Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 223

Search results for: migrants

223 Smuggling of Migrants as an Influential Factor on National Security, Economic and Social Life

Authors: Jordan Georgiev Deliversky

Abstract:

Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants are criminal activities, which are on the rise over recent years. The number of legal migrants arrived in Europe from outside the European Union are far less than those who want to come and settle in Europe. The objective of this paper is to present the impact on economic and social life of significant measures influencing the smuggling of migrants. The analysis is focused on various complex factors which have multiple origins and are highly influential as regard to the process of migration and the smuggling of migrants. The smuggling of migrants is a criminal activity, directly related to migration. The main results show that often the routes chosen for smuggling of migrants are circuitous, as smugglers carefully avoid strictly controlled roads, checkpoints, and countries or jurisdictions where there is efficiency of justice, with particular emphasis on the law on trafficking of persons and smuggling of migrants.

Keywords: corruption, migration, security, smuggling

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
222 Processes of Identities Formation and Transformation among Professional Skilled Mexican Migrants in the United States

Authors: M. Laura Vazquez Maggio, Lilia Dominguez Villalobos, Jan Luka Frey

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This paper contributes to the understanding of the dynamic and the relational nature of identities formation among skilled middle-class migrants. Following the idea that identities are never singular, multifaceted and have a necessarily processual character, the authors specifically analyze three dimensions of the identity of qualified Mexican migrants in the US and the interplay between them. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with skilled Mexican middle-class migrants in the US, the paper explores how skilled Mexican migrants preserve their ethno-national identity (their ‘Mexicanness’) in reaction to a hostile socio-political reception context in the US. It further shows how these migrants recreate their class identity and show tendencies to distance themselves from what they perceive as lower-class Mexican migrants and the dominant popular Mexican and Latin-American cultural expressions. In a final step, it examines how the lived experience of migration itself impacts the migrants’ identities, their concept of self and feelings/modes of being and belonging.

Keywords: ethno-national identity, middle class identity, middle-class migration, migrants’ identity, skilled migration

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221 An Investigation of Migrants' Attitudes towards Their Ethnic Languages: A Study of Angolan Migrants in Namibia

Authors: Julia Indongo - Haiduwa

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The study looks at the attitudes of Angolan migrants in the informal sectors towards their ethnic languages. The assumption is most Angolan migrants speak Portuguese instead of their ethnic languages as they lack interest in their ethnic languages. The study was qualitative in nature, and 20 Angolan migrants who are operating in the informal sector where purposively selected for the semistructured interviews. The study revealed that many Angolan has negative attitudes towards their ethnic language because even prior to their migration to Namibia, they use Portuguese to communicate as opposed to their ethnic languages. The ethnic languages are associated with old people and the ethnic languages do not offer the migrants any economic benefits. The study recommends that there is a need for the revitalization of Angolan ethnic languages in Namibia in order to maintain the language and prevent them from dying.

Keywords: ethnic languages language attitude, language, choice, language maintenance, multilingualism

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220 Migrants and Non Migrants: Class Level Distinctions from a Village Level Analysis of Mahabubnagar District

Authors: T. P. Muhammed Jamsheer

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This paper tries to explains some of differences between migrants and non-migrants households by taking ten indicators like land ownership, land distribution, lease in land, lease out land, demand of labour, supply of labour, land operational potential, holding of agriculture implements and livestock’s, irrigation potential of households and credit holding by the households of highly dry, drought affected, poverty stricken, multi caste and pluralistic sub castes village in very backward Mahabubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. The paper is purely field work based research and conducted census survey of field work among the 298 households in highly dry village called Keppatta from Bhoothpur mandel. One of the main objectives of the paper is that, to find out the factors which differentiate migrants and non-migrants households and what are distress elements which forced the poor peasants migrants to outside the village. It concludes that among the migrants and non-migrants households and among the differences between the categories wise of both types of households, there are differences, except two indicators like lease in and lease out, all other indicators like land holding pattern, demand and supply of labour, land operation, irrigation potential, implements and livestock and credit facilities of migrants and non-migrants households shows that non-migrants have high share than the migrants households. This paper also showing the landed households are more migrants, means among the BC and FC households landed households are migrants while SC landless are more migrants which is contradictory to general/existing literatures conclusion that, landless are more migrant than landed households, here also showing that when the number of land in acres increases the share of SC is declining while the share of FC is increasing among the both migrants and non-migrants households. In the class wise SC households are more in distress situation than any other class and that might be leading to the highest share of migrants from the respective village. In the logistic econometric model to find out the relation between migration and other ten variables, the result shows that supply of labour, lease in of the land and size of the family are statically significantly related with migration and all other variables not significant relation with migration although the theoretical explanation shows the different results.

Keywords: class, migrants, non migrants, economic indicators, distress factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
219 Promoting Couple HIV Testing among Migrants for HIV Prevention: Learnings from Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC) in Odisha, India

Authors: Sunil Mekale, Debasish Chowdhury, Sanchita Patnaik, Amitav Das, Ashok Agarwal

Abstract:

Background: Odisha is a low HIV prevalence state in India (ANC-HIV positivity of 0.42% as per HIV sentinel surveillance 2010-2011); however, it is an important source migration state with 3.2% of male migrants reporting to be PLHIV. USAID Public Health Foundation of India -PIPPSE project is piloting a source-destination corridor programme between Odisha and Gujarat. In Odisha, the focus has been on developing a comprehensive strategy to reach out to the out migrants and their spouses in the place of their origin based on their availability. The project has made concerted attempts to identify vulnerable districts with high out migration and high positivity rate. Description: 48 out of 97 ICTCs were selected from nine top high out migration districts through multistage sampling. A retrospective descriptive analysis of HIV positive male migrants and their spouses for two years (April 2013-March 2015) was conducted. A total of 3,645 HIV positive records were analysed. Findings: Among 34.2% detected HIV positive in the ICTCs, 23.3% were male migrants and 11% were spouses of male migrants; almost 50% of total ICTC attendees. More than 70% of the PLHIV male migrants and their spouses were less than 45 years old. Conclusions: Couple HIV testing approach may be considered for male migrants and their spouses. ICTC data analysis could guide in identifying the locations with high HIV positivity among male migrants and their spouses.

Keywords: HIV testing, migrants, spouse of migrants, Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC)

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218 Beyond Juridical Approaches: The Role of Sociological Approach in Promoting Human Rights of Migrants

Authors: Ali Aghahosseini Dehaghani

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Every year in this globalized world, thousands of migrants leave their countries hoping to find a better situation of life in other parts of the world. In this regard, many questions, from a human rights point of view, have been raised about how this phenomenon should be managed in the host countries. Although legal approaches such as legislation and litigation are inevitable in the way to respect the human rights of migrants, there is an increasing consensus about the fact that a strict juridical approach is inadequate to protect as well as to prevent violations of migrants’ rights. Indeed, given the multiplicity of factors that affect and shape the application of these rights and considering the fact that law is a social phenomenon, what is needed is an interdisciplinary approach, which combines both juridical approaches and perspectives from other disciplines. In this respect, a sociological approach is important because it shows the social processes through which human rights of migrants have been constructed or violated in particular social situations. Sociologists who study international migration ask the questions such as how many people migrate, who migrates, why people migrate, what happens to them once they arrive in the host country, how migration affects sending and receiving communities, the extent to which migrants help the economy, the effects of migration on crimes, and how migrants change the local communities. This paper is an attempt to show how sociology can promote human rights of migrants. To this end, the article first explores the usefulness and value of an interdisciplinary approach to realize how and to what extent sociology may improve and promote the human rights of migrants in the destination country. It then examines mechanisms which help to reach to a systematic integration of law and sociological discipline to advance migrants’ rights as well as to encourage legal scholars to consider the implications of societal structures in their works.

Keywords: human rights, migrants, sociological approach, interdisciplinary study

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
217 Food Security of Migrants in a Regional Area of Australia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Rosa McManamey

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Food security indicates the ability of individuals, households and communities to acquire food that is healthy, sustainable, affordable, appropriate and accessible. Despite Australia’s current ability to produce enough food to feed a population larger than its current population, there has been substantial evidence over the last decades to demonstrate many Australians struggle to feed themselves, including those from a cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The study aimed to investigate migrants’ perceptions and experiences on food security in Tasmania. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 migrants residing in North, South and North West Tasmania, who were recruited through purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Four main themes were identified from the interview data: (1) Understanding of food security; (2) Experiences with the food security in Tasmania; (3) Factors that influence migrants’ food security in Tasmania; and (4) Acculturation strategies. Various sub-themes have emerged under each of these four major themes. Though the findings indicate participants are satisfied with their current food security in Tasmania, they still encounter some challenges in food availability, accessibility, and affordability in Tasmania. Factors that influence migrants’ food security were educational background, language barrier, socioeconomic status, geographical isolation, and cultural background. By using different acculturation strategies, migrants managed to adapt to the new food culture. In addition, social and cultural capitals were also treated as vital roles in improving migrants’ food security. The findings indicate migrants residing in Tasmania face different challenges on food security. They use different strategies for food security while acculturating into a new environment. The findings may provide useful information for migrants in Australia and various private organisations or relevant government departments that address food security for migrants.

Keywords: experiences, food security, migrants, perceptions

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
216 The Impact of Australia's Skilled Migrant Selection System: A Case Study of Japanese Skilled Migrants and Their Families

Authors: Iori Hamada

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Australia's skilled migrant selection system is constantly changing its target skills and criteria according to the labour market demands. The government's intention to employ this highly selective market-driven selection system is to better target the skills needed in the economy, enable skilled migrants to be employed in industries that have the highest need, and consequently boost the economy and population. However, migration scholars have called this intention into question, arguing that the system is not making the best use of skilled migrants. This paper investigates the impact of recent reforms in Australian skilled migration system on skilled migrants' employment and related life conditions. Drawing on semi-structured qualitative interviews with Japanese skilled migrants in Australia, it argues that Australia’s skilled migrant selection system guarantees neither skilled migrants' employment nor successful transfer of their skills to the labour market. The findings show that Japanese skilled migrants are often unemployed or under-employed, although they intend to achieve upward occupational mobility. The interview data also reveal that male unemployment or under-employment status prompts some Japanese men to leave Australia and find a job that better matches their skills and qualifications in a new destination. Further, it finds that Japanese male skilled migrants who experience downward occupational mobility tend to continue to take a primary breadwinner role, which affects the distribution of paid and unpaid work within their families. There is a growing body of research investigating skilled migrants’ downward career mobility. However, little has been written on skilled Japanese migrants. Further, the work-family intersection is a 'hot public policy topic' in Australia and elsewhere. Yet, the existing studies focus almost exclusively on non-migrant families. This calls attention to the urgency of assessing the work-family lives of skilled migrants. This study fills these gaps, presenting additional insight into Japanese skilled migrants’ work and family in and beyond Australia.

Keywords: Australia, employment, family, Japanese skilled migrants

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215 Barriers and Drivers Towards the Use of Childhood Vaccination Services by Undocumented Migrant Caregivers in Sabah, Malaysia: A Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Michal Christina Steven, Mohd. Yusof Hj Ibrahim, Haryati Abdul Karim, Prabakaran Dhanaraj, Kelly Alexius Mansin

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After 27 years, Malaysia reported polio cases in 2019 involving the children of the undocumented migrants living in Sabah. These undocumented migrants present a significant challenge in achieving the elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Due to the recent polio outbreak among the undocumented migrant children in Sabah, an in-depth interview was conducted among the caregivers of undocumented migrant children to identify the barriers and drivers towards vaccinating their children. Financial barriers, legal citizenship status, language barrier, the COVID-19 pandemic, and physical barriers have been the barriers to access vaccination services by undocumented migrants. Five significant drivers for undocumented migrants to vaccinate their children are social influence, fear of disease, parental trust in healthcare providers, good support, and vaccine availability. Necessary action should be taken immediately to address the problems of vaccinating the children of undocumented migrants to prevent the re-emergence of VPD.

Keywords: Malaysia, polio, Sabah, undocumented migrants

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214 The Wage Differential between Migrant and Native Workers in Australia: Decomposition Approach

Authors: Sabrina Tabassum

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Using Census Data for Housing and Population of Australia 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016, this paper shows the existence of wage differences between natives and immigrants in Australia. Addressing the heterogeneous nature of immigrants, this study group the immigrants in three broad categories- migrants from English speaking countries and migrants from India and China. Migrants from English speaking countries and India earn more than the natives per week, whereas migrants from China earn far less than the natives per week. Oaxaca decomposition suggests that major part of this differential is unexplained. Using the occupational segregation concept and Brown decomposition, this study indicates that migrants from India and China would have been earned more than the natives if they had the same occupation distribution as natives due to their individual characteristics. Within occupation, wage differences are more prominent than inter-occupation wage differences for immigrants from China and India.

Keywords: Australia, labour, migration, wage

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
213 Effective Strategies Migrants Adopted to Improve Food Security in a Regional Area of Australia

Authors: Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Daniel R. Terry, Rosa Mc Manamey

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Food security is a global issue and one of the concerns in Australia, particularly in regional and rural areas. Despite Australia’s current ability to produce enough food to feed more than its current population, evidence has been accumulating over the last decade to demonstrate many Australians struggle to feed themselves, including immigrants from cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. This study aims to identify the acculturation strategies used by migrants to enhance their approach to food security in Tasmania. The study employed a mixed methods approach that used both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with migrants living in Tasmania. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse data collected from questionnaire, whereas, thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Migrants (n=301) completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 50.2% and 33 follow-up interviews were conducted. We found that majority of the migrants (70.0%) replaced food ingredients and went without the food they could not buy from shops with similar ingredients. Support and advice from friends were effective ways to improve their food access. Additionally, length of stays in Tasmania and region of origin were significantly associated with the ways migrants dealing with food security. The interview results revealed that migrants managed to adapt to the new food culture by using different acculturation strategies, including access food ingredients from other country; adjusting or adapting; home gardening and access to technology. In addition, social and cultural capitals were also treated as vital roles in improving migrants’ food security. To summarize, migrants employed different strategies for food security while acculturating into the new environment. Our findings could become the guidelines for migrants and relevant government or private sectors that address food security.

Keywords: food security, migrants, strategies, inferential statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
212 Media Representation of Romanian Migrants in the Italian Media: A Comparative Study

Authors: Paula-Catalina Meirosu

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The economic migration (intra-EU) is a topic of debate in the public space in both countries of origin and countries of destination. Since the 1990s, after the collapse of communist regimes and then the accession of some former communist countries to the EU, the migratory flows of migrants (including Romanian migrants) to EU countries has been increased constantly. Italy is one of the main countries of destination among Romanians since at the moment Italy hosts more than one million Romanian migrants. Based on an interdisciplinary analytical framework focused on the theories in the field of transnationalism, media and migration studies and critical media analysis, this paper investigates the media construction of intra-EU economic migration in the Italian press from two main perspectives. The first point of view is the media representation of Romanian migrants in the Italian press in a specific context: the EU elections in 2014. The second one explores the way in which Romanian journalists use the media in the destinations countries (such as Italy) as a source to address the issue of migration. In this context, the paper focuses on online articles related to the Romanian migrants’ representation in the media before and during the EU elections in two newspapers (La Repubblica from Italy and Adevarul from Romania), published during January-May 2014. The methodology is based on a social-constructivist approach, predominantly discursive and includes elements of critical discourse analysis (CDA) to identify the patterns of Romanian migrants in the Italian press as well as strategies for building categories, identities, and roles of migrants. The aim of such an approach is to find out the dynamic of the media discourse on migration from a destination country in the light of a European electoral context (EU elections) and based on the results, to propose scenarios for the elections to be held this year.

Keywords: migration, media discourse, Romanian migrants, transnationalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
211 Migration and Provision of Support to Left-Behind Parents in Rural Cambodia

Authors: Benjamas Penboon, Zachary Zimmer, Aree Jampaklay

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Cambodia is a country where labor migration has been consistently high. Coupled with advancing labor opportunities in urban areas, a function partly of globalization, this is resulting in massive migration out of rural areas. This is particularly true in Cambodia where there are high migration and a very large proportion of adult children living some distant from their parents. This paper explores characteristics associated with migrant providing support to parents in rural Cambodia. With reference to perspectives of family altruism and solidarity, this analysis particularly focusses on how a series of variables representing family integration and residential location associates with intergenerational monetary and instrumental support from migrants. The study hypothesizes that migrants are more likely to provide support when parents are in need, and there are no alternative means of support. Data come from The Rural Household Survey (N=3,713), part of the 2011 Cambodian Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP). Multilevel multinomial models indicate international migrants are likely to give money, while internal migrants are likely to provide both money and instrumental support, especially when migrants have no sibling and their parent in poor health status. In addition, employed migrants are two times providing monetary compared to those unemployed. Findings elucidate the decision to which and why support occurs more often when no other source of support exists and also depends on the ability to provide of migrants themselves.

Keywords: migration, left-behind parent, intergenerational relations, support, rural, Cambodia

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210 Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Climate-Induced Migration in Brazil: Legislation, Policies and Practice

Authors: Heloisa H. Miura, Luiza M. Pallone

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In Brazil, people forced to move due to environmental causes, called 'environmental migrants', have always been neglected by public policies and legislation. Meanwhile, the numbers of climate-induced migration within and to Brazil continues to increase. The operating Immigration Law, implemented in 1980 under the Brazilian military regime, is widely considered to be out of date, once it does not offer legal protection to migrants who do not fit the definition of a refugee and are not allowed to stay regularly in the country. Aiming to reformulate Brazil’s legislation and policies on the matter, a new Migration Bill (PL 2516/2015) is currently being discussed in the Senate and is expected to define a more humanized approach to migration. Although the present draft foresees an expansion of the legal protection to different types of migrants, it still hesitates to include climate-induced displacements in its premises and to establish a migration management strategy. By introducing a human rights-based approach, this paper aims to provide a new multidisciplinary perspective to the protection of environmental migrants in Brazil.

Keywords: environmental migrants, human mobility, climate change, migration policy

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209 Migration, Assimilation and Well-Being of Interstate Migrant Workers in Kerala: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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It may no longer be just anecdotal that every twelfth person in Kerala is a migrant worker from outside the state. For the past few years, the state has been witnessing large inflow of migrants from other states of India, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. Initially, the migrants were from the neighbouring states but, at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the distant parts of the country. Currently, migrants have turned to be a decisive force in the state and their increasing numbers have already started creating turbulences in the state. Over the past years, the increasing involvement of migrants in unlawful and criminal activities have generated apprehensions on their presence in the state. Moreover, at present, the Kerala society is not just hosting the first generation migrants, but there has been an increase in the second generation migrants making the situations more complex and diverse. In such a paradigm, the study ponders into the issues of migrants concerning their assimilation and well-being in the host society. Also, the study looks into the factors that impede the assimilation process, along with the perceptions of the migrants about the host society and the people. The study also tries to bring out the differences in the levels of assimilation among the migrants along the lines of religion, caste, state of origin, gender, stay duration and education. Methodology: The study is based on the empirical findings obtained out of the primary survey conducted on migrants employed in the Kanjikode industrial area of Kerala. The samples were selected through purposive sampling and the study employed techniques like observation, questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The findings are based on interviews conducted with 100 migrants. Findings and Conclusion: The study was an attempt of its kind in addressing the issues of assimilation and integration of interstate migrants working in the Kerala. As mentioned, the study could bring out differences in the levels of assimilation along the lines of different characteristics. The study could also locate the importance, and the role played by the peer groups and neighborhoods in accelerating the process of assimilation among the migrants. As an extension, the study also looked at the assimilation and educational issues of the migrant children living in Kerala, and it found that the place of birth, age at entry and the peer group plays a pivotal role in the assimilation process. The study through its findings recommends the need for incorporating the concept of inclusive education into the state educational system by giving due emphasis to the needs of the marginalized. The study points out that owing to the existing demographic conditions, the state will inevitably have to depend on migrant labor in future. Moreover, in such a paradigm, the host community and the government should strive to create a conducive environment for the proper assimilation of the migrants and which in turn can be an impetus for the fulfilment of the needs of both the migrants and the state.

Keywords: assimilation, integration, Kerala, migrant workers, well-being

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208 Foreign Human Capital as a Fiscal Burden on the UK's Exchequer: An Intellectual Capital Perspective

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

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Migration has once again become a lively topic in Europe and UK, in particular. A burgeoning concern in the public debate, however, is driven by the fear that migrants are fiscal burden because they drain public resources by drawing on the generous social transfers introduced in Europe to prevent social exclusion. This study challenges these beliefs by gathering empirical evidence through a qualitative research approach on the subject matter. The analysis suggests that UK provides a rich social and economic environment for intellectual profiles especially, human intellectual capital of migrants to flourish and add value to the exchequer. Contrary to the beliefs held by politicians and general public, the empirical evidence suggests that migrants add higher fiscal contribution by working longer hours, paying consistent taxes, and bringing skills which UK may lack thus, are not fiscal burdens on the UK exchequer.

Keywords: austerity, European union, human intellectual capital, migrants, social welfare, United Kingdom

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
207 Undocumented Migrants on the Northern Border of Mexico: Social Imaginary, and Social Representations

Authors: César Enrique Jiménez Yañez, Yessica Martinez Soto

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In the present work, the phenomenon of undocumented migration in the northern border of Mexico is analyzed through the graphic representation of the experience of people who migrate in an undocumented way to the United States. 33 of them drew what it meant for them to migrate. Our objective is to analyze the social phenomenon of migration through the drawings of migrants, using the concepts of social imaginary and social representations, identifying the different significant elements with which this symbolically builds their experience. Drawing, as a methodological tool, will help us to understand the migratory experience beyond words.

Keywords: Mexico, social imaginary, social representations, undocumented migrants

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206 Citizenship Redefined? The Wider Exclusionary Dynamics of Migration Policy in the UK

Authors: Clive Sealey

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This article will analyse the impact that the increasingly multicultural nature of the UK has had on the nature and direction of social policy. The increasingly multicultural nature of the UK is being driven by a variety of demographic changes, particularly increased net migration from EU10 and the EU 2 enlargement. This has become an increasingly political issue, as exemplified by the specific rise of the United Kingdom Independence Party as a political force with the primary intention of restricting such migration. Perhaps not surprisingly, this has also had a significant impact on the nature and direction of social policies, as evident in the prominence given to efforts to reducing immigration and to restrict welfare benefits paid to such migrants. These policies have largely reflected the retreat away from the emphasis in UK policy on multiculturalism towards assimilation for all migrants, both prior and newly domiciled. Linking these two main policy emphases of reducing immigration and limiting entitlement to benefits is the concept of citizenship. An important point that this article will highlight, is that this changed citizenship does not just relate to new migrants, but also to existing domiciled migrants, such as in relation to specifying the assimilation of ‘Britishness’ and ‘British values’ in their daily life. Additionally, the article also analyses how the changes in welfare entitlements for new migrants is also impacting in an exclusionary way on the living standards of the native population, and therefore also their social rights as citizens. The article discusses the implication that this change presents for social work practice, particularly in terms of both migrants and native population changed citizenship.

Keywords: migration, citizenship, exclusion, social policy, migrant welfare

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205 Migrants as Change Agents: A Study of Social Remittances between Finland and Russia

Authors: Ilona Bontenbal

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In this research, the potential for societal change is researched through the idea of migrants as change agents. The viewpoint is on the potential that migrants have for affecting societal change in their country of origin through transmitting transnational peer-to-peer information. The focus is on the information that Russian migrants living in Finland transmit about their experiences and attitudes regarding the Nordic welfare state, its democratic foundation and the social rights embedded in it, to their family and friends in their country of origin. The welfare provision and level of democracy are very different in the two neighbouring countries of Finland and Russia. Finland is a Nordic welfare state with strong democratic institutions and a comprehensive actualizing of civil and social rights. In Russia, the state of democracy has on the other hand been declining, and the social and civil rights of its citizens are constantly undermined. Due to improvements in communications and travel technology, migrants can easily and relatively cheaply stay in contact with their family and friends in their country of origin. This is why it is possible for migrants to act as change agents. By telling about their experiences and attitudes about living in a democratic welfare state, migrants can affect what people in the country or origin know and think about welfare, democracy, and social rights. This phenomenon is approached through the concept of social remittances. Social remittances broadly stand for the ideas, know-how, world views, attitudes, norms of behavior, and social capital that flows through transnational networks from receiving- to sending- country communities and the other way around. The viewpoint is that historically and culturally formed democratic welfare models cannot be copied entirely nor that each country should achieve identical development paths, but rather that migrants themselves choose which aspects they see as important to remit to their acquaintances in their country of origin. This way the potential for social change and the agency of the migrants is accentuated. The empirical research material of this study is based on 30 qualitative interviews with Russian migrants living in Finland. Russians are the largest migrant group in Finland and Finland is a popular migration destination especially for individuals living in North-West Russia including the St. Petersburg region. The interviews are carried out in 2018-2019. The preliminary results indicate that Russian migrants discuss social rights and welfare a lot with their family members and acquaintances living in Russia. In general, the migrants feel that they have had an effect on the way that their friends and family think about Finland, the West, social rights and welfare provision. Democracy, on the other hand, is seen as a more difficult and less discussed topic. The transformative potential that the transmitted information and attitudes could have outside of the immediate circle of acquaintances on larger societal change is seen as ambiguous although not negligible.

Keywords: migrants as change agents, Russian migrants, social remittances, welfare and democracy

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204 An Exploratory Approach of the Latin American Migrants’ Urban Space Transformation of Antofagasta City, Chile

Authors: Carolina Arriagada, Yasna Contreras

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Since mid-2000, the migratory flows of Latin American migrants to Chile have been increasing constantly. There are two reasons that would explain why Chile is presented as an attractive country for the migrants. On the one hand, traditional centres of migrants’ attraction such as the United States and Europe have begun to close their borders. On the other hand, Chile exhibits relative economic and political stability, which offers greater job opportunities and better standard of living when compared to the migrants’ origin country. At the same time, the neoliberal economic model of Chile, developed under an extractive production of the natural resources, has privatized the urban space. The market regulates the growth of the fragmented and segregated cities. Then, the vulnerable population, most of the time, is located in the periphery and in the marginal areas of the urban space. In this aspect, the migrants have begun to occupy those degraded and depressed areas of the city. The problem raised is that the increase of the social spatial segregation could be also attributed to the migrants´ occupation of the marginal urban places of the city. The aim of this investigation is to carry out an analysis of the migrants’ housing strategies, which are transforming the marginal areas of the city. The methodology focused on the urban experience of the migrants, through the observation of spatial practices, ways of living and networks configuration in order to transform the marginal territory. The techniques applied in this study are semi–structured interviews in-depth interviews. The study reveals that the migrants housing strategies for living in the marginal areas of the city are built on a paradox way. On the one hand, the migrants choose proximity to their place of origin, maintaining their identity and customs. On the other hand, the migrants choose proximity to their social and familiar places, generating sense of belonging. In conclusion, the migration as international displacements under a globalized economic model increasing socio spatial segregation in cities is evidenced, but the transformation of the marginal areas is a fundamental resource of their integration migratory process. The importance of this research is that it is everybody´s responsibility not only the right to live in a city without any discrimination but also to integrate the citizens within the social urban space of a city.

Keywords: migrations, marginal space, resignification, visibility

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203 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

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The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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202 The Role of Internal and External Control in the Migrant Related Representations of Right-Wing Extremists

Authors: Gabriella Kengyel

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This study aims to describe the differences between the attitudes of the right-wing extremists with internal or external control towards migrants. They both have a significantly higher score on Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and they are quite xenophobic (54%) according to Bogardus Social Distance Scale. Present research suggests their motives are different. Principle components analysis shows that extremists with internal control reject migrants because of welfare chauvinism and they think that there is some kind of political conspirationism behind the European Refugee Crisis. Contrarily extremist with external control believe in a common enemy and they are significantly more ethnocentric and less skeptical in politics. Results suggest that extremist with internal control shows hostility toward minorities and migrants mainly because of their own reference group.

Keywords: control, extremist, migrant, right-wing

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
201 Changing Routes: The Adaptability of Somali Migrants and Their Smuggling Networks

Authors: Alexandra Amling, Emina Sadic

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The migration routes linking the Horn of Africa to Europe shift in response to political and humanitarian developments across the region. Abrupt changes to those routes can have profound effects on the relative ease of movement and the well-being of migrants. Somali migrants have traditionally been able to rely on a sophisticated, well-established, and reliable network of smugglers to facilitate their journey through the Sahel to Libya, but changes to the routes have undermined those networks. Recently, these shifts have made the journey from Somalia to Europe much more perilous. As the Libyan coast guard intensifies its efforts to stymie boats leaving its coast for Italian shores, arrivals in Spain are trending upwards. This paper thus, will examine how the instability in transit countries that are most commonly used by Somali migrants has had an impact on the reliability of their massive network of smuggling, and how resurgence in the Western route toward Spain provides a potentially new opportunity to reach Europe—a route that has rarely been used by the Somali migrant population in the past. First, the paper will discuss what scholars have called the pastoralist, nomadic tradition of Somalis which reportedly has allowed them to endure the long journeys from Somalia to their chosen destinations. Facilitated by relatives or clan affiliation, Somali migrants have historically been able to rely on a smuggling network that – at least tangentially – provided more security nets during their travels. Given the violence and chaos that unfolded both in Libya and Yemen in 2011 and 2015, respectively, the paper will, secondly, examine which actors in smuggling hubs increase the vulnerabilities of Somalis, pushing them to consider other routes. As a result, this paper will consider to what extent Somalis could follow the stream of other migrants to Algeria and Morocco to enter Europe via Spain. By examining one particular group of migrants and the nature and limitations of the networks associated with their movements, the paper will demonstrate the resilience and adaptability of both the migrants and the networks regardless of the ever-changing nature of migration routes and actors.

Keywords: Europe, migration, smuggling networks, Somalia

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200 Acculturation and Urban Related Identity of Turk and Kurd Internal Migrants

Authors: Melek Göregenli, Pelin Karakuş

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This present study explored the acculturation strategies and urban related identity of Turk and Kurd internal migrants from different regions of Turkey who resettled in three big cities in the west. Besides we aimed at a comparative analysis of acculturation strategies and urban-related identity of voluntary and internally displaced Kurd migrants. Particularly we explored the role of migration type, satisfaction with migration decision, urban-related identity and several socio demographic variables as predictors of Kurds’ integration strategy preference. The sample consisted of 412 adult participants from Izmir (64 females, 86 males); Ankara (76 females, 75 males); and Istanbul (43 females, 64 males and four unreported). In terms of acculturation strategies, assimilation was found to be the most preferred acculturation attitude among Turks whereas separation was found to be most endorsed acculturation attitude among Kurds. The migrants in Izmir were found to prefer assimilation whereas the migrants in Ankara prefer separation. Concerning urban-related identity mean scores, Turks reported higher urban-related identity scores than Kurds. Furthermore the internal migrants in Izmir were found to score higher in urban-related identity than the migrants living in Istanbul and Ankara. The results of the regression analysis revealed that gender, length of residence and migration type were the significant predictors of integration preference of Kurds. Thus, whereas gender and migration type had significant negative associations; length of residence had positive significant associations with Kurds integration preference. Compared to female Kurds, male Kurds were found to be more integrated. Furthermore, voluntary Kurd migrants were more favour of integration than internally displaced Kurds. The findings supported the significant associations between acculturation strategies and urban-related identity with either group.

Keywords: acculturation, forced migration, internal displacement, internal migration, Turkey, urban-related identity

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199 The Utilization of Healthcare by African Migrants: The Lived Experiences of Unaccompanied Adolescent Migrants in South Africa

Authors: Kwanele Shishane

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Numerous countries are faced with challenges such as disease, poverty and other social ills and inadequate government support to meet the needs of the entire population. In developing countries, the concept of child-headed households has become a ubiquitous phenomenon and lived experience. As such, migration of children is common in these countries. This study aims to explore the lived experiences of unaccompanied adolescent migrant, with regards to the utilization of health care in South Africa. The objectives of the study are to examine the lived experiences of health care utilization by unaccompanied adolescent migrants; examine the predisposing, enabling and need factors influencing utilization of health care among unaccompanied adolescent migrants; examine the social and cultural influences on health care utilization among unaccompanied adolescent migrants; and identify the health system barriers to utilization of health care by unaccompanied adolescent migrants. Andersen and Newman’s Model of Health Care Utilization (1995) which explains factors determining the utilization of healthcare will provide the theoretical framework for the empirical investigation of this study. The target population for this study is unaccompanied adolescent migrants, seeking to access services from migrant service organizations in four provinces in South Africa (Limpopo, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, and Gauteng). Participants will be selected using a purposive sampling procedure. A qualitative research approach utilizing a descriptive phenomenological epistemology will be utilized in this study. Data will be collected through conducting in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with unaccompanied migrant adolescents, to explore their lived experiences related to access and utilization of health care, as an unaccompanied migrant in SA. The qualitative data will be analysed using Tech’s (1990) thematic analytical approach.

Keywords: health care utilisation, unaccompanied migrant youth, South Africa, lived experiences

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198 To Live on the Margins: A Closer Look at the Social and Economic Situation of Illegal Afghan Migrants in Iran

Authors: Abdullah Mohammadi

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Years of prolong war in Afghanistan has led to one of the largest refugee and migrant populations in the contemporary world. During this continuous unrest which began in 1970s (by military coup, Marxist revolution and the subsequent invasion of USSR), over one-third of the population migrated to neighboring countries, especially Pakistan and Iran. After the Soviet Army withdrawal in 1989, a new wave of conflicts emerged between rival Afghan groups and this led to new refugees. Taliban period, also, created its own refugees. During all these years, I.R. of Iran has been one of the main destinations of Afghan refugees and migrants. At first, due to the political situation after Islamic Revolution, Iran government didn’t restrict the entry of Afghan refugees. Those who came first in Iran received ID cards and had access to education and healthcare services. But in 1990s, due to economic and social concerns, Iran’s policy towards Afghan refugees and migrants changed. The government has tried to identify and register Afghans in Iran and limit their access to some services and jobs. Unfortunately, there are few studies on Afghan refugees and migrants’ situation in Iran and we have a dim and vague picture of them. Of the few studies done on this group, none of them focus on the illegal Afghan migrants’ situation in Iran. Here, we tried to study the social and economic aspects of illegal Afghan migrants’ living in Iran. In doing so, we interviewed 24 illegal Afghan migrants in Iran. The method applied for analyzing the data is thematic analysis. For the interviews, we chose family heads (17 men and 7 women). According to the findings, illegal Afghan migrants’ socio-economic situation in Iran is very undesirable. Its main cause is the marginalization of this group which is resulted from government policies towards Afghan migrants. Most of the illegal Afghan migrants work in unskilled and inferior jobs and live in rent houses on the margins of cities and villages. None of them could buy a house or vehicle due to law. Based on their income, they form one of the lowest, unprivileged groups in the society. Socially, they face many problems in their everyday life: social insecurity, harassment and violence, misuse of their situation by police and people, lack of education opportunity, etc. In general, we may conclude that illegal Afghan migrant have little adaptation with Iran’s society. They face severe limitations compared to legal migrants and refugees and have no opportunity for upward social mobility. However, they have managed some strategies to face these difficulties including: seeking financial and emotional helps from family and friendship networks, sending one of the family members to third country (mostly to European countries), establishing self-administered schools for children (schools which are illegal and run by Afghan educated youth).

Keywords: illegal Afghan migrants, marginalization, social insecurity, upward social mobility

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197 Migrant Labour in Kerala: A Study on Inter-State Migrant Workers

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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In the recent years, Kerala is witnessing a large inflow of migrants from different parts of the country. Though initially, the migrants were largely from the districts of Tamil Nadu and mostly of seasonal nature, but at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the far-off states like UP, Assam, Bengal, etc. Higher wages for unskilled labour, large opportunities for employment, the reluctance on the part of Kerala workers to do menial and hard physical work, and the shortage of local labour, paradoxically despite the high unemployment rate in the state, led to the massive influx of migrant labourers. This study takes a multi-dimensional overview of migrant labour in Kerala by encompassing factors such as channels of migration, nature of employment contracts entered into and the corresponding wages and benefits obtained by them. The study also analysed the circumstances that led to the large influx of migrants from different states of India. It further makes an attempt to examine the varying dimensions of living and working environment, and also the health conditions of migrants. The study is based on the empirical findings obtained as a result of the primary interviews conducted with migrants in the districts of Palakkad, Malappuram, and Ernakulam. The study concludes by noting that Kerala will inevitably have to depend on migrant labour and is likely to experience heavy in-migration of labour in future, provided that if the existing socioeconomic and demographic situations persist. Since, this is inevitable, the best way before the state is to prepare well in advance to receive and accommodate such migrant labour to lead a comfortable life in a hassle free environment, so that it would definitely play a vital role in further strengthening and sustaining the growth trajectory of not only Kerala’s economy but also the states of origin.

Keywords: Kerala, labour, migration, migrant workers

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196 Protecting Migrants at Risk as Internally Displaced Persons: State Responses to Foreign Immigrants Displaced by Natural Disasters in Thailand, The United States, and Japan

Authors: Toake Endoh

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Cross-border migration of people is a critical driver for sustainable economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Meanwhile, the region is susceptible to mega-scale natural disasters, such as tsunami, earthquakes, and typhoons. When migrants are stranded in a foreign country by a disaster, who should be responsible for their safety and security? What legal or moral foundation is there to advocate for the protection and assistance of “migrants at risk ([email protected])”? How can the states practice “good governance” in their response to displacement of the foreign migrants? This paper inquires how to protect foreign migrants displaced by a natural disaster under international law and proposes protective actions to be taken by of migrant-receiver governments. First, the paper discusses the theoretical foundation for protection of [email protected] and argues that the nation-states are charged of responsibility to protect at-risk foreigners as “internally displaced persons” in the light of the United Nations’ Guiding Principles of Internal Displacement (1998). Second, through the case study of the Kobe Earthquake in Japan (1995), the Tsunami in Thailand (2004), and the Hurricane Katrina in the U.S. (2005), the paper evaluates how effectively (or poorly) institutions and state actors addressed the specific vulnerability felt by [email protected] in these crises.

Keywords: internal displaced persons, natural disaster, international migration, responsibility to protect

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195 Chinese on the Move: Residential Mobility and Evolution of People's Republic of China-Born Migrants in Australia

Authors: Siqin Wang, Jonathan Corcoran, Yan Liu, Thomas Sigler

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Australia is a quintessentially immigrant nation with 28 percent of its residents being foreign-born. By 2011, People’s Republic of China (PRC) overtook the United Kingdom to become the largest source country in Australia. Significantly, the profile of PRC-born migrants has changed to mirror broader global shifts towards high-skilled labour, education-related, and investment-focussed migration, all of which reflect an increasing trend in the mobility of wealthy and/or educated cohorts. Together, these coalesce to form a more complex pattern of migrant settlement –both spatially and socio-economically. This paper focuses on the PRC-born migration, redresses these lacunae, with regard to the settlement outcomes of PRC migrants to Australia, with a particular focus on spatial evolution and residential mobility at both the metropolitan and national scales. By drawing on Census Data and migration Micro Datasets, the aim of this paper is to examine the shifting dynamics of PRC-born migrants in Australian capital cities to unveil their socioeconomic characteristics, residential patterns and change of spatial concentrations during their transition into the new host society. This paper finds out three general patterns in the residential evolution of PRC-born migrants depending on the size of capital cities where they settle down, as well as the association of socio-economic characters with the formation of enclaves. It also examines the residential mobility across states and cities from 2001 to 2011 indicating the rising status of median-size Australian capital cities for receiving PRC-born migrants. The paper concludes with a discussion of evidences for policy formation, facilitates the effective transition of PRC-born populations into the mainstream of host society and enhances social harmony to help Australia become a more successful multicultural nation.

Keywords: Australia, Chinese migrants, residential mobility, spatial evolution

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194 Illicit Return Practices of Irregular Migrants from Greece to Turkey

Authors: Enkelejda Koka, Denard Veshi

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Since 2011, in the name of ‘humanitarianism’ and deaths in the Mediterranean Sea, the legal and political justification delivered by Greece to manage the refugee crisis is pre-emptive interception. Although part of the EU, Greece adopted its own strategy. These practices have also created high risks for migrants generally resulting in non-rescue episodes and push-back practices having lethal consequences to the life of the irregular migrant. Thus, this article provides an analysis of the Greek ‘compassionate border work’ policy, a practice known as push-back. It is argued that these push-back practices violate international obligations, notably the ‘right to life’, the ‘duty to search and rescue’, the prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and the principle of non-refoulement.

Keywords: Greece, migrants, push-back policy, violation of international law

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