isotropic particles located on the axis of the beam. We consider different types of scatterers (dielectric, metallic and double negative metamaterials) and different polarizations of the LG beams. A possibility to generate photonic nanojets using metallic and double negative metamaterial Mie scatterers is shown. We have studied the properties of such nonclassical nanojets and discovered new types of the nanojets characterized by zero on-axes magnetic (or electric) field with the electric (or magnetic) field polarized along the z-axis.

Keywords: double negative metamaterial, Laguerre-Gaussian beam, Mie scattering, optical vortices, photonic nanojets

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3 Substituted Thiazole Analogues as Anti-Tumor Agents

Authors: Menna Ewida, Dalal Abou El-Ella, Dina Lasheen, Huessin El-Subbagh

Abstract:

Introduction: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptor (VEGF) is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis to create new blood vessels. VEGF family binds to three trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptors,Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme of crucial importance in medicinal chemistry. DHFR catalyzes the reduction 7,8 dihydro-folate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase which is a pivotal enzyme that catalysis the reductive methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) utilizing N5,N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor which functions as the source of the methyl group. Purpose: Novel substituted Thiazole agents were designed as DHFR and VEGF-TK inhibitors with increased synergistic activity and decreased side effects. Methods: Five series of compounds were designed with a rational that mimic the pharmacophoric features present in the reported active compounds that target DHFR & VEGFR. These molecules were docked against Methotrexate & Sorafenib as controls. An in silico ADMET study was also performed to validate the bioavailability of the newly designed compounds. The in silico molecular docking & ADMET study were also applied to the non-classical antifolates for comparison. The interaction energy comparable to that of MTX for DHFRI and Sorafenib for VEGF-TKI activity were recorded. Results: Compound 5 exhibited the highest interaction energy when docked against Sorafenib, While Compound 9 showed the highest interaction energy when docked against MTX with the perfect binding mode. Comparable results were also obtained for the ADMET study. Most of the compounds showed absorption within (95-99) zone which varies according to the type of substituents. Conclusions: The Substituted Thiazole Analogues could be a suitable template for antitumor drugs that possess enhanced bioavailability and act as DHFR and VEGF-TK inhibitors.

Keywords: anti-tumor agents, DHFR, drug design, molecular modeling, VEGFR-TKIs

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2 Cytotoxicological Evaluation of a Folate Receptor Targeting Drug Delivery System Based on Cyclodextrins

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe

Abstract:

For chemotherapy, a drug delivery system should be able to specifically target cancer cells and deliver the therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. Folate receptors (FR) can be considered key targets since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells and they are the molecular marker used in this study. Here, cyclodextrin (CD) has being studied as a vehicle for delivering the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within the CD cavity. In this study, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR molecular marker. Thus, the system studied here for drug delivery consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 9.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 10.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 8.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 12.1 and 288.1 µM ± 16.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug.

Keywords: cyclodextrins, cancer treatment, drug delivery, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

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1 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of a Cyclodextrin-Based Drug Delivery System for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Caroline Mendes, Mary McNamara, Orla Howe

Abstract:

Drug delivery systems are proposed for use in cancer treatment to specifically target cancer cells and deliver a therapeutic dose without affecting normal cells. For that purpose, the use of folate receptors (FR) can be considered a key strategy, since they are commonly over-expressed in cancer cells. In this study, cyclodextrins (CD) have being used as vehicles to target FR and deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, methotrexate (MTX). CDs have the ability to form inclusion complexes, in which molecules of suitable dimensions are included within their cavities. Here, β-CD has been modified using folic acid so as to specifically target the FR. Thus, this drug delivery system consists of β-CD, folic acid and MTX (CDEnFA:MTX). Cellular uptake of folic acid is mediated with high affinity by folate receptors while the cellular uptake of antifolates, such as MTX, is mediated with high affinity by the reduced folate carriers (RFCs). This study addresses the gene (mRNA) and protein expression levels of FRs and RFCs in the cancer cell lines CaCo-2, SKOV-3, HeLa, MCF-7, A549 and the normal cell line BEAS-2B, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and flow cytometry, respectively. From that, four cell lines with different levels of FRs, were chosen for cytotoxicity assays of MTX and CDEnFA:MTX using the MTT assay. Real-time PCR and flow cytometry data demonstrated that all cell lines ubiquitously express moderate levels of RFC. These experiments have also shown that levels of FR protein in CaCo-2 cells are high, while levels in SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 cells are moderate. A549 and BEAS-2B cells express low levels of FR protein. FRs are highly expressed in all the cancer cell lines analysed when compared to the normal cell line BEAS-2B. The cell lines CaCo-2, MCF-7, A549 and BEAS-2B were used in the cell viability assays. 48 hours treatment with the free drug and the complex resulted in IC50 values of 93.9 µM ± 15.2 and 56.0 µM ± 4.0 for CaCo-2 for free MTX and CDEnFA:MTX respectively, 118.2 µM ± 16.8 and 97.8 µM ± 12.3 for MCF-7, 36.4 µM ± 6.9 and 75.0 µM ± 10.5 for A549 and 132.6 µM ± 16.1 and 288.1 µM ± 26.3 for BEAS-2B. These results demonstrate that free MTX is more toxic towards cell lines expressing low levels of FR, such as the BEAS-2B. More importantly, these results demonstrate that the inclusion complex CDEnFA:MTX showed greater cytotoxicity than the free drug towards the high FR expressing CaCo-2 cells, indicating that it has potential to target this receptor, enhancing the specificity and the efficiency of the drug. The use of cell imaging by confocal microscopy has allowed visualisation of FR targeting in cancer cells, as well as the identification of the interlisation pathway of the drug. Hence, the cellular uptake and internalisation process of this drug delivery system is being addressed.

Keywords: cancer treatment, cyclodextrins, drug delivery, folate receptors, reduced folate carriers

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