Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 412

Search results for: nurses

412 Working Hours of Nurses in Public Hospitals: An Analyse Based on Working Schedules

Authors: Feride Eskin Bacaksiz, Arzu K. Harmanci Seren

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The problems about the working hours of nursing personnel, such as overworking, numbers of night or daytime shifts, is stated one of the most complained issues by nurses. Otherwise, besides of nursing shortage, absenteeism of nurses because of sickness, some other health problems, or other reasons enforces nurse managers to make working schedules. In this study, it was aimed to analyse and evaluate the working schedules of nurses working in public hospitals. Working schedule lists of nursing personnel for the months of October and November in two public hospitals were analysed and evaluated. Approvals were acquired from the head nurse managers. Descriptive and comparative analyses were used. Totally 36 lists were analysed from two hospitals. There were totally 416 nurses (manager nurse: 25, nurse: 391) and 6-28 (12.6, SD=5.34) nurses in each list. It was found that nurses were working 8 (42.5%), 12 (27.9%) and 16 (20%) hours, in inpatient clinics (74.8%). Totally 20.2% of the nurses were absent during analysing time due to the annual, paid or unpaid leaves. Nurses were generally working 20-112 hours (80.27, SD=11.92). Most of the nurses over worked 1.5-443 hours (47.436, SD=60.78) the year before that year. It was determined that 11.8% of the nurses (n: 49) were working only night shifts and 42.1% (n: 175) of the nurses were working only daytime shifts. It was found that there were inequities in the working hours of nurses.

Keywords: nurse, public hospitals, working conditions, working schedules

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411 Job Satisfaction Levels of Nurses Working in Public Hospitals

Authors: S. Kurt, B. C. Demirbag

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Meeting employees’ expectations from an organization physically and mentally is a result of one’s assessing his or her work and its environment as well as his feeling about them. It was to determine the job satisfaction levels of the nurses in public hospitals. This descriptive study was carried out with 404 nurses (60%) accepting to take part in the study voluntarily and working in the same hospital for at least three months from 673 nurses working in hospitals depending on The Secretaryship of Public Hospital Association in Rize. The study aimed to reach the whole population by not taking samples. The data were collected by the personal information form (16 questions) prepared by the researcher, and the job satisfaction scale (36 articles) between June 1st and August 30th, 2014. According to scale, mean scores of nurses’ job satisfaction were 3.23±0.51. In addition, it was determined that the factors such as nurses’s age, marital status, childbearing, place of duty, position in workplace, being liked of job, education status, work experience, weekly working hours, maturing in professional practice, unit worked, hospital worked and colleagues affected the job satisfaction levels of nurses (p <0.05). In conclusion; the nurses’ general job satisfaction levels were moderate level.

Keywords: hospitals, job satisfaction level, nurses, public hospitals

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410 Attitude of Staff Nurses on Nursing Research and Its Utilization

Authors: Y. N. Shashidhara, B. S. Shakuntala

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Introduction: Nursing practice is undergoing tremendous changes and challenges. In order to meet social challenges and needs, nursing practice must be research based. Research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing treatment modalities, to determine the impact of nursing care on the health of the patients or to test the theory of nursing practice. Objective of the study to explore the attitude of staff nurses on Nursing research and its utilization Methodology: The descriptive study design was adopted and 300 staff nurses were selected by systematic random sampling technique from eight hospitals. The attitude on nursing research was assessed by validated and reliable self-administered attitude scale which consists of 40 items. Results: The overall attitude mean score 130.2 (SD 11.5) regarding attitude on Nursing research and its utilization. Some of the findings are the majority of staff nurses (51% agreed and 18.3% strongly agreed) that they have all the motivation to use research findings if they get support. Nearly 25.3 percent of staff nurses agreed and 10.7 percent strongly agreed that they do not have time to conduct research. The majority of staff nurses 53.7 percent agreed that research will help in updating Nursing profession. Nearly 32.6 percent of staff nurses agreed and 20.5 percent strongly agreed that being able to use will make them better nurses. About 45.3 percent and 17.3 percent agreed and strongly agreed that knowledge gained through experience is more useful than research. Most (40%) of nurses agreed that thy do not have the authority to change the patient care practice. The majority of staff nurses (45.7 percent agreed and 13 percent strongly agreed) feel the research will consume their personal time. Majority, 50 percent of staff nurses agreed and 16.7 percent strongly agreed that to conduct and utilize research findings requires financial support. Majority 50 percent of staff nurses agreed and 12 percent strongly agreed that physicians will cooperate and value nursing research findings. Majority 67.3 percent of staff nurses had moderate positive and 32.7 percent of staff nurses had highly positive attitude towards Nursing research and its utilization. Conclusion: With this study we understanding that, the staff nurses have positive attitude regarding nursing research. If the nurses are supported and motivated for research utilization we can improve the patient care.

Keywords: nurses, attitude, nursing research, research utilization

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409 The Impact of Nurse-Physician Interprofessional Relationship on Nurses' Willingness to Engage in Leadership Roles: A Multilevel Modelling Approach

Authors: Sulaiman D. Al Sabei, Amy M. Ross, Christopher S. Lee

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Nurse leaders play a fundamental role in transforming healthcare system and improving quality of patient care. Several healthcare organizations have called to increase the number of nurse leaders across all levels and in every practice setting. Identification of factors influencing nurses’ willingness to lead can inform healthcare leaders and policy makers of potentially illuminating strategies for establishing favorable work environments that motivate nurses to engage in leadership roles. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants of nurses’ willingness to engage in future leadership roles. The study was conducted at a public hospital in the Sultanate of Oman. A total of 171 registered nurses participated. A multilevel modeling was conducted. Findings revealed that 80% of nurses were likely to seek out opportunities to engage in leadership roles. The quality of the nurse-physician collegial relationships was a significant predictor of nurses’ willingness to lead. Establishing a work environment’s culture of positive nurse-physician relationships is critical to enhance nurses’ work attitude and engage them in leadership roles.

Keywords: interprofessional relationship, leadership, motivation, nurses

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408 Low Influenza Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Katarzyna Zycinska, Ewa Gyrczuk, Agnieszka Topczewska-Cabanek, Kazimierz Wardyn

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Introduction: Influenza is an important clinical and epidemiological problem and should be considered as a possible nosocomial infection. The aim of the study was to determine the influenza vaccine coverage rates among Polish nurses and to find out drivers and barriers for influenza vaccination among this group of health care workers (HCWs). Material and methods: The self- fulfilled survey with 26 questions about the knowledge, perception, and influenza coverage rates was distributed among 461 nurses. Results: Only 15% of nurses were vaccinated against influenza in the consecutive seasons. The majority (75%) of the regularly vaccinated nurses were ambulatory careworkers. The difference between the number of vaccinated hospitals and ambulatory care nurses was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main motivating factors for an influenza vaccination were: a fear of the illness and its complications (97%) and a free of charge vaccine available at the workplace (87%). Ambulatory care nurses more often declared that they were vaccinated mainly to protect themselves while hospital care nurses more often declared the will to protect their patients, these differences in the perception and attitudes to an influenza vaccination among hospital and ambulatory care nurses were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main barriers for an influenza vaccination among the nursing staff were: a lack of reimbursement of the vaccine (95%), a lack of insufficient knowledge about the effectiveness, and safety of the influenza vaccine (54%). The ambulatory care nurses more often found influenza vaccination as the ethical duty compared to hospital care nurses (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The influenza vaccine coverage rates among the Polish nurses are low and must be improved in the future. More educational activities dedicated to HCWs may result in the increased awareness of influenza vaccination benefits for both medical professionals and patients.

Keywords: influenza, vaccination, nurses, ambulatory careworkers

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407 Nurses' Perception and Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness: A Study from the Western Region of Turkey

Authors: Gülcan Taşkıran, Ülkü Tatar Baykal

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Aim: To identify nurses’ perceived competencies for disaster preparedness. Background: Recently, the number of disasters has increased worldwide. Since disasters often strike without warning, healthcare providers, especially nurses must be prepared with appropriate competencies for disaster procedures. Nurses’ perceptions of their own competencies for disaster preparedness need to be evaluated to aid in the creation of effective national plans and educational programs. Design: This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional design. Methods: Nurses’ perceptions were assessed using the 13-item Demographic Profile Questionnaire that is based on previous literature and the 45-item Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale (NPCDPS). Data were collected from June to September 2014 from 406 (79.9% return rate) Turkish nurses working in the western region of Turkey. Results: At the end of the study, it was found that out of the nurses whose mean age was 31.27 ± 5.86 and mean of working time was 8.07 ± 6.60 by the time vast majority of the nurses were women (85.7%), married (59.4%), bachelor’s degree holder (88.2%) and service nurses (56.2%). The most potential disaster that nurses think is an earthquake (70.9%) by the time majority of nurses consider having a role as a nurse at every stage of disasters. The mean total point score of nurses’ perception of disaster preparedness was 4.62. The mean total point score of the nurses from the Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale was 133.96. When the subscales’ mean scores are examined, the highest average of the mean score is for Technical Skills (44.52), and the lowest is for Critical Thinking Skills (10.47). When the subscales of Nurses’ Perception of Core Competencies for Disaster Preparedness Scale compared with sex, marital status and education level out of independent variable of nurses there is no significant difference (p > 0.05); compared with age group, working years, duty and being with a disaster out of independent variable of nurses there is a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Nurses generally perceive themselves as sufficient at a ‘medium level’ in terms of meeting the core competencies that are required for disaster preparedness. Nurses are not adequately prepared for disasters, but they are aware of the need for such preparation and disaster education. Disaster management training should be given to all nurses in their basic education.

Keywords: disaster competencies, disaster management, disaster nursing, disaster preparedness, nursing, nursing administration, Turkish nurses

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406 Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Use of Physical Restraints

Authors: Fatema Salman, Ridha Hammam, Fatima Khairallah, Fatima Aradi, Nafeesa Abdulla, Mohammed Alsafar

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Purpose: This study aims at measuring the extent of nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward the use of physical restraints in different hospital wards at Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC). Background: The habitual use of physical restraint is a widespread practice among nurses working in the clinical settings. Restraints inflict many deleterious consequences on patients physically and psychologically which in turn increases their morbidity and mortality risk and jeopardizes care quality. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward physical restraints are crucial determinants of the persistence of this practice. Literature review: the evidence of lack of knowledge among nurses regarding the use of physical restraints is overwhelming in various clinical settings, especially in two main areas which are the negative consequences and the available alternatives to physical restraints. Studies explored nurses’ attitudes toward physical restraints yielded inconsistent findings. Equally comparable, some studies found that nurses hold positive attitudes toward the use of physical restraints while some others reported just the opposite. Methods: Self-administered knowledge and attitudes scales to 106 nurses working in the SMC. Findings: nurses hold the moderate level of knowledge about restraints (M=58%) with weak negative attitudes (M = -20%) toward using it. Significant moderately-strong negative correlation (r= -0.57, r2= 0.32, p= 0.000) was uncovered between nurses knowledge and their attitudes which provided an empirical explanation of this phenomenon (use of physical restraints). Recommendations: Induction of awareness program that especially focuses on the negative consequences and encourages the use of alternatives is an evident need. This effort necessarily should be adjoined with policy and procedure adjustments.

Keywords: attitudes, knowledge, nurses, restraints

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405 The Process of Critical Care Nursing Resilience in Workplace Adversity

Authors: Jennifer Jackson

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Critical care nurses are at risk for burnout when confronted with sustained workplace adversity, which stems from a variety of social, structural, and environmental factors. Researchers have suggested that nurses can become resilient and overcome workplace adversity to achieve positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to learn more about critical care nurses’ experiences with workplace adversity, and their process of becoming resilient. The research question will be: what is the process of critical care nursing resilience in workplace adversity? In-depth interviews with critical care nurses will provide the data to inductively generate the grounded theory. The resultant grounded theory will provide a framework to inform nurses and managers in developing interventions to support critical care nurses in their workplace. By enhancing nursing resilience, burnout may be avoided, and nurse satisfaction and overall quality of care may be improved.

Keywords: nursing, resilience, burnout, critical care

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404 The Effect of Education on Nurses' Knowledge Level for Ventrogluteal Site Injection: Pilot Study

Authors: Emel Bayraktar, Gulengun Turk

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Introduction and Objective: Safe administration of medicines is one of the main responsibilities of nurses. Intramuscular drug administration is among the most common methods used by nurses among all drug applications. This study was carried out in order to determine determine the effect of education given on injection in ventrogluteal area on the level of knowledge of nurses on this subject. Methods: The sample of the study consisted of 20 nurses who agreed to participate in the study between 01 October and 31 December 2019. The research is a pretest-posttest comparative, quasi-experimental type pilot study. The nurses were given a 4-hour training prepared on injection into the ventrogluteal area. The training consisted of two hours of theoretical and two hours of laboratory practice. Before the training and 4 weeks after the training, a questionnaire form containing questions about their knowledge and practices regarding the injection of the ventrogluteal region was applied to the nurses. Results: The average age of the nurses is 26.55 ± 7.60, 35% (n = 7) of them are undergraduate and 30% (n = 6) of them work in intensive care units. Before the training, 35% (n = 7) of the nurses stated that the most frequently used intramuscular injection site was the ventrogluteal area, and 75% (n = 15) stated that the safest area was the rectus femoris muscle. After the training, 55% (n = 11) of the nurses stated that they most frequently used the ventrogluteal area and 100% (n = 20) of them stated that the ventrogluteal area was the safest area. The average score the nurses got from the premises before the training is 14.15 ± 6.63 (min = 0, max = 20), the total score is 184. The average score obtained after the training was determined as 18.69 ± 2.35 (min = 12, max = 20), and the total score was 243. Conclusion: As a result of the research, it was determined that the training given on the injection of ventrogluteal area increased the knowledge level of the nurses. It is recommended to organize in-service trainings for all nurses on the injection of ventrogluteal area.

Keywords: safe injection, knowledge level, nurse, intramuscular injection, ventrogluteal area

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403 Perceptions of Doctors and Nurses About Euthanasia in Indian Scenario

Authors: B. Unnikrishnan, Tanuj Kanchan, Ramesh Holla, Nithin Kumar

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Euthanasia has been debated for the ethical, legal, social, and religious implications associated with it. The present research was conducted to study the perceptions of doctors and nurses about ethical and legal aspects of Euthanasia in Indian scenario. The study was carried out at three tertiary care hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Practicing doctors and nurses working in the hospitals associated with KMC were included in the study after taking written informed consent from the participants. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the responses of doctors and nurses. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A total of 144 doctors and nurses participated in the study. Both doctors and nurses agreed that if a terminally ill patient wishes to die, the wish cannot be honored ethically and legally. A significantly larger number of nurses agreed that patient’s wish for euthanasia cannot be honored ethically and legally when compared to the doctors. Though the doctors and nurses were broadly in agreement with the existing legal and ethical views on the issue, their knowledge on the issue with regard to the legal status of euthanasia in India and ethical aspects relating to it needs to be strengthened.

Keywords: euthanasia, ethical aspects, legal aspects, India

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402 Patients' Satisfaction about Private Sector Primary Care Nurses in Sri Lanka

Authors: N. R. N. Mendis, S. N. Silva

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Introduction: Patient satisfaction of services provided by primary care health services depends on many factors. One key factor in this depends on is the nursing services received in primary care. Since majority of the primary care in Sri Lanka is provided by the private sector, it is important to assess patient satisfaction on this. Objective: To assess the satisfaction among the public on nurses working in dispensaries in Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive study was done on 200 individual selected using convenient sampling among dispensaries in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Results: 59.3% of the sample had long term illnesses or disabilities and all of them preferred speaking to a nurse. 70.9% of the sample used to make appointments with nurses while 57.8% out of them were comfortable in discussing their health concerns. 98.9 % agreed that they get individual attention by the nurses. Majority of the sample that is 34.2% spends around 20 minutes with the nurse without even making any pay. Significantly, the whole sample believes that the nurses are professional and admits that the care given is of high quality. All 100% of the sample said that the nurses could understand their concerns while 93.5% admitted that it was very useful in their recovery. Conclusions: Majority of the public were very much satisfied with the nurses and their practice at the dispensaries.

Keywords: health education, nurses practices, patient satisfaction, primary care

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401 Factors Affecting of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nurses from a Taiwan Hospital

Authors: Hsien Hua Kuo, Wen Chun Lin, Chia Chi Hsu, Hsien Wen Kuo

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Objective: Despite the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among nurses, which has been consistently observed in the studies of Western countries, very little information regarding intensity of workload and work-related quality of life (WRQOL) related to MSDs among nurses is available in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting musculoskeletal disorders in nurses from a hospital. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire which contained the demographic information, workplace condition and musculoskeletal disorders. Results: Response rate of nurses were 92.5% from a teaching hospital. Based on medical diagnosis by physician, neck of musculoskeletal disorders had the highest percentage in nine body portions. The higher percentage of musculoskeletal disorders in nurses found from wards of internal and surgery. Severity and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders diagnosed by self-reported questionnaire significantly correlated with WRQOL, job satisfaction and intensity of workload among nurses based on the logistic regression model. Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses showed a dose-dependent with WRQOL and workload. When work characteristics in hospital were modified, the severity of musculoskeletal disorders among nurses will be decreased and alleviated. Comment: Multifaceted ergonomic intervention programme to reduce the prevalence of MSDs among nurses was by encouraging nurses to do more physical activity which will make them more flexible and increase their strength. Therefore, the head nurse should encourage nurses to regularly physical activity and to modify unfitting ergonomic environment in order to reduce the prevalence of MSDs.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nurse, WRQOL, job satisfaction

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400 Knowledge, Experiences, and Attitudes of Paediatric Nurses regarding Complementary Health Approaches Used by Themselves and Parents for Their Children in Turkey

Authors: Vildan Cırık, Emine Efe

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Complementary health approaches are growing in popularity worldwide and play a substantial role in health care. It is very important for paediatric nurses to have knowledge of practices affecting the medical conditions of patients and to communicate with them through integrative nursing care. The purpose of this study was to determine paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of complementary health approaches (CHA) and their personal and professional attitudes to the use of complementary health approaches. This multicentre study was conducted with 1450 paediatric nurses in 18 hospitals in Turkey. Paediatric nurses included in the study were working in the following clinics: Paediatric Service, Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Haematology/Oncology. Data collection focused on the paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of CHA. A high proportion of our sample of paediatric nurses reported that they had used some form of CHA themselves; the most popular choices of CHA were prayer, massage, and vitamins techniques. Paediatric nurses reported positive experiences (drawing/music/art/dance therapies, prayer, herbs, thermal springs, massage, and reflexology) and negative experiences (herbs, thermal springs, prayer, and massage). This study may contribute to increased awareness of the potentially important role of paediatric nurses in the delivery of CHA. Paediatric nurses play important roles in helping patients to use complementary health approaches safely and accurately. Trainings on CHA should be organised, data collection forms including CHA should be created, and evidence-based studies should be focused towards improving the clinical practice of paediatric nurses.

Keywords: complementary health approaches, paediatric nurses, knowledge, experience, attitude, Turkey

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399 Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes about Clinical Governance

Authors: Sedigheh Salemi, Mahnaz Sanjari, Maryam Aalaa, Mohammad Mirzabeigi

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Clinical governance is the framework within which the health service provider is required to ongoing accountability and improvement of the quality of their services. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 661 nurses who work in government hospitals from 35 hospitals of 9 provinces in Iran. The study was approved by the Nursing Council and was carried out with the authorization of the Research Ethics Committee. The questionnaire included 24 questions in which 4 questions focused on clinical governance defining from the nurses' perspective. The reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha (α=0/83). Statistical analyzes were performed, using SPSS version 16. Approximately 40% of nurses correctly answered that clinical governance is not "system of punishment and rewards for the staff". The most nurses believed that "clinical efficacy" is one of the main components of clinical governance. A few of nurses correctly responded that "Evidence Based Practice" and "management" is not part of clinical governance. The small number of nurses correctly answered that the "maintenance of patient records" and "to recognize the adverse effects" is not the role of nurse in clinical governance. Most "do not know" answer was to the "maintenance of patient records". The most nurses unanimously believed that the implementation of clinical governance led to "promoting the quality of care". About a third of nurses correctly stated that the implementation of clinical governance will not lead to "an increase in salaries and benefits of the medical team". As a member of the health team, nurses are responsible in terms of participation in quality improvement and it is necessary to create an environment in which clinical care will flourish and serve to preserve the high standards.

Keywords: clinical governance, nurses, salary, health team

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398 The Effects of Absenteeism on Nurses That Remain at Work at the Mankweng Hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province in South Africa

Authors: Mokgadi Malatji, Tebogo Mothiba, Rambelani Malema

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Absenteeism is a global problem in the working force and this is no exception in the nursing profession. A lot of attention has been drawn to factors that contribute to absenteeism however little attention has been placed on the effects of absenteeism on the remaining workers/nurses being left behind in the workplace by their colleagues. Nurses absent themselves leaving behind their colleagues to do their work. Nurses who are committed to their work often find themselves working under strenuous conditions due to inadequate staff. These may lead to poor patient care provision, nurses feeling overworked and sick due to the increased workload. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of absenteeism on nurses that remained at work at Mankweng Hospital in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative research design was conducted to determine if there were any effects of absenteeism on nurses remaining at work. Data collection was done using structured questionnaires. The respondents (n=107), consisted of different categories of registered nurses (professional nurses (n=43), auxiliary nurses (n=40) and staff nurses (n=24)) who participated in this study. The findings indicated that most nurses (76, 6%) are demotivated and they struggle with completion of duties when their colleagues are absent. Patient care that nurses provided when their colleagues were absent was of poor quality as set standards and principles were not adhered to. Individualized patient care was not being implemented due to absenteeism. This simply implies that routine work is being done to cover basic duties. Most nurses (74, 8%) believed that favoritism and lack of appreciation of nurse’s skills and capabilities are being displayed by managers and that this contributes to absenteeism. Nurses who are loyal sacrifice their time and work overtime for absent colleagues and this led to fatigue and stress. From the study findings, it is recommended that nurses be trained frequently to upgrade their studies to motivate them to work. The government can provide this training to improve their skills as this will motivate nurses to work harder and be committed to their work. Training can be offered after a stipulated period. For example, after every five years, a nurse can be provided with a new skill. Team building events must be encouraged for the whole hospital to motivate staff. In conclusion, the study revealed that absenteeism poses detrimental effects on nurses, the hospital and patients. More and more nurses end up changing workplace due to these effects.

Keywords: absenteeism, effects, nurses, remaining at work

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397 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Risk Factors among Nurses in Mongolia

Authors: V. Davaakhuu, D. Tserendagva, D. Amarsaikhan, T. Altanstetseg

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In this study we aimed to detect main risk factors for diabetes in Mongolia and obtain data we used survey modified questionnaire. Survey data were obtained from 634 valid nurses (day work nurses-317, shift work nurses-317). Participants who were pregnant, less than 20 years old and no check for fasting glucose level were excluded from the survey in order to determine the risk factors of diabetes. Our study result shows the main risk factors of diabetes were physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, alcohol and tobacco use and lack of vegetable and fruit consumption. Peripheral blood glucose level was normal in subjects with BMI 26.28 ± 0.56, but 20 % of the subjects with normal blood glucose level were obese. Blood glucose level was higher in subjects with BMI 28.63 ± 2.32 and 36 % of them were obese. According to our study results, 3.62% of the surveyed population were identified having no diabetes risk factors, 52.3% were at risk, 28.8% were in higher risk for diabetes by the WHO criteria. In general, the prevalence of blood glucose were especially higher in shift work nurses.

Keywords: day work nurses, shift work nurses, BMI, WHR

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396 An Analytical Approach for Medication Protocol Errors from Pediatric Nurse Curriculum

Authors: Priyanka Jani

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The main focus of this research is to consider the objective of nursing curriculum in concern with pediatric nurses in respect to various parameters such as causes, reporting and prevention of medication protocol errors. A design or method selected for the study is the descriptive and cross sectional with respect to analytical study. Nurses were selected from inpatient pediatric wards of 5 hospitals in Gujarat, as a population. 126 pediatric nurses gave approval to participate in the research and completed with quarter questionnaires. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The medium age of the nurses was 25.7 ± 3.68 years; the maximum was lady (97.6%) pediatric nurses stated that the most common causes of medication protocol errors were large work time (69.2%) and a huge ratio of patient: nurse (59.9%). Even though the highest number of nurses (89%) made use of a medication protocol errors notification system, or else they use to check it before. Many errors were not reported and nurses cited abeyant claims of nurses in case of adverse and opposite output for patient (53.97%), distrust (52.45%), and fear of various/different protocol for mediations (42%) among the causes of insufficient of notification in concern to ignorance, nurses most commonly noted the requirement for efficient data concerning the safe use of medications (47.5%). This is the frequent study made by researcher in Gujarat about the pediatric nurse curriculum regarding medication protocol errors. The outputs debate that there is a requirement for ongoing coaching of pediatric nurses regarding safe & secure medication observation and that the causes and post reporting of medication protocol errors by hand further survey.

Keywords: pediatric, medication, protocol, errors

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395 The Relationship between Characteristics of Nurses and Organizational Commitment of Nurses in Geriatric Intermediate Care Facilities in Japan

Authors: Chiharu Miyata, Hidenori Arai

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Background: The quality of care in geriatric intermediate facilities (GIFs) in Japan is not in a satisfied level. To improve it, it is crucial to reconsider nurses’ professionalism. Our goal is to create an organizational system that allows nurses to succeed professionally. To do this, we must first discuss the relationship between nurses’ characteristics and the organization. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demographic and work-related factors are related to organizational commitment among nurses in GIFs. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional method was adopted, using a self-completion questionnaire survey. The questionnaires consisted of 49 items for job satisfaction, the three-dimensional commitment model of organizational commitment and the background information of respondents. Results: A total of 1,189 nurses participated. Of those, 91% (n=1084) were women, and mean age was 48.2 years. Most participants were staff nurses (n=791; 66%). Significant differences in 'affective commitment' (AC) scores were found for age (p < .001), overall work experience (p < .001), and work status (p < .001). For work experience in the current facility, significant differences were found in all organizational commitment scores (p < .001). The group with high job satisfaction scored significantly higher in all types of organizational commitment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results led to a conclusion that understanding the expectations of nurses at the workplace to adapt with the organization, and creating a work environment that clarifies contents of tasks, especially allowing for nurses to feel significance and achievement with tasks, would increase AC.

Keywords: geriatric intermediate care facilities, geriatric nursing, job satisfaction, organizational commitment

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394 Stress and Personality as Predictors of Aggressive Behaviour among Nurses of Private Hospitals in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ngozi N. Sydney-Agbor, Chioma N. Ihegboro

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Stress and personality as factors influencing nurses’ aggressive behaviour were investigated. The participants comprised of one hundred and fifty nurses selected through convenience sampling technique from four (4) private hospitals in Imo State, Nigeria; namely: Eastern Summit Specialist Clinics and Maternity, St. David Hospital, New Cross Hospital, and Christian Teaching Hospital. The nurses were all females with ages between 20–35 and a mean age of 25.10 years and a standard deviation of 4.15. The participants were administered with Job Related Tension Scale, Type A Behaviour Scale and Buss- Perry Aggressive Behaviour Scale. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested. Cross- sectional survey and Regression Analysis were adopted as design and statistics respectively. Results showed that as stress increased, nurses aggression also increased. Personality also predicted nurses aggressive behaviour with Type As’ exhibiting higher aggression than Type Bs’.The study recommended that hospital management board should improve the welfare of the nurses and their morale should be boosted by involving them in policy-making concerning their welfare and care of their patients, this will help minimise situations capable of increasing aggressive behaviour. There should also be sensitization on the negative impact of aggressive behaviour to patients especially amongst the personality Type A’s who are more susceptible to aggression.

Keywords: aggressive behaviour, nurses, personality, stress

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393 Organizational Socialization Levels in Nurses

Authors: Manar Aslan, Ayfer Karaaslan, Serap Selçuk

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The research was conducted in order to determine the organizational socialization levels of nurses working in hospitals in the form of a descriptive study. The research population was composed of nurses employed in public and private sector hospitals in the province of Konya with 0-3 years of professional experience in the hospitals (N=1200); and the sample was composed of 495 nurses that accepted to take part in the study voluntarily. Organizational Socialization Scale which was developed by Haueter, Macan and Winter (2003) and whose validity-reliability in Turkish was analyzed by Ataman (2012) was used. Statistical evaluation of data was conducted in SPSS.16 software. The results of the study revealed that the total score taken by nurses at the organizational socialization scale was 262.95; and this was close to the maximum score. Particularly the departmental socialization sub-dimension proved to be higher in comparison to the other two dimensions (organization socialization and task socialization). Statistically meaningful differences were found in the levels of organization socialization in relation to the status of organizational orientation training, level of education and age group.

Keywords: nurses, newcomers, organizational socialization, total score

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392 Experiences during the First Year of Practice among New Nurses

Authors: Chanya Thanomlikhit, Pataraporn Kheawwan

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Transition from student to staff nurse can be difficult for nurses beginning their nursing profession. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experiences during the first year of practice among new nurses in Thailand. Methods: A descriptive design using a survey questionnaire was used. One hundred seventy-eight new graduate nurses from one tertiary hospital in Thailand participated in this study. Data were collected using paper-and-pencil format of the Revised Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey. Results: Participants reported three types of difficulties they were experiencing during the first year of practice including role expectation, lack of confidence, and workload. New nurses reported uncomfortable to perform high risk skills such as code/emergency, ventilator care, EKG, and chest tube care. Organizing, prioritizing and communication were rated as difficult tasks during 12-month transition period. New nurses satisfied the benefit package they received from the institution, however, salary was lowest satisfied. Conclusion: Results inform transition program development for new nurses. Initiative of systems that support for the graduate nurse during the first year of practice is suggested.

Keywords: new graduate nurse, transition, nurse residency program, clinical education

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391 Organizational Learning, Job Satisfaction and Work Performance among Nurses

Authors: Rafia Rafique, Arifa Khadim

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This research investigates the moderating role of job satisfaction between organizational learning and work performance among nurses. Correlation research design was used. Non-probability purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit a sample of 110 nurses from public hospitals situated in the city of Lahore. The construct of organizational learning was measured using subscale of Integrated Scale for Measuring Organizational Learning. Job satisfaction was measured with the help of Job Satisfaction Survey. Performance of employees (task performance, contextual performance and counterproductive work behavior) was assessed by Individual Work Performance Questionnaire. Job satisfaction negatively moderates the relationship between organizational learning and counterproductive work behavior. Education has a significant positive relationship with organizational learning. Age, current hospital experience, marital satisfaction and salary of the nurses have positive relationship while number of children has significant negative relationship with counterproductive work behavior. These outcomes can be insightful in understanding the dynamics involved in work performance. Based on the result of this study relevant solutions can be proposed to improve the work performance of nurses.

Keywords: counterproductive work behavior, nurses, organizational learning, work performance

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390 Combination of Work and Family Demands Correlated with the Severity of Wrist Musculoskeletal Disorders among Nurses

Authors: Hsien Hwa Kuo, Lin Wen Chun, Lin Wen Chun, Hsien Wen Kuo

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Objective: Nurses represent an important occupational group frequently affected by wrist musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to a heavy workload, working shifts, poor posture, giving shots, making beds, lifting patients, bending their waist and insufficient rest time every day. However, lack of research reported nurses whether workload in household correlated with the severity of WMSDs. Methods: 550 nurses from a hospital in Taoyuan were interviewed using a modified standardized Nordic Musculoskeletal (NMQ) questionnaire including the demographic information, workplace condition and nine body parts of musculoskeletal disorders. Results: 17.9% and 23.9% of severity and symptoms in WMSDs among nurses with children were significant higher than among nurses without children (1​2.4% and 15.9%). Based on multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, work duration, job title and body mass index (BMI), we found that heavy workload in hospital had higher odds ratio (OR) of the severity and symptoms of WMSD among nurses with children (OR= 8.67 and OR= 4.30, p<0.05) compared to nurses without children (OR= 1.94 and OR= 1.70). Conclusion: The severity and symptoms of WMSDs among nurses significantly correlated with workload in hospital among nurses with children. If women are at greater risk because of the combination of their work and family demands, synergistic effect of WMSDs was found among nurses. Comment: Women's domestic work, especially once they become mothers, they invest more time and energy caring for children, helping others, and doing housework. Thus domestic work, per se, may be a risk factor for wrist musculoskeletal problems, and, more importantly, it may constrain women's ability to protect themselves from the effects of their paid work. If nurses with more domestic work periodically make efforts to physical activity or modify inappropriate posture, their WMSDs symptoms will be alleviated.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nurse, NMQ, WMSDs

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389 Nurses' Assessments of Their Work Environments

Authors: Manar Aslan, Selver Gokdemir, Chatitze Chousein

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This research was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting the working environment of nurses working in three state hospitals. A favorable working environment contributes to increased job satisfaction of nurses and improved working conditions that affects the quality of the work done in a positive way. The population of the study was composed the three largest state hospitals in the region of Thrace in Turkey and 931 nurses working in there. In this research was not used any sampling method. The sampling was composed of nurses who accepted to take part in this research from three hospitals. It was used nursing work index-the practice work environment scale (Turkish version) for data collection (Cronbach alpha: 0.94).When the total scale scores of the nurses in the research were examined, it was determined that they evaluated the working environment below the average. It was also determined that the adequacy of human and other resources, dimensions of the physician-nurse communication scores were low. As in every profession group, the working environment in nursing has an importance to provide quality health and nursing care. A favorable working environment will increase nurses' performance and satisfaction with their work. Identifying the factors affecting the working environment and carrying out the remedial work for them will increase the quality of the health service.

Keywords: work environment, work index, nursing, hospitals

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388 The Influences of Nurses’ Satisfaction on the Patient Satisfaction with and Loyalty to Korean University Hospitals

Authors: Sung Hee Ahn, Ju Rang Han

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Background: With increasing importance in healthcare organization on patient satisfaction and nurses’ job satisfaction, many studies have been conducted. But no research has been administered how nurses’ satisfaction with healthcare organization influence patient satisfaction and loyalty. Purpose: This study aims to conceptualize nurses‘ satisfaction, patient satisfaction with and patient loyalty to hospitals using a hypothetical linear structural equation model, and to identify the significance of path coefficients and goodness of fit index of the structural equation model as well. Method: A total of 2,079 nurses and 6,776 patients recruited from 5 university hospitals in South Korea participated in this study. The data on nurses, including ward nurses and outpatient nurses, were collected from June 24th to July 12th, at the 204 departments of the 5 hospitals through an on-line survey. The data on the patients, including both inpatients and outpatients, were collected from September 30th to October 24th, 2013 at the 5 hospitals using a structured questionnaire. The variable of nurses’ satisfaction was measured using a scale evaluating internal client satisfaction, which is used in SSM Health Care System in the US. Patient satisfaction with the hospital and nurses and patient loyalty were measured by assessing the patient’s intention to revisit and to recommending the hospital to others using a visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0 and AMOS version 21.0. Result: The hypothetical model was fairly good in terms of goodness of fit (χ2= 64.897 (df=24, p <. 001), GFI=. 906, AGFI=.823, CFI=.921, NFI=.951, NNFI=.952. RMSEA=.114). The significance of path coefficients includes followings 1)The nurses’ satisfaction has significant influence on the patient satisfaction with nurses. 2)The patient satisfaction with nurses has significant influence on the patient satisfaction with the hospital. 3)The patient satisfaction with the hospital has significant influence on the patients’ revisit intention. 4)The patient satisfaction with the hospital has significant influence on the patients’ intention to the recommendations of the hospital. Conclusion: These results provide several practical implications to hospital administrators, who should incorporate ways of improving nurses' and patients' satisfaction with the hospital into their health care marketing strategies.

Keywords: linear structural equation model, loyalty, nurse, patient satisfaction

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387 Impact of Nurses' Migration to Nursing Management in Selected Health Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Maria Luisa T. Uayan

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The global need for qualified nurses to take care of the clients with various health needs is an incessant occurrence that persistently cause migration of nurses from developing to developed countries. The pull-push theory of migration greatly affects health care delivery systems of sending countries which is the same way affects nursing management. The exodus of nurses prepared to provide the much needed leadership at the bedside leaves the country in clusters giving health care institutions limited time to develop the next front-line managers that will assure quality patient care. This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of the massive recurring migration phenomena that is felt ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINE health care arena. It deals with the causes, problems, and effects of the cyclical loss of competent Filipina nurses in terms of emigration. Also, it will highlights the difficulties confronted by nursing service departments and health care teams when more experienced nurses set out for the “greener pastures” and patients are placed under the care of novice nurses. Fundamentally, it will emphasize the impact of suffering the loss of competent nurse managers in the Philippine health care institutions and provide contemporary recommendations on how to responsd accordingly to this very timely issue.

Keywords: Migration, Nurse Manager, Philippines

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386 Investigating the Role of Emergency Nurses and Disaster Preparedness during Mass Gathering in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Alzahrani, Yiannis Kyratsis

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Although emergency nurses, being the frontline workers in mass-gatherings, are essential for providing an effective public health response, little is known about the skills that emergency nurses have, or require, in order to respond effectively to a disaster event. This paper is designed to address this gap in the literature by conducting an empirical study on emergency nurses’ preparedness at the mass-gathering event of Hajj in Mecca city. To achieve this aim, this study conducted a cross-sectional survey among 106 emergency department nurses in all the public hospitals in Mecca in 2014. The results revealed that although emergency nurses’ role understanding is high; they have limited knowledge and awareness of how to respond appropriately to mass-gathering disaster events. To address this knowledge gap, the top three most beneficial types of education and training courses suggested are: hospital education sessions, the Emergency Management Saudi Course and workshop; and short courses in disaster management. Finally, recommendations and constructive strategies are developed to provide the best practice in enhancing disaster preparedness. This paper adds to the body of knowledge regarding emergency nurses and mass gathering disasters. This paper measures the level of disaster knowledge, previous disaster response experience and disaster education and training amongst emergency nurses in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is anticipated that this study will provide a foundation for future studies aimed at better preparing emergency nurses for disaster response. This paper employs new strategies to improve the emergency nurses’ response during mass gatherings for the Hajj. Increasing the emergency nurses’ knowledge will develop their effective responses in mass-gathering disasters.

Keywords: emergency nurses, mass-gatherings, hajj, disaster preparedness, disaster knowledge, perceived role, disaster training, previous disaster response experience

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385 Effects of the Gratitude Program on the Gratitude, Well-Being, Perceived Stress, and Stress Coping of Nurses

Authors: Yu H. Chen, Li C. Chen, Hsiang Y. Wu, Wan Y. Chen, Yin S. Lai, Sarah S. Chen

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Little has been done to customize an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses, who work in high-stress environments. The purpose of this study is to design an appropriate program on gratitude for nurses and to investigate the effects of the program. Based on research done by Kaohsiung Medical University’s Positive Psychology Center, the only one of its kind in Taiwan, one of the top five strengths of nurses is gratitude. Instead of adapting from an older model created from past research, the Gratitude Workshop is developed from a quasi-experimental approach and designed with five additional dimensions that emphasize gratitude: thanking others, thanking one's surroundings, cherishing what one has, appreciating hardships, and appreciating the present. A sample of 84 nurses was randomly selected from the Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital; 43 of who participated in the nine-hour Gratitude Workshop that spanned over three weeks, while the other 41 were part of the waitlist control group. The pretest and posttest included five questionnaires: Inventory of Undergraduates' Gratitude, The Gratitude Questionnaire-6, Mental Health Continuum‐Short Form, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Results of the research showed that the Gratitude Workshop elevates gratitude, well-being, and perceived stress on the nurses; however, it was also found in the Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire that the Gratitude Workshop only heightened the regulation of emotions.

Keywords: gratitude, nurses, positive psychology, well-being

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384 A Qualitative South African Study on Exploration of the Moral Identity of Nurses

Authors: Yolanda Havenga

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Being a competent nurse requires clinical, general, and moral competencies. Moral competence is a culmination of moral perceptions, moral judgment, moral behaviour, and moral identity. Moral identity is the values, images, and fundamental principles held in the collective minds and memories of nurses about what it means to be a ‘good nurse’. It is important to explore and describe South African nurses’ moral identities and excavate the post-colonial counter-narrative to nurses moral identities as a better understanding of these identities will enable means to positively address nurses’ moral behaviours. This study explored the moral identity of nurses within the South African context. A qualitative approach was followed triangulating with phenomenological and narrative designs with the same purposively sampled group of professional nurses. In-depth interviews were conducted until saturation of data occurred about the sampled nurses lived experiences of being a nurse in South Africa. They were probed about their core personal-, social-, and professional values. Data were analysed based on the steps used by Colaizzi. These nurses were then asked to write a narrative telling a personal story that portrayed a significant time in their professional career that defines their identity as a nurse. This data were analysed using a critical narrative approach and findings of the two sets of data were merged. Ethical approval was obtained and approval from all relevant gate keepers. In the findings, themes emerged related to personal, social and professional values, images and fundamental principles of being a nurse within the South African context. The findings of this study will inform a future national study including a representative sample of South African nurses.

Keywords: moral behaviour, moral identity, nurses, qualitative research

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383 The Communicational Behaviors of the Nurses Towards 'Crying Patient'

Authors: Hacer Kobya Bulut, Kıymet Yeşilçiçek Çalık, Birsel Canan Demirbağ, Hacer Erdöl, Songül Aktaş

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Introduction: As an expression of an emotion which always exists in life, crying is regarded as one of the problematic behaviors of patients by nurses. Towards such patients, nurses may exhibit emotional and behavioral reactions such as feeling helpless, anger, indifferent, defense, and opposition. However crying either meets a need, reduces the tension to cope with problems or helps patient to gain strength. Therefore, nurses must accept that crying is a normal mechanism that reduces emotional tension and should approach a crying patient accordingly. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the communicational behaviors of the nurses towards ‘crying patient’. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with the nurses working at a university hospital in a city in the Eastern Black Sea in June-September 2015. The entire universe was tried to be reached without sampling. 90% of the population was reached and the study was completed with 309 nurses who volunteered to participate in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire which was prepared reviewing the literature by researchers. Data were evaluated in SPSS analysis program using percentages, numbers and chi-square test with the 95% confidence interval and p <0.05significance level. Findings: The findings showed that the average age of nurses was 31.52 ± 7.96, work experience was 10:09 ± 7.69 and only 22.7% had training about ‘approach to crying patient’ during their education. 97.1% of the nurses often faced with crying patients in their professional lives, 62.8% stated that they faced crying women patients. When they see crying patients, 84.8% of the nurses ‘do not want the patient to cry’, 80.9% wonder ‘why they are crying’, % 79.6 ‘feel uneasiness’,% 79.3 ‘feel sorry’ and 41.4% ‘ feel helpless’. The question ‘Why do you think the patient is crying?’ was answered by 93.5% nurses as ‘they are suffering’, by 86.1% ‘they are helpless’, 80.9% ‘they are sad’, 79.6% ‘they need help’, 54.4% ‘because they feel inadequate,’ and 44.7% ‘they fail to control their crying behavior. ‘How do you approach to your patient when she/he is crying?’ question was answered by 82.5% of nurses as ‘I would console’, 77.3% as ‘I would ask the reason’, 63.1% as ‘I would try to stop her from crying’ all of which are actually inappropriate nursing approaches. However, 92.2% of the nurses stated that ‘I do not judge the crying patient’, ‘87.1% said ‘I allocate time to crying patients’ and 85.8% said ‘ I ask patient whether they want to cry alone’. The study showed that educational background and work experience of the nurses affected the appropriate approach to crying patients (P <0.05). Conclusion: As a result of the study, it was found out that nurses do not want patients to cry, so they exhibit inappropriate approach such as consoling the patients and they have difficulty in approaching crying patients.

Keywords: approach to patient, communication, crying patient, nurse, Turkey

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