Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 444

Search results for: slope

444 Slope Stability Assessment of Himalayan Slope under Static and Seismic Conditions

Authors: P. Singh, S. Mittal

Abstract:

Stability of slope in Chamoli Distt. near River Alaknanda in Uttarakhand is essential to safeguard the infrastructure of the slope where a dam is proposed to be built near this slope. Every year the areas near the slope have been facing severe landslides (small or big) due to intensive precipitation inflicting substantial damages as per Geological Survey of India records. The stability analysis of the slope under static and pseudo static conditions are presented in this study by using FEM software PHASE2. As per the earthquake zonation map of India, the slope is found in zone V, and hence, pseudo static stability of slope has been performed considering pseudo static analysis. For analysing the slope Mohr-Coulomb shear strength criteria is adopted for soil material and self-drilling anchors are modelled as bolts with parameters like modulus of elasticity, diameter of anchors and peak pull-out resistance of the anchors with the soil present there. The slope is found to be unstable under pseudo static conditions with computed factor of safety= 0.93. Stability is provided to the slope by using Self Drilling Anchors (SDA) which gives factor of safety= 1.15 under pseudo static condition.

Keywords: FEM, pseudo static, self-drilling anchors, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
443 Surface Erosion and Slope Stability Assessment of Cut and Fill Slope

Authors: Kongrat Nokkaew

Abstract:

This article assessed the surface erosion and stability of cut and fill slope in the excavation of the detention basin, Kalasin Province, Thailand. The large excavation project was built to enlarge detention basin for relieving repeated flooding and drought which usually happen in this area. However, at the end of the 1st rainstorm season, severely erosions slope failures were widespread observed. After investigation, the severity of erosions and slope failure were classified into five level from sheet erosion (Level 1), rill erosion (Level 2, 3), gully erosion (Level 4), and slope failure (Level 5) for proposing slope remediation. The preliminary investigation showed that lack of runoff control were the major factors of the surface erosions while insufficient compacted of the fill slope leaded to slopes failures. The slope stability of four selected slope failure was back calculated by using Simplified Bishop with Seep-W. The result show that factor of safety of slope located on non-plasticity sand was less than one, representing instability of the embankment slope. Such analysis agreed well with the failures observed in the field.

Keywords: surface erosion, slope stability, detention basin, cut and fill

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
442 Potential of Landslides Based On Maximum Monthly Rainfall in Sumber Sari Village Watershed Tirtomoyo Wonogiri Indonesia

Authors: Heny Pratiwi, Niken Silmi Surjandari, Noegroho Djarwanti

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the potential for landslides as a result of monthly rainfall in a watershed. Rainfall data that will be used is rainfall from years 2007-2011. Research methods created by modeling the slope on some variation of angle in a row 30◦, 45◦, and 60◦ with a homogeneous layer of soil. Slope Stability Analysis using Method Fellenius. The results of the slope stability analysis without rain on slope 30◦, 45◦, and 60◦ respectively 1.3846, 1.0115, and 0.7284. Results in the absence of rain showed that the slope on the slope 45◦ are in critical condition and on a slope with a slope 60◦ already avalanche with safety factor value <1. The results in the rainy conditions shows slopes 30◦ are in critical condition with a value factor <1 due to the intensity of monthly rainfall> 250 mm/month.

Keywords: slope stability, monthly rainfall, infiltration, safety factor, Fellenius method

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
441 The Concept of Anchor Hazard Potential Map

Authors: Sao-Jeng Chao, Chia-Yun Wei, Si-Han Lai, Cheng-Yu Huang, Yu-Han Teng

Abstract:

In Taiwan, the landforms are mainly dominated by mountains and hills. Many road sections of the National Highway are impossible to avoid problems such as slope excavation or slope filling. In order to increase the safety of the slope, various slope protection methods are used to stabilize the slope, especially the soil anchor technique is the most common. This study is inspired by the soil liquefaction potential map. The concept of the potential map is widely used. The typhoon, earth-rock flow, tsunami, flooded area, and the recent discussion of soil liquefaction have safety potential concepts. This paper brings the concept of safety potential to the anchored slope. Because the soil anchor inspection is only the concept of points, this study extends the concept of the point to the surface, using the Quantum GIS program to present the slope damage area, and depicts the slope appearance and soil anchor point with the slope as-built drawing. The soil anchor scores are obtained by anchor inspection data, and the low, medium and high potential areas are remitted by interpolation. Thus, the area where the anchored slope may be harmful is judged and relevant maintenance is provided. The maintenance units can thus prevent judgment and deal with the anchored slope as soon as possible.

Keywords: anchor, slope, potential map, lift-off test, existing load

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
440 Effect of Slope Steepness with Toposequent on Erosion Factor: A Study Case of Cikeruh Catchment Area, West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Shantosa Yudha Siswanto, Julianto Arief Ismail, Rachmat Harryanto

Abstract:

The research was conducted with the aim to know the effect of slope steepness on organic carbon and soil erodibility as erosion factor. This research was conducted from September to December 2011 in the Raharja and Cinanjung Village, Tanjungsari, Sumedang District, West Java, Indonesia. The study was carried out using physiographic free survey method, which is a survey based on land physiographic appearance. Soil sampling was carried out into transect on the similarity slope without calculating the point of observation range. Soil sampling was carried onto three classes of slope as follows: 8–15%, 15–25% and 25–40%. Each was consisted of three slope position i.e. top slope, middle slope and down slope and four samples of soil were taken from each of them, hence it resulted in 36 points of observation. The results of this study indicate that gradient of slope have some significant contribution in every sample. Middle slope with gradient 26-40% has the highest potential erosion occurrence. It has organic C content (0.84%) and the highest erodibility value (0.1092).

Keywords: slope steepness, erosion, erodibility, erosion factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
439 Study of Stability of a Slope by the Soil Nailed Technique

Authors: Abdelhak Soudani

Abstract:

Using the limit equilibrium method in geotechnical field is very important for large projects. This work contributes to the understanding and analysis of the building unstable slopes by the technique of soil nailed with the used of software called GEO-SLOPE calculation based on limit equilibrium method. To achieve our objective, we began a review of the literature on landslides, and techniques of slope stability. Then, we presented a real case slope likely to slip through the realization of the EastWest Highway (M5 stretch between Khemis Miliana and Hoceinia). We also process the application of reinforcement technique nailed soil. The analysis is followed by a parametric study, which shows the impact of parameters given or chosen on various outcomes. Another method of reinforcement (use of micro-piles) has been suggested for improving the stability of the slope

Keywords: slope stability, strengthening, slip, soil nail, GEO-SLOPE

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
438 Use of Short Piles for Stabilizing the Side Slope of the Road Embankment along the Canal

Authors: Monapat Sasingha, Suttisak Soralump

Abstract:

This research presents the behavior of slope of the road along the canal stabilized by short piles. In this investigation, the centrifuge machine was used, modelling the condition of the water levels in the canal. The centrifuge tests were performed at 35 g. To observe the movement of the soil, visual analysis was performed to evaluate the failure behavior. Conclusively, the use of short piles to stabilize the canal slope proved to be an effective solution. However, the certain amount of settlement was found behind the short pile rows.

Keywords: centrifuge test, slope failure, embankment, stability of slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
437 Effect of Slope Angle on Gougerd Landslide Stability in Northwest of Iran

Authors: Akbar Khodavirdizadeh

Abstract:

Gougerd village landslide with area about 150 hectares is located in southwest of Khoy city in northwest of the Iran. This Landslide was commenced more than 21 years and caused some damages in houses like some fissures on walls and some cracks on ground and foundations. The main mechanism of landslide is rotational with the high different of top and foot is about 230 m. The thickness of slide mass based on geoelectrical investigation is about 16m obtained. The upper layer of slope is silty sand and the lower layer of clayey gravel. In this paper, the stability of landslide are analyzed based in static analysis under different groundwater surface conditions and at slope angle changes with limit eqlibrium method and the simplified Bishop method. The results of the 72 stability analysis showed that the slope stability of Gougerd landslide increased with increasing of the groundwater surface depth of slope crown. And especially when decreased of slope angle, the safety facter more than in previous state is increased. The required of safety factor for stability in groundwater surface depth from slope crown equal 14 m and with decreased of slope angle to 3 degree at decrease of groundwater surface depth from slope crown equal 6.5 m obtained. The safety factor in critical conditions under groundwater surface depth from slope crown equal 3.5 m and at decreased of slope angle to 3 degree equal 0.5 m obtained. At groudwater surface depth from slope crown of 3 m, 7 m and 10 m respectively equal to 0.97, 1.19 and 1.33 obtained. At groudwater surface depth from slope crown of 3 m, 7 m and 10 m with decreased of slope angle to 3 degree, respectively equal to 1.27, 1.54 and 1.72 obtained. According to the results of this study, for 1 m of groundwater level decrease, the safety factor increased by 5%, and for 1 degree of reduction of the slope angle, safety factor increased by 15%. And the effect of slope angle on Gougerd landslide stability was felt more than groundwater effect.

Keywords: Gougerd landslide, stability analysis, slope angle, groundwater, Khoy

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
436 Effect of Slope Height and Horizontal Forces on the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: Sven Krabbenhoft, Kristian Krabbenhoft, Lars Damkilde

Abstract:

The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable for design.

Keywords: footings, bearing capacity, slopes, cohesionnless soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
435 Matric Suction Effects on Behavior of Unsaturated Soil Slope

Authors: Mohsen Mousivand, Hesam Aminpour

Abstract:

Soil slopes are usually located above the groundwater level that are largely unsaturated. It is possible that unsaturated soil of slope has expanded or collapsed as a result of wetting by rain or other factor that this type of soil behavior can cause serious problems including human and financial damage. The main factor causing this difference in behavior of saturated and unsaturated state of soil is matric suction that is created by interface of the soil and water in the soil pores. So far theoretical studies show that matric suction has important effect on the mechanical behavior of soil although the impact of this factor on slope stability has not been studied. This paper presents a numerical study of effect of matric suction on slope stability. The results of the study indicate that safety factor and stability of soil slope increase due to an increasing of matric suction and in view of matric suction leads to more accurate results and safety factor.

Keywords: slope, unsaturated soil, matric suction, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
434 Numerical Analysis and Influence of the Parameters on Slope Stability

Authors: Fahim Kahlouche, Alaoua Bouaicha, Sihem Chaîbeddra, Sid-Ali Rafa, Abdelhamid Benouali

Abstract:

A designing of a structure requires its realization on rough or sloping ground. Besides the problem of the stability of the landslide, the behavior of the foundations that are bearing the structure is influenced by the destabilizing effect of the ground’s slope. This article focuses on the analysis of the slope stability exposed to loading by introducing the different factors influencing the slope’s behavior on the one hand, and on the influence of this slope on the foundation’s behavior on the other hand. This study is about the elastoplastic modelization using FLAC 2D. This software is based on the finite difference method, which is one of the older methods of numeric resolution of differential equations system with initial and boundary conditions. It was developed for the geotechnical simulation calculation. The aim of this simulation is to demonstrate the notable effect of shear modulus « G », cohesion « C », inclination angle (edge) « β », and distance between the foundation and the head of the slope on the stability of the slope as well as the stability of the foundation. In our simulation, the slope is constituted by homogenous ground. The foundation is considered as rigid/hard; therefore, the loading is made by the application of the vertical strengths on the nodes which represent the contact between the foundation and the ground. 

Keywords: slope, shallow foundation, numeric method, FLAC 2D

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
433 Propagation of DEM Varying Accuracy into Terrain-Based Analysis

Authors: Wassim Katerji, Mercedes Farjas, Carmen Morillo

Abstract:

Terrain-Based Analysis results in derived products from an input DEM and these products are needed to perform various analyses. To efficiently use these products in decision-making, their accuracies must be estimated systematically. This paper proposes a procedure to assess the accuracy of these derived products, by calculating the accuracy of the slope dataset and its significance, taking as an input the accuracy of the DEM. Based on the output of previously published research on modeling the relative accuracy of a DEM, specifically ASTER and SRTM DEMs with Lebanon coverage as the area of study, analysis have showed that ASTER has a low significance in the majority of the area where only 2% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. On the other hand, SRTM showed a better significance, where 37% of the modeled terrain has 50% or more significance. Statistical analysis deduced that the accuracy of the slope dataset, calculated on a cell-by-cell basis, is highly correlated to the accuracy of the input DEM. However, this correlation becomes lower between the slope accuracy and the slope significance, whereas it becomes much higher between the modeled slope and the slope significance.

Keywords: terrain-based analysis, slope, accuracy assessment, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
432 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan

Abstract:

This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: slope stability, Rocscience, Clara W., 2d analysis, 3D analysis, sensitivity analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
431 Erodibility Analysis of Cikapundung Hulu: A Study Case of Mekarwangi Catchment Area

Authors: Shantosa Yudha Siswanto, Rachmat Harryanto

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of land use and slope steepness on soil erodibility index. The research was conducted from September to December 2013 in Mekarwangi catchment area, sub watershed of Cikapundung Hulu, Indonesia. The study was carried out using descriptive method. Physiographic free survey method was used as survey method, it was a survey based on land physiographic appearance. Soil sampling was carried out into transect on the similarity of slope without calculating the range between points of observation. Soil samples were carried onto three classes of land use such as: forest, plantation and dry cultivation area. Each land use consists of three slope classes such as: 8-15%, 16-25%, and 26-40% class. Five samples of soil were taken from each of them, resulting 45 points of observation. The result of the research showed that type of land use and slope classes gave different effect on soil erodibility. The highest C-organic and permeability was found on forest with slope 16-25%. Slope of 8-15% with forest land use give the lowest effect on soil erodibility.

Keywords: land use, slope, erodibility, erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
430 Reliability-Based Design of an Earth Slope Taking into Account Unsaturated Soil Properties

Authors: A. T. Siacara, A. T. Beck, M. M. Futai

Abstract:

This paper shows how accurately and efficiently reliability analyses of geotechnical installations can be performed by directly coupling geotechnical software with a reliability solver. An earth slope is used as the study object. The limit equilibrium method of Morgenstern-Price is used to calculate factors of safety and find the critical slip surface. The deterministic software package Seep/W and Slope/W is coupled with the StRAnD reliability software. Reliability indexes of critical probabilistic surfaces are evaluated by the first-order reliability methods (FORM). By means of sensitivity analysis, the effective cohesion (c') is found to be the most relevant uncertain geotechnical parameter for slope equilibrium. The slope was tested using different geometries, taking into account unsaturated soil properties. Finally, a critical slip surface, identified in terms of minimum factor of safety, is shown here not to be the critical surface in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: slope, unsaturated, reliability, safety, seepage

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
429 Assessment and Mitigation of Slope Stability Hazards Along Kombolcha-Desse Road, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Biruk Wolde Eremacho

Abstract:

The Kombolcha to Desse road, linking Addis Ababa with Northern Ethiopia towns traverses through one of the most difficult mountainous ranges in Ethiopia. The presence of loose unconsolidated materials (colluvium materials), highly weathered and fractured basalt rocks high relief, steep natural slopes, nature of geologic formations exposed along the road section, poor drainage conditions, occurrence of high seasonal rains, and seismically active nature of the region created favorable condition for slope instability in the area. Thus, keeping in mind all above points the present study was conceived to study in detail the slope stability condition of the area. It was realized that detailed slope stability studies along this road section are very necessary to identify critical slopes and to provide the best remedial measures to minimize the slope instability problems which frequently disrupt and endanger the traffic movement on this important road. For the present study based on the field manifestation of instability two most critical slope sections were identified for detailed slope stability analysis. The deterministic slope stability analysis approach was followed to perform the detailed slope stability analysis of the selected slope sections. Factor of safety for the selected slope sections was determined for the different anticipated conditions (i.e., static and dynamic with varied water saturations) using Slope/W and Slide software. Both static and seismic slope stability analysis were carried out and factor of safety was deduced for each anticipated conditions. In general, detailed slope stability analysis of the two critical slope sections reveals that for only static dry condition both the slopes sections would be stable. However, for the rest anticipated conditions defined by static and dynamic situations with varied water saturations both critical slope sections would be unstable. Moreover, the causes of slope instability in the study area are governed by different factors; therefore integrated approaches of remedial measures are more appropriate to mitigate the possible slope instability in the study area. Depending on site condition and slope stability analysis result four types of suitable preventive and remedial measures are recommended namely; proper managements of drainages, retaining structures, gabions, and managing steeply cut slopes.

Keywords: factor of safety, remedial measures, slope stability analysis, static and dynamic condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
428 Optimal Mitigation of Slopes by Probabilistic Methods

Authors: D. De-León-Escobedo, D. J. Delgado-Hernández, S. Pérez

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A probabilistic formulation to assess the slopes safety under the hazard of strong storms is presented and illustrated through a slope in Mexico. The formulation is based on the classical safety factor (SF) used in practice to appraise the slope stability, but it is introduced the treatment of uncertainties, and the slope failure probability is calculated as the probability that SF<1. As the main hazard is the rainfall on the area, statistics of rainfall intensity and duration are considered and modeled with an exponential distribution. The expected life-cycle cost is assessed by considering a monetary value on the slope failure consequences. Alternative mitigation measures are simulated, and the formulation is used to get the measures driving to the optimal one (minimum life-cycle costs). For the example, the optimal mitigation measure is the reduction on the slope inclination angle.

Keywords: expected life-cycle cost, failure probability, slopes failure, storms

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
427 A Numerical Study of Seismic Effects on Slope Stability Using Node-Based Smooth Finite Element Method

Authors: H. C. Nguyen

Abstract:

This contribution considers seismic effects on the stability of slope and footing resting on a slope. The seismic force is simply treated as static inertial force through the values of acceleration factor. All domains are assumed to be plasticity deformations approximated using node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM). The failure mechanism and safety factor were then explored using numerical procedure based on upper bound approach in which optimization problem was formed as second order cone programming (SOCP). The data obtained confirm that upper bound procedure using NS-FEM and SOCP can give stable and rapid convergence results of seismic stability factors.

Keywords: upper bound analysis, safety factor, slope stability, footing resting on slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
426 A Semi-Automated GIS-Based Implementation of Slope Angle Design Reconciliation Process at Debswana Jwaneng Mine, Botswana

Authors: K. Mokatse, O. M. Barei, K. Gabanakgosi, P. Matlhabaphiri

Abstract:

The mining of pit slopes is often associated with some level of deviation from design recommendations, and this may translate to associated changes in the stability of the excavated pit slopes. Therefore slope angle design reconciliations are essential for assessing and monitoring compliance of excavated pit slopes to accepted slope designs. These associated changes in slope stability may be reflected by changes in the calculated factors of safety and/or probabilities of failure. Reconciliations of as-mined and slope design profiles are conducted periodically to assess the implications of these deviations on pit slope stability. Currently, the slope design reconciliation process being implemented in Jwaneng Mine involves the measurement of as-mined and design slope angles along vertical sections cut along the established geotechnical design section lines on the GEOVIA GEMS™ software. Bench retentions are calculated as a percentage of the available catchment area, less over-mined and under-mined areas, to that of the designed catchment area. This process has proven to be both tedious and requires a lot of manual effort and time to execute. Consequently, a new semi-automated mine-to-design reconciliation approach that utilizes laser scanning and GIS-based tools is being proposed at Jwaneng Mine. This method involves high-resolution scanning of targeted bench walls, subsequent creation of 3D surfaces from point cloud data and the derivation of slope toe lines and crest lines on the Maptek I-Site Studio software. The toe lines and crest lines are then exported to the ArcGIS software where distance offsets between the design and actual bench toe lines and crest lines are calculated. Retained bench catchment capacity is measured as distances between the toe lines and crest lines on the same bench elevations. The assessment of the performance of the inter-ramp and overall slopes entails the measurement of excavated and design slope angles along vertical sections on the ArcGIS software. Excavated and design toe-to-toe or crest-to-crest slope angles are measured for inter-ramp stack slope reconciliations. Crest-to-toe slope angles are also measured for overall slope angle design reconciliations. The proposed approach allows for a more automated, accurate, quick and easier workflow for carrying out slope angle design reconciliations. This process has proved highly effective and timeous in the assessment of slope performance in Jwaneng Mine. This paper presents a newly proposed process for assessing compliance to slope angle designs for Jwaneng Mine.

Keywords: slope angle designs, slope design recommendations, slope performance, slope stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
425 Strain Softening of Soil under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Kobid Panthi, Suttisak Soralump, Suriyon Prempramote

Abstract:

In June 27, 2014 slope movement was observed in upstream side of Khlong Pa Bon Dam, Thailand. The slide did not have any major catastrophic impact on the dam structure but raised a very important question; why did the slide occur after 10 years of operation? Various site investigations (Bore Hole Test, SASW, Echo Sounding, and Geophysical Survey), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling using SIGMA/W and SLOPE/W were conducted to determine the cause of slope movement. It was observed that the dam had undergone the greatest differential drawdown in its operational history in the year 2014 and was termed as the major cause of movement. From the laboratory tests, it was found that the shear strength of clay had decreased with a period of time and was near its residual value. The cyclic movement of water, i.e., reservoir filling and emptying was coined out to be the major cause for the reduction of shear strength. The numerical analysis was carried out using a modified cam clay (MCC) model to determine the strain softening behavior of the clay. The strain accumulation was observed in the slope with each reservoir cycle triggering the slope failure in 2014. It can be inferred that if there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed but eventually would have failed after a long period of time. If there was no major drawdown in 2014, the slope would not have failed. However, even if there hadn’t been a drawdown, it would have failed eventually in the long run.

Keywords: slope movement, strain softening, residual strength, modified cam clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
424 Geological and Geotechnical Investigation of a Landslide Prone Slope Along Koraput- Rayagada Railway Track Odisha, India: A Case Study

Authors: S. P. Pradhan, Amulya Ratna Roul

Abstract:

A number of landslides are occurring during the rainy season along Rayagada-Koraput Railway track for past three years. The track was constructed about 20 years ago. However, the protection measures are not able to control the recurring slope failures now. It leads to a loss to Indian Railway and its passengers ultimately leading to wastage of time and money. The slopes along Rayagada-Koraput track include both rock and soil slopes. The rock types include mainly Khondalite and Charnockite whereas soil slopes are mainly composed of laterite ranging from less weathered to highly weathered laterite. The field studies were carried out in one of the critical slope. Field study was followed by the kinematic analysis to assess the type of failure. Slake Durability test, Uniaxial Compression test, specific gravity test and triaxial test were done on rock samples to calculate and assess properties such as weathering index, unconfined compressive strength, density, cohesion, and friction angle. Following all the laboratory tests, rock mass rating was calculated. Further, from Kinematic analysis and Rock Mass Ratingbasic, Slope Mass Rating was proposed for each slope. The properties obtained were used to do the slope stability simulations using finite element method based modelling. After all the results, suitable protection measures, to prevent the loss due to slope failure, were suggested using the relation between Slope Mass Rating and protection measures.

Keywords: landslides, slope stability, rock mass rating, slope mass rating, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
423 The Effect of Soil Surface Slope on Splash Distribution under Water Drop Impact

Authors: H. Aissa, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The effects of down slope steepness on soil splash distribution under a water drop impact have been investigated in this study. The equipment used are the burette to simulate a water drop, a splash cup filled with sandy soil which forms the source area and a splash board to collect the ejected particles. The results found in this study have shown that the apparent mass increased with increasing downslope angle following a linear regression equation with high coefficient of determination. In the same way, the radial soil splash distribution over the distance has been analyzed statistically, and an exponential function was the best fit of the relationship for the different slope angles. The curves and the regressions equations validate the well known FSDF and extend the theory of Van Dijk.

Keywords: splash distribution, water drop, slope steepness, soil detachment

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
422 The Effect of Jet Grouting on the Behavior of Strip Footing Adjacent to Slope Crest

Authors: Ahmed M. El-Tuhami, Ahmed A. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper studies the behavior of strip footing adjacent to slope crest and the effect of jet grouting under the footing. This problem is investigated numerically in the present study. Two dimensional plane strain program PLAXIS is used in this study. 15 nodes triangular element is used to idealize soil with hardening soil model. Five nodes isoperimetric beam element is used to idealize stripe footing. Interface element is used to represent the contact between beam element and soil. Two parameters were studied, the first is the foundation depth and the second is the Stripe footing distance from the slope crest. Settlement and horizontal displacement of strip footing were obtained and studied from the analyzed finite element model results. The reduction influence of jet grouting on footing displacement were studied and investigated. The results indicate that the inclusion of jet grouting under strip footing adjacent to slope crest has significant effect in improving the response of the strip footing and the slope.

Keywords: strip footing, jet grouting, slope, PLAXIS, relative distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
421 Slope Stability of an Earthen Levee Strengthened by HPTRM under Turbulent Overtopping Conditions

Authors: Fashad Amini, Lin Li

Abstract:

High performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is one of the most advanced flexible armoring technologies for severe erosion challenges. The effect of turbulence on the slope stability of an earthen levee strengthened by high performance turf reinforcement mat (HPTRM) is investigated in this study for combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. The results show that turbulence has strong influence on the slope stability during the combined storm surge and wave overtopping conditions. Among the surge height, peak wave force and turbulent force. The turbulent force has the ability to stabilize the earthen levee at the large wave force the turbulent force has strongest effect on the FS. The surge storm acts as an independent force on the slope stability of the earthen levee. It just adds to the effects of the turbulent force and wave force on the slope stability of HPTRM strengthened levee.

Keywords: slope stability, strength reduction method, HPTRM, levee, overtopping

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
420 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal

Abstract:

The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
419 Assessment of Slope Stability by Continuum and Discontinuum Methods

Authors: Taleb Hosni Abderrahmane, Berga Abdelmadjid

Abstract:

The development of numerical analysis and its application to geomechanics problems have provided geotechnical engineers with extremely powerful tools. One of the most important problems in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability assessment. It is a very difficult task due to several aspects such the nature of the problem, experimental consideration, monitoring, controlling, and assessment. The main objective of this paper is to perform a comparative numerical study between the following methods: The Limit Equilibrium (LEM), Finite Element (FEM), Limit Analysis (LAM) and Distinct Element (DEM). The comparison is conducted in terms of the safety factors and the critical slip surfaces. Through the results, we see the feasibility to analyse slope stability by many methods.

Keywords: comparison, factor of safety, geomechanics, numerical methods, slope analysis, slip surfaces

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
418 Probabilistic Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Infinite Slopes

Authors: Assile Abou Diab, Shadi Najjar

Abstract:

Fiber-reinforcement is an effective soil improvement technique for applications involving the prevention of shallow failures on the slope face and the repair of existing slope failures. A typical application is the stabilization of cohesionless infinite slopes. The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic, reliability-based methodology (based on Monte Carlo simulations) for the design of a practical fiber-reinforced cohesionless infinite slope, taking into consideration the impact of various sources of uncertainty. Recommendations are made regarding the required factors of safety that need to be used to achieve a given target reliability level. These factors of safety could differ from the traditional deterministic factor of safety.

Keywords: factor of safety, fiber reinforcement, infinite slope, reliability-based design, uncertainty

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417 Slope Effect in Emission Evaluation to Assess Real Pollutant Factors

Authors: G. Meccariello, L. Della Ragione

Abstract:

The exposure to outdoor air pollution causes lung cancer and increases the risk of bladder cancer. Because air pollution in urban areas is mainly caused by transportation, it is necessary to evaluate pollutant exhaust emissions from vehicles during their real-world use. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. A particular attention was given to the slope variability along the streets during each journey performed by the instrumented vehicle. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars. Finally the slope analysis can be correlated to the emission and consumption values in a specific road position, and it could be evaluated its influence on their behaviour.

Keywords: air pollution, driving cycles, GPS signal, slope, emission factor, fuel consumption

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416 Derivation of Runoff Susceptibility Map Using Slope-Adjusted SCS-CN in a Tropical River Basin

Authors: Abolghasem Akbari

Abstract:

The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff from rainfall. It employs the hydrologic soil groups and land use information along with period soil moisture conditions to derive NRCS-CN. This method has been well documented and available in popular rainfall-runoff models such as HEC-HMS, SWAT, SWMM and much more. Despite all benefits and advantages of this well documented and easy-to-use method, it does not take into account the effect of terrain slope and drainage area. This study aimed to first investigate the effect of slope on CN and then slope-adjusted runoff potential map is generated for Kuantan River Basin, Malaysia. The Hanng method was used to adjust CN values provided in National Handbook of Engineering and The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 is used to derive slope map with the spatial resolution of 30 m for Kuantan River Basin (KRB). The study significantly enhanced the application of GIS tools and recent advances in earth observation technology to analyze the hydrological process.

Keywords: Kuantan, ASTER-GDEM, SCS-CN, runoff

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415 Stability Evaluation on Accumulation Body of Reservoir Slope in Rumei Hydropower Station, China

Authors: Yaofei Jiang, Liangqing Wang, Yanjun Xu

Abstract:

In recent years, geological explorations have been carried out on the Rumei hydropower station, China. After preliminary analysis of results, the mainly problem of slope in reservoir area is about the stability of accumulation body. It is found that there are 23 accumulations in various sizes in the reservoir area, and most of them are unfavorable geological bodies. Three typical (No. 1, 7, 17) accumulation body slopes were selected as subjects to investigate the stability of the slopes. Take No. 1 accumulation body slope as an example and basic geological condition investigation and formation mechanism analysis were carried out to study the stability and geological analysis of engineering influence of the slope. The accumulation body in the research area distributes along the river with natural slope of 32° ~ 37° which is the natural angle of repose of gravel. The formation mechanism is analyzed based on the composition and structure of the accumulation body. The middle and lower part of the body is dense full of gravel soil mixed with a small amount of sand gravel which is stable. In the upper part, gravel soil is interbedded with bad cemented gravel which as a weak surface is not conducive to slope stability. Under the natural condition before storing water, the underground water level is deep buried, mainly distributed in the bedrock, and the surface and groundwater discharge conditions of the accumulation body are good, which is beneficial to the stability of slope. The safety coefficient calculated by the limit equilibrium method is 1.14, which indicates the slope is basically stable. However, the safety coefficient drops to 1.02 when the normal storage level is 2895m, which is in a dangerous state. The accumulation body will be destabilized by a small-area instability to large-scale or overall instability.

Keywords: accumulation body slope, stability evaluation, geological engineering investigation, effect of storing water

Procedia PDF Downloads 58