Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: prebiotic

41 Effect of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Performance, Some Blood Parameters, and Intestine Morphology of Laying Hens

Authors: A. Zarei, M. Porkhalili, B. Gholamhosseini

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In this experiment, sixty Hy-Line (W-36) laying hens were selected in 40weeks of age. Experimental diets were consumed for 12 weeks duration by them. The experimental design was completely randomized block included four treatments and each of them with five replications and three sample in each replicate. Treatments were as follow: Basal diet+probiotic, basal diet + prebiotic and basal diet+probiotic+ prebiotic. Performance traits were measured such as: hen production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ,shell thickness, shell strength, shell weight, hough unit, yolk color, and yolk cholesterol. Blood parameters like; Ca, cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and antibody titer and so morphological of intestine were determined. At the end of experimental period, after sampling from end of cecum, bacterial colony count was measured. Results showed; shell weight was significantly greater than other treatments in probiotic treatment.Yolk weight in prebiotic treatment was significantly greater than other treatments. The ratio of height of villi to dept of crypt cells in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and secum in prebiotic treatment were significantly greater. Results from the other traits were not significant between treatments, however there were totally good results in other traits with simultaneous usage of probiotic and prebiotic.

Keywords: probiotic, prebiotic, laying hens, performance, blood parameters, intestine morphology

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40 Chemical Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Zizyphus lotus Leaves

Authors: Zakaria Boual, Abdellah Kemassi, Toufik Chouana, Philippe Michaud, Mohammed Didi Ould El Hadj

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In order to investigate the prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides prepared by chemical hydrolysis of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSP) from Zizyphus lotus leaves, the effect of oligosaccharides on bacterial growth was studied. The chemical composition of WSP was evaluated by colorimetric assays revealed the average values: 7.05±0.73% proteins and 86.21±0.74% carbohydrates, among them 64.81±0.42% are neutral sugar and the rest 16.25±1.62% are uronic acids. The characterization of monosaccharides was determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was found to be composed of galactose (23.95%), glucose (21.30%), rhamnose (20.28%), arabinose (9.55%), and glucuronic acid (22.95%). The effects of oligosaccharides on the growth of lactic acid bacteria were compared with those of fructo-oligosaccharide (RP95). The oligosaccharides concentration was 1g/L of man rogosa sharpe broth. Bacterial growth was assessed during 2, 4.5, 6.5, 9, 12, 16 and 24 h by measuring the optical density of the cultures at 600 nm (OD600) and pH values. During fermentation, pH in broth cultures decreased from 6.7 to 5.87±0.15. The enumeration of lactic acid bacteria indicated that oligosaccharides led to a significant increase in bacteria (P≤0.05) compared to the control. The fermentative metabolism appeared to be faster on RP95 than on oligosaccharides from Zizyphus lotus leaves. Both RP95 and oligosaccharides showed clear prebiotic effects, but had differences in fermentation kinetics because of to the different degree of polymerization. This study shows the prebiotic effectiveness of oligosaccharides, and provides proof for the selection of leaves of Zizyphus lotus for use as functional food ingredients.

Keywords: Zizyphus lotus, polysaccharides, characterization, prebiotic effects

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39 In vitro Evaluation of Prebiotic Potential of Wheat Germ

Authors: Lígia Pimentel, Miguel Pereira, Manuela Pintado

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Wheat germ is a by-product of wheat flour refining. Despite this by-product being a source of proteins, lipids, fibres and complex carbohydrates, and consequently a valuable ingredient to be used in Food Industry, only few applications have been studied. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential prebiotic effect of natural wheat germ. The prebiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro assays with individual microbial strains (Lactobacillus paracasei L26 and Lactobacillus casei L431). A simulated model of the gastrointestinal digestion was also used including the conditions present in the mouth (artificial saliva), oesophagus–stomach (artificial gastric juice), duodenum (artificial intestinal juice) and ileum. The effect of natural wheat germ and wheat germ after digestion on the growth of lactic acid bacteria was studied by growing those microorganisms in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth (with 2% wheat germ and 1% wheat germ after digestion) and incubating at 37 ºC for 48 h with stirring. A negative control consisting of MRS broth without glucose was used and the substrate was also compared to a commercial prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Samples were taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 48 h for bacterial cell counts (CFU/mL) and pH measurement. Results obtained showed that wheat germ has a stimulatory effect on the bacteria tested, presenting similar (or even higher) results to FOS, when comparing to the culture medium without glucose. This was demonstrated by the viable cell counts and also by the decrease on the medium pH. Both L. paracasei L26 and L. casei L431 could use these compounds as a substitute for glucose with an enhancement of growth. In conclusion, we have shown that wheat germ stimulate the growth of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. In order to understand if the composition of gut bacteria is altered and if wheat germ could be used as potential prebiotic, further studies including faecal fermentations should be carried out. Nevertheless, wheat germ seems to have potential to be a valuable compound to be used in Food Industry, mainly in the Bakery Industry.

Keywords: by-products, functional ingredients, prebiotic potential, wheat germ

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38 The Survival of Bifidobacterium longum in Frozen Yoghurt Ice Cream and Its Properties Affected by Prebiotics (Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides) and Fat Content

Authors: S. Thaiudom, W. Toommuangpak

Abstract:

Yoghurt ice cream (YIC) containing prebiotics and probiotics seems to be much more recognized among consumers who concern for their health. Not only can it be a benefit on consumers’ health but also its taste and freshness provide people easily accept. However, the survival of such probiotic especially Bifidobacterium longum, found in human gastrointestinal tract and to be benefit to human gut, was still needed to study in the severe condition as whipping and freezing in ice cream process. Low and full-fat yoghurt ice cream containing 2 and 10% (w/w) fat content (LYIC and FYIC), respectively was produced by mixing 20% yoghurt containing B. longum into milk ice cream mix. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) at 0, 1, and 2% (w/w) were separately used as prebiotic in order to improve the survival of B. longum. Survival of this bacteria as a function of ice cream storage time and ice cream properties were investigated. The results showed that prebiotic; especially FOS could improve viable count of B. longum. The more concentration of prebiotic used, the more is the survival of B. Longum. These prebiotics could prolong the survival of B. longum up to 60 days, and the amount of survival number was still in the recommended level (106 cfu per gram). Fat content and prebiotic did not significantly affect the total acidity and the overrun of all samples, but an increase of fat content significantly increased the fat particle size which might be because of partial coalescence found in FYIC rather than in LYIC. However, addition of GOS or FOS could reduce the fat particle size, especially in FYIC. GOS seemed to reduce the hardness of YIC rather than FOS. High fat content (10% fat) significantly influenced on lowering the melting rate of YIC better than 2% fat content due to the 3-dimension networks of fat partial coalescence theoretically occurring more in FYIC than in LYIC. However, FOS seemed to retard the melting rate of ice cream better than GOS. In conclusion, GOS and FOS in YIC with different fat content can enhance the survival of B. longum and affect physical and chemical properties of such yoghurt ice cream.

Keywords: Bifidobacterium longum, prebiotic, survival, yoghurt ice cream

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37 Effects of Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 β-Glucan as a Prebiotic on the in vitro Growth of Probiotic and Pathogenic Bacteria

Authors: Wai Prathumpai, Pranee Rachtawee, Sutamat Khajeeram, Pariya Na Nakorn

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The  β-glucan produced by Ophiocordyceps dipterigena BCC 2073 is a (1, 3)-β-D-glucan with highly branching O-6-linkedside chains that is resistant to acid hydrolysis (by hydrochloric acid and porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase). This β-glucan can be utilized as a prebiotic due to its advantageous structural and biological properties. The effects of using this β-glucan as the sole carbon source for the in vitro growth of two probiotic bacteria (L. acidophilus BCC 13938 and B. animalis ATCC 25527) were investigated. Compared with the effect of using 1% glucose or fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as the sole carbon source, using 1% β-glucan for this purpose showed that this prebiotic supported and stimulated the growth of both types of probiotic bacteria and induced them to produce the highest levels of metabolites during their growth. The highest levels of lactic and acetic acid, 10.04 g·L-1 and 2.82 g·L-1, respectively, were observed at 2 h of cultivation using glucose as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the fermentation broth obtained using 1% β-glucan as the sole carbon source had greater antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria (B. subtilis TISTR 008, E. coli TISTR 780, and S. typhimurium TISTR 292) than did the broths prepared using glucose or FOS as the sole carbon source. The fermentation broth obtained by growing L. acidophilus BCC 13938 in the presence of β-glucan inhibited the growth of B. subtilis TISTR 008 by more than 70% and inhibited the growth of both S. typhimurium TISTR 292 and E. coli TISTR 780 by more than 90%. In conclusion, O. dipterigena BCC 2073 is a potential source of a β-glucan prebiotic that could be used for commercial production in the near future.

Keywords: beta-glucan, Ophiocordyceps dipterigena, prebiotic, probiotic, antimicrobial

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36 Effect of Fat Percentage and Prebiotic Composition on Proteolysis, ACE-Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Probiotic Yogurt

Authors: Mohammad B. HabibiNajafi, Saeideh Sadat Fatemizadeh, Maryam Tavakoli

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In recent years, the consumption of functional foods, including foods containing probiotic bacteria, has come to notice. Milk proteins have been identified as a source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme )ACE( inhibitory peptides and are currently the best-known class of bioactive peptides. In this study, the effects of adding prebiotic ingredients (inulin and wheat fiber) and fat percentage (0%, 2% and 3.5%) in yogurt containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei on physicochemical properties, degree of proteolysis, antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activity within 21 days of storage at 5 ± 1 °C were evaluated. The results of statistical analysis showed that the application of prebiotic compounds led to a significant increase in water holding capacity, proteolysis and ACE-inhibitory of samples. The degree of proteolysis in yogurt increases as storage time elapses (P < 0.05) but when proteolysis exceeds a certain threshold, this trend begins to decline. Also, during storage time, water holding capacity reduced initially but increased thereafter. Moreover, based on our findings, the survival of Lactobacillus casei in samples treated with inulin and wheat fiber increased significantly in comparison to the control sample (P < 0.05) whereas the effect of fat percentage on the survival of probiotic bacteria was not significant (P = 0.095). Furthermore, the effect of prebiotic ingredients and the presence of probiotic cultures on the antioxidant activity of samples was significant (P < 0.05).

Keywords: probiotic yogurt, proteolysis, ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant activity

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35 Exploring the Prebiotic Potential of Glucosamine

Authors: Shilpi Malik, Ramneek Kaur, Archita Gupta, Deepshikha Yadav, Ashwani Mathur, Manisha Singh

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Glucosamine (GS) is the most abundant naturally occurring amino monosaccharide and is normally produced in human body via cellular glucose metabolism. It is regarded as the building block of cartilage matrix and is also an essential component of cartilage matrix repair mechanism. Besides that, it can also be explored for its prebiotic potential as many bacterial species are known to utilize the amino sugar by acquiring them to form peptidoglycans and lipopolysaccharides in the bacterial cell wall. Glucosamine can therefore be considered for its fermentation by bacterial species present in the gut. Current study is focused on exploring the potential of glucosamine as prebiotic. The studies were done to optimize considerable concentration of GS to reach GI tract and being fermented by the complex gut microbiota and food grade GS was added to various Simulated Fluids of Gastro-Intestinal Tract (GIT) such as Simulated Saliva, Gastric Fluid (Fast and Fed State), Colonic fluid, etc. to detect its degradation. Since it was showing increase in microbial growth (CFU) with time, GS was Further, encapsulated to increase its residential time in the gut, which exhibited improved resistance to the simulated Gut conditions. Moreover, prepared microspehres were optimized and characterized for their encapsulation efficiency and toxicity. To further substantiate the prebiotic activity of Glucosamine, studies were also performed to determine the effect of Glucosamine on the known probiotic bacterial species, i.e. Lactobacillus delbrueckii (MTCC 911) and Bifidobacteriumbifidum (MTCC 5398). Culture conditions for glucosamine will be added in MRS media in anaerobic tube at 0.20%, 0.40%, 0.60%, 0.80%, and 1.0%, respectively. MRS media without GS was included in this experiment as the control. All samples were autoclaved at 118° C for 15 min. Active culture was added at 5% (v/v) to each anaerobic tube after cooling to room temperature and incubated at 37° C then determined biomass and pH and viable count at incubation 18h. The experiment was completed in triplicate and the results were presented as Mean ± SE (Standard error).The experimental results are conclusive and suggest Glucosamine to hold prebiotic properties.

Keywords: gastro intestinal tract, microspheres, peptidoglycans, simulated fluid

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34 Carbohydrates Quantification from Agro-Industrial Waste and Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Bhavika Patel, Ramar Krishnamurthy

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Present study was conducted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Oreochromis niloticus and Nemipterus japonicus fish gut. The LAB isolated were confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing. It was observed that isolated Lactococcus spp. were able to tolerate NaCl and bile acid up to certain range. The isolated Lactococcus spp. were also able to survive in acidic and alkaline conditions. Further agro-industrial waste like peels of pineapple, orange, lemon, sugarcane, pomegranate; sweet lemon was analyzed for their polysaccharide contents and prebiotic properties. In the present study, orange peels, sweet lemon peels, and pineapple peels give maximum indigestible polysaccharide. To evaluate synbiotic effect combination of probiotic and prebiotic were analyzed under in vitro conditions. Isolates Lactococcus garvieae R3 and Lactococcus sp. R4 reported to have better fermentation efficiency with orange, sweet lemon and pineapple compare to lemon, sugarcane and pomegranate. The different agro-industrial waste evaluated in this research resulted in being a cheap and fermentable carbon source by LAB.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, lactic acid bacteria, prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic

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33 Effect of Diet Inulin Prebiotic on Growth, Reproductive Performance, Carcass Composition and Resistance to Environmental Stresses in Zebra Danio (Danio rerio)

Authors: Ehsan Ahmadifar

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In this research, the effects of different levels (control group (T0), (T1)1, (T2)2 and (T3)3 gr Inulin per Kg diet) of prebiotic Inulin as nutritional supplement on Danio rerio were investigated for 4 month. Since the beginning of feeding larvae until adult (average weight: 67.1 g, length: 4.5 cm) were fed with experimental diets. The survival rate of fish had no significant effect on rate survival (P > 0.05). The highest food conversion ratio (FCR) was in control group and the lowest was observed in T3. Treatment of T3 significantly caused the best feed conversion ratio in Zebra fish (P < 0.05). By increasing the inulin diet during the experiment, specific growth rate increased. The highest and the lowest body weight gain and condition factor were observed in T3 and control, respectively (P < 0.05). Adding 3 gr inulin in Zebra fish diet can improve the performance of the growth indices and final biomass, also this prebiotic can be considered as a suitable supplement for Cyprinidae diet. In the first sampling stage for feeding fish, fat and muscle protein was significantly higher than the second sampling stage (P < 0.05). Given that the second stage fish were full sexual maturity, the amount of fat in muscle decreased (P < 0.05). Moisture and ash levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the second stage sampling than the first stage. Overall, different stage of living affected on muscle chemical composition muscle. Reproductive performance in treatment T2 and T3 were significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). According to the results, the prebiotic inulin does not have a significant impact on the sex ratio in zebrafish (P > 0.05). Based on histology of the gonads, the use of dietary inulin accelerates the process of gonad development in zebrafish.

Keywords: inulin, zebrafish, reproduction, histology

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32 The Effects of Prebiotic, Probiotic and Synbiotic Diets Containing Bacillus coagulans and Inulin on Serum Lipid Profile in the Rat

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed as follows: standard diet (control), standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic), standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic), and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic). Rats were fed the treatments for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholestrol of rats fed with inulin in synbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

Keywords: bacillus coagulans, inulin, rat, lipid profile, synbiotic diet

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31 Production of Buttermilk as a Bio-Active Functional Food by Utilizing Dairy Waste

Authors: Hafsa Tahir, Sanaullah Iqbal

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Glactooligosaccharide (GOS) is a type of prebiotic which is mainly found in human milk. GOS belongs to those bacteria which stimulates the growth of beneficial bacteria in human intestines. The aim of the present study was to develop a value-added product by producing prebiotic (GOS) in buttermilk through trans galactosylation. Buttermilk is considered as an industrial waste which is discarded after the production of butter and cream. It contains protein, minerals, vitamins and a smaller amount of fat. Raw milk was pasteurized at 100º C for butter production and then trans galactosylation process was induced in the butter milk thus obtained to produce prebiotic GOS. Results showed that the enzyme (which was obtained from bacterial strain of Esecrshia coli and has a gene of Lactobacillus reuteri L103) concentration between 400-600µl/5ml can produce GOS in 30 minutes. Chemical analysis and sensory evaluation of plain and GOS containing buttermilk showed no remarkable difference in their composition. Furthermore, the shelf-life study showed that there was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in glass and pouch packaging of buttermilk. Buttermilk in pouch packaging maintained its stability for 6 days without the addition of preservatives. Therefore it is recommended that GOS enriched buttermilk which is generally considered as a processing waste in dairy manufacturing can be turned into a cost-effective nutritional functional food product. This will not only enhance the production efficiency of butter processing but also will create a new market opportunity for dairy manufacturers all over the world.

Keywords: buttermilk, galactooligosaccharide, shelf Life, transgalactosylation

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30 Xylanase Impact beyond Performance: A Prebiotic Approach in Laying Hens

Authors: Veerle Van Hoeck, Ingrid Somers, Dany Morisset

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Anti-nutritional factors such as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are present in viscous cereals used to feed poultry. Therefore, exogenous carbohydrases are commonly added to monogastric feed to degrade these NSP. Our hypothesis is that xylanase not only improves laying hen performance and digestibility but also induces a significant shift in microbial composition within the intestinal tract and, thereby, can cause a prebiotic effect. In this context, a better understanding of whether and how the chicken gut flora can be modulated by xylanase is needed. To do so, in the herein laying hen study, the effects of dietary supplementation of xylanase on performance, digestibility, and cecal microbiome were evaluated. A total of 96 HiSex laying hens was used in this experiment (3 diets and 16 replicates of 2 hens). Xylanase was added to the diets at concentrations of 0, 45,000 (15 g/t XygestTM HT) and 90,000 U/kg (30 g/t Xygest HT). The diets were based on wheat (~55 %), soybean, and sunflower meal. The lowest dosage, 45,000 U/kg, significantly increased average egg weight and improved feed efficiency compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05). Egg quality parameters were significantly improved in the experiment in response to the xylanase addition. For example, during the last 28 days of the trial, the 45,000 U/kg and the 90,000 U/kg treatments exhibited an increase in Haugh units and albumin heights (p < 0.05). Compared with the control, organic matter digestibility and N retention were drastically improved in the 45,000 U/kg treatment group, which implies better nutrient digestibility at this lowest recommended dosage compared to the control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, gross energy and crude fat digestibility were improved significantly for birds fed 90,000 U/kg group compared to the control. Importantly, 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that xylanase at 45,000 U/kg dosages can exert a prebiotic effect. This conclusion was drawn based on studying the sequence variation in the 16S rRNA gene in order to characterize diverse microbial communities of the cecal content. A significant increase in beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli spp and Enterococcus casseliflavus) was documented when adding 45,000 U/kg xylanase to the diet of laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase, even at the lowest dose of (45,000 U/kg), significantly improved laying hen performance and digestibility. Furthermore, it is generally accepted that a proper bacterial balance between the number of beneficial bacteria and pathogenic bacteria in the intestine is vital for the host. It seems that the xylanase enzyme is able to modulate the laying hen microbiome beneficially and thus exerts a prebiotic effect. This microbiome plasticity in response to the xylanase provides an attractive target for stimulating intestinal health.

Keywords: laying hen, prebiotic, XygestTM HT, xylanase

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29 Effect of Synbiotics on Rats' Intestinal Microbiota

Authors: Da Yoon Yu, Jeong A. Kim, In Sung Kim, Yeon Hee Hong, Jae Young Kim, Sang Suk Lee, Sung Chan Kim, So Hui Choe, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to identify the effects of synbiotics composed of lactic acid (LA) bacteria (LAB) and sea tangle on rat’s intestinal microorganisms and anti-obesity effects. The experiment was conducted for six weeks using an 8-week old male rat as experiment animals and the experimental design was to use six treatments groups of 4 repetitions using three mice per repetition. The treatment groups were organized into a normal fat diet control (NFC), a high fat (HF) diet control (HFC), a prebiotic 0% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 0%, ST0), a prebiotic 5% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 5%, ST5), a prebiotic 10% treatment (HF+LA+sea tangle 10%, ST10), and a prebiotic 15% treatment group (HF+LA+sea tangle 15%, ST15) to conduct experiments with various levels of prebiotics. According to the results of the experiment, the NFC group showed the highest daily weight gain (22.34g) and the ST0 group showed the lowest daily weight gain (19.41g). However, weight gains during the entire experimental period were the highest in the HFC group (475.73g) and the lowest in the ST0 group (454.23g). Feed efficiency was the highest in the HFC group (0.20). Treatment with synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle suppressed weight increases due to HF diet and reduced feed efficiency. Intestinal microorganisms were identified through pyrosequncing and according to the results, Firmicutes phylum (approximately 60%) and Bacteroidetes phylum (approximately 30%) accounted for approximately 90% or more of intestinal microorganisms in all of the treatment groups indicating these bacteria are dominating in the intestines. Firmicutes that is related to weight increases accounted for 64.96% of microorganisms in the NFC group, 75.32% in the HFC group, 59.51% in the ST0 group, 61.29% in the ST5 group, 49.91% in the ST10 group, and 39.65% in the ST15 group. Therefore, Firmicutes showed the highest share the HFC group that showed high weight gains and the lowest share in the group treated with mixed synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle. Bacteroidetes that is related to weight gain inhibition accounted for 32.12% of microorganisms in the NFC group, and HFC group 21.57%, ST0 group 37.66%, ST5 group 34.92%, ST10 group 44.46%, and ST15 group 53.22%. Therefore, the share of Bacteroidetes was the lowest in the HFC group with no addition of synbiotics and increased along with the level of treatment with synbiotics. Changes in blood components were not significantly different among the groups and SCFA yields were shown to be higher in groups treated with synbiotics than in groups not added with synbiotics. Through the present study, it was shown that the supply of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle increased feed intake but led to weight losses and that the intake of synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle had anti-obesity effects due to decreases in Firmicutes which are microorganisms related to weight gains and increases in Bacteroidetes which are microorganisms related to weight losses. Therefore, synbiotics composed of LAB and sea tangle are considered to have the effect to prevent metabolic disorders in the rat.

Keywords: bacteroidetes, firmicutes, intestinal microbiota, lactic acid, sea tangle, synbiotics

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28 Supplementation of Mannan Oligosaccharides in Guinea Pigs: Mortality and Growth Performance

Authors: C. Minguez, J. Bueso-Rodenas, C. Ibanez, A. Calvo

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Mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) is one of the prebiotic most used in livestock nutrition. In this research, the effect of MOS dietary supplementation on growth performance and mortality in meat guinea pigs were studied. Three different experimental groups were compared: Control group (no additives); MOS 1 (1.5 g kg−1); MOS 2 (2 g kg−1). Guinea pigs were housed in 15 collective cages (n = 50 animals in each trial; 10 animals per cage). The young guinea pigs were weaning at day 28 and individually identified by a little ear tag. The fattening period was 49 days. Guinea pigs in both groups were fed ad libitum, with a standard commercial pellet diet (10 MJ of digestible energy/kg, 17% crude protein, 11% crude fiber, and 4.5% crude fat) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as forage. Growth traits, including body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR), were measured weekly. On day 74, the animals were slaughtered. Contrasts between groups were obtained by calculated generalized least squares values. Mortality were evaluated by Fisher's exact test. Between MOS groups no significant differences were observed for growth traits and mortality. However, significant differences against the control group were observed for traits studied (pvalue < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of MOS could be a good prebiotic supplement to raise guinea pigs because it MOS has shown positive effects in growth traits and immune response in animals.

Keywords: guinea pig, growth, mannan oligosaccharides, mortality

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27 The Effects of Inulin on the Stabilization and Stevioside as Sugar-Replacer of Sourcherry Juice-Milk Mixture

Authors: S. Teimouri, S. Abbasi

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Milk-fruit juice mixture is a type of soft drinks, which can be produced by mixing milk with pieces of fruits, fruit juices, or fruit juices concentrates. The major problem of these products, mainly the acidic ones, is phase separation which occurs during formulation and storage due to the aggregation of caseins at low pH Short-chain inulin (CLR), long-chain inulin (TEX), native inulin (IQ) and Long-chain inulin (TEX) and short-chain inulin (CLR) combined in different proportions (2o:80, 50:50, and 80:20) were added (2-10 %) to sourcherry juice-milk mixture and their stabilization mechanisms were studied with using rheological and microstructural observations. Stevioside as a bio-sweetener and sugar-replacer was added at last step. Finally, sensory analyses were taken place on stabilized samples. According to the findings, TEX stabilized the mixture at concentration of 8%. MIX and IQ reduced phase separation at high concentration but had not complete effect on stabilization. CLR did not effect on stabilization. Rheological changes and inulin aggregates formation were not observed in CLR samples during the one month storage period. However TEX, MIX and IQ samples formed inulin aggregates and became more thixotropic, elastic and increased the viscosity of mixture. The rate of the inulin aggregates formation and viscosity increasing was in the following order TEX > MIX > IQ. Consequently the mixture which stabilized with inulin and sweetened with stevioside had the prebiotic properties which may suggest to diabetic patients and children.

Keywords: prebiotic, inulin, casein, stabilization, stevioside

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26 Continuous Production of Prebiotic Pectic Oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pulp in a Continuous Cross Flow Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Neha Babbar, S. Van Roy, W. Dejonghe, S. Sforza, K. Elst

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Pectic oligosaccharides (a class of prebiotics) are non-digestible carbohydrates which benefits the host by stimulating the growth of healthy gut micro flora. Production of prebiotic pectic oligosaccharides (POS) from pectin rich agricultural residues involves a cutting of long chain polymer of pectin to oligomers of pectin while avoiding the formation of monosaccharides. The objective of the present study is to develop a two-step continuous biocatalytic membrane reactor (MER) for the continuous production of POS (from sugar beet pulp) in which conversion is combined with separation. Optimization of the ratio of POS/monosaccharides, stability and productivities of the process was done by testing various residence times (RT) in the reactor vessel with diluted (10 RT, 20 RT, and 30 RT) and undiluted (30 RT, 40 RT and 60 RT) substrate. The results show that the most stable processes (steady state) were 20 RT and 30 RT for diluted substrate and 40 RT and 60 RT for undiluted substrate. The highest volumetric and specific productivities of 20 g/L/h and 11 g/gE/h; 17 g/l/h and 9 g/gE/h were respectively obtained with 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate). Under these conditions, the permeates of the reactor test with 20 RT (diluted substrate) consisted of 80 % POS fractions while that of 40 RT (undiluted substrate) resulted in 70% POS fractions. A two-step continuous biocatalytic MER for the continuous POS production looks very promising for the continuous production of tailor made POS. Although both the processes i.e 20 RT (diluted substrate) and 40 RT (undiluted substrate) gave the best results, but for an Industrial application it is preferable to use an undiluted substrate.

Keywords: pectic oligosaccharides, membrane reactor, residence time, specific productivity, volumetric productivity

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25 Revealing Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Distinctive Oligo-and Polisaccharides of Prebiotic Relevance

Authors: Attila Kiss, Erzsébet Némedi, Zoltán Naár

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As natural prebiotic (non-digestible) carbohydrates stimulate the growth of colon microflora and contribute to maintain the health of the host, analytical studies aiming at revealing the chemical behavior of these beneficial food components came to the forefront of interest. Food processing (especially baking) may lead to a significant conversion of the parent compounds, hence it is of utmost importance to characterize the transformation patterns and the plausible decomposition products formed by thermal degradation. The relevance of this work is confirmed by the wide-spread use of these carbohydrates (fructo-oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, raffinose and resistant starch) in the food industry. More and more functional foodstuffs are being developed based on prebiotics as bioactive components. 12 different types of oligosaccharides have been investigated in order to reveal their thermal degradation characteristics. Different carbohydrate derivatives (D-fructose and D-glucose oligomers and polymers) have been exposed to elevated temperatures (150 °C 170 °C, 190 °C, 210 °C, and 220 °C) for 10 min. An advanced HPLC method was developed and used to identify the decomposition products of carbohydrates formed as a consequence of thermal treatment. Gradient elution was applied with binary solvent elution (acetonitrile, water) through amine based carbohydrate column. Evaporative light scattering (ELS) proved to be suitable for the reliable detection of the UV/VIS inactive carbohydrate degradation products. These experimental conditions and applied advanced techniques made it possible to survey all the formed intermediers. Change in oligomer distribution was established in cases of all studied prebiotics throughout the thermal treatments. The obtained results indicate increased extent of chain degradation of the carbohydrate moiety at elevated temperatures. Prevalence of oligomers with shorter chain length and even the formation of monomer sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) might be observed at higher temperatures. Unique oligomer distributions, which have not been described previously are revealed in the case of each studied, specific carbohydrate, which might result in various prebiotic activities. Resistant starches exhibited high stability when being thermal treated. The degradation process has been modeled by a plausible reaction mechanism, in which proton catalyzed degradation and chain cleavage take place.

Keywords: prebiotics, thermal degradation, fructo-oligosaccharide, HPLC, ELS detection

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24 Isolation, Purification and Characterisation of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides Derived from Extracellular Polysaccharide of Antarctic Fungus Thelebolus Sp. IITKGP-BT12

Authors: Abinaya Balasubramanian, Satyabrata Ghosh, Satyahari Dey

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Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides(NDOs) are low molecular weight carbohydrates with degree of polymerization (DP) 3-20, that are delivered intact to the large intestine. NDOs are gaining attention as effective prebiotic molecules that facilitate prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases. Recently, NDOs are being obtained by cleaving complex polysaccharides as it results in high yield and also as the former tend to display greater bioactivity. Thelebolus sp. IITKGP BT-12, a recently identified psychrophilic, Ascomycetes fungus has been reported to produce a bioactive extracellular polysaccharide(EPS). The EPS has been proved to possess strong prebiotic activity and anti- proliferative effects. The current study is an attempt to identify and optimise the most suitable method for hydrolysis of the above mentioned novel EPS into NDOs, and further purify and characterise the same. Among physical, chemical and enzymatic methods, enzymatic hydrolysis was identified as the best method and the optimum hydrolysis conditions obtained using response surface methodology were: reaction time of 24h, β-(1,3) endo-glucanase concentration of 0.53U and substrate concentration of 10 mg/ml. The NDOs were purified using gel filtration chromatography and their molecular weights were determined using MALDI-TOF. The major fraction was found to have a DP of 7,8. The monomeric units of the NDOs were confirmed to be glucose using TLC and GCMS-MS analysis. The obtained oligosaccharides proved to be non-digestible when subjected to gastric acidity, salivary and pancreatic amylases and hence could serve as efficient prebiotics.

Keywords: characterisation, enzymatic hydrolysis, non-digestible oligosaccharides, response surface methodology

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23 Culturable Microbial Diversity of Agave Artisanal Fermentations from Central Mexico

Authors: Thalía Moreno-García Malo, Santiago Torres-Ríos, María G. González-Cruz, María M. Hernández-Arroyo, Sergio R. Trejo-Estrada

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Agave atrovirens is the main source of agave sap, the raw material for the production of pulque, an artisanal fermented beverage, traditional since prehispanic times in the highlands of central Mexico. Agave sap is rich in glucose, sucrose and fructooligosaccharides, and strongly differs from agave syrup from A. tequilana, which is mostly a high molecular weight fructan. Agave sap is converted into pulque by a highly diverse microbial community which includes bacteria, yeast and even filamentous fungi. The bacterial diversity has been recently studied. But the composition of consortia derived from directed enrichments differs sharply from the whole fermentative consortium. Using classical microbiology methods, and selective liquid and solid media formulations, either bacterial or fungal consortia were developed and analyzed. Bacterial consortia able to catabolize specific prebiotic saccharides were selected and preserved for future developments. Different media formulations, selective for bacterial genera such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were also used. For yeast, specific media, osmotic pressure and unique carbon sources were used as selective agents. Results show that most groups are represented in the enrichment cultures; although very few are recoverable from the whole consortium in artisanal pulque. Diversity and abundance vary among consortia. Potential bacterial probiotics obtained from agave sap and agave juices show tolerance to hydrochloric acid, as well as strong antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: Agave, pulque, microbial consortia, prebiotic activity

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22 The Economic Impact Analysis of the Use of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Broiler Feed

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser

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Probiotics and prebiotics claimed to serve as effective alternatives to antibiotics in the poultry. This study aims to investigate the effect of different probiotics and prebiotics on the economic impact analysis of the use of probiotics and prebiotics in broiler feed. The study involved four broiler cycles, two during winter and two during summer. In the first two cycles (summer and winter), different types of prebiotics and probiotics were used. The probiotics were Bacillus coagulans (1 g/kg dried culture) and Lactobacillus (1 g/kg dried culture of 12 commercial strains), and prebiotics included fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) (5 g/kg) and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (5 g/kg). Based on the results obtained, the best treatment was chosen to be FOS, from which different ratios were used in the last two cycles during winter and summer. The levels of FOS chosen were 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7% of the diet. From an economic point of view, it was generally concluded that in all dietary treatments, food was consumed less in cycle 1 than in cycle 2, the total body weight gain was more in cycle 1 than cycle 2, and the average feed efficiency was less in cycle l than cycle 2. This indicates that the weather condition affected better in cycle 1. Also, there were very small differences between the dietary treatments in each cycle. In cycle 1, the best total feed consumption was for the FOS treatment, the highest total body weight gain and average feed efficiency were for B. coagulans. In cycle 2, all performance was better in FOS treatment. FOS significantly reduced the Salmonella sp. counts in the intestine, where the environment was driven towards acidity. FOS was the best on the average taste panel study of the produced meat. Accordingly, FOS prebiotic was chosen to be the best treatment to be used in cycles 3 and 4. The economic impact analysis generally revealed that there were no big differences between the treatments in all of the studied indicators, but there was a difference between the cycles.

Keywords: antibiotic, economic impact, prebiotic, probiotic, broiler

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21 Evaluation of Herbal Extracts for Their Potential Application as Skin Prebiotics

Authors: Anja I. Petrov, Milica B. Veljković, Marija M. Ćorović, Ana D. Milivojević, Milica B. Simović, Katarina M. Banjanac, Dejan I. Bezbradica

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One of the fundamental requirements for overall human well-being is a stable and balanced microbiome. Aside from the microorganisms that reside within the body, a large number of microorganisms, especially bacteria, swarming the human skin are in homeostasis with the host and represent a skin microbiota. Even though the immune system of the skin is capable of distinguishing between commensal and potentially harmful transient bacteria, the cutaneous microbial balance can be disrupted under certain circumstances. In that case, reduction in the skin microbiota diversity, as well as changes in metabolic activity, result in dermal infections and inflammation. Probiotics and prebiotics have the potential to play a significant role in the treatment of these skin disorders. The most common resident bacteria found on the skin, Staphylococcus epidermidis, can act as a potential skin probiotic, contributing to the protection of healthy skin from pathogen colonization, such as Staphylococcus aureus, which is related to atopic dermatitis exacerbation. However, as it is difficult to meet regulations in cosmetic products, another therapy approach could be topical prebiotic supplementation of the skin microbiota. In recent research, polyphenols are attracting scientists' interest as biomolecules with possible prebiotic effects on the skin microbiota. This research aimed to determine how herbal extracts rich in different polyphenolic compounds (lemon balm, St. John's wort, coltsfoot, pine needle, and yarrow)affected the growth of S. epidermidis and S. aureus. The first part of the study involved screening plants to determine if they could be regarded as probable candidates to be skin prebiotics. The effect of each plant on bacterial growth was examined by supplementing the nutrient medium with their extracts and comparing it with control samples (without extract). The results obtained after 24 h of incubation showed that all tested extracts influenced the growth of the examined bacteria to some extent. Since lemon balm and St. John's wort extracts displayed bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis, whereas coltsfoot inhibited both bacteria equally, they were not explored further. On the other hand, pine needle and yarrow extract led to an increase in S. epidermidis/S. aureus ratio, making them prospective candidates to be used as skin prebiotics. By examining the prebiotic effect of two extracts at different concentrations, it was revealed that, in the case of yarrow, 0.1% of extract dry matter in the fermentation medium was optimal, while for the pine needle extract, aconcentration of 0.05% was preferred, since it selectively stimulated S. epidermidis growth and inhibited S. aureus proliferation. Additionally, total polyphenols and flavonoids content of two extracts were determined, revealing different concentrations and polyphenol profiles. Since yarrow and pine extracts affected the growth of skin bacteria in a dose-dependent manner, by carefully selecting the quantities of these extracts, and thus polyphenols content, it is possible to achieve desirable alterations of skin microbiota composition, which may be suitable forthe treatment of atopic dermatitis.

Keywords: herbal extracts, polyphenols, skin microbiota, skin prebiotics

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20 The Effects of Orally Administered Bacillus Coagulans and Inulin on Prevention and Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

Authors: Khadijeh Abhari, Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush, Saeid Hosseinzadeh

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Probiotics have been considered as an approach to treat and prevent a wide range of inflammatory diseases. The spore forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic, inulin, also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotic B. coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on down regulate immune responses and progression of rheumatoid arthritis using induced arthritis rat model. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups and fed as follow: 1) control: Normal healthy rats fed by standard diet, 2) Disease control (RA): Arthritic induced (RA) rats fed by standard diet, 3) Prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin, 4) Probiotic (PRO): RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) Synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans and 6) Treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with mentioned diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for Fibrinogen (Fn), Serum Amyloid A (SAA), TNF-α and Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28 and 35 (1, 2 and 3 weeks post RA induction). Pretreatment with PRE, PRO and SYN diets significantly inhibit SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001). A significant decrease in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, was seen in PRE, PRO and SYN groups (P < 0.001) which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin. Further, there were no significant anti-inflammatory effects observed following different treatments using α1AGp as a RA indicator. Pretreatment with all supplied diets significantly inhibited the development of paw swelling induced by CFA (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Results of this study support that oral intake of probiotic B. coagulans and inulin are able to improve biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, bacillus coagulans, inulin, animal model

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19 Production of High-Content Fructo-Oligosaccharides

Authors: C. Nobre, C. C. Castro, A.-L. Hantson, J. A. Teixeira, L. R. Rodrigues, G. De Weireld

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Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are produced from sucrose by Aureobasidium pullulans in yields between 40-60% (w/w). To increase the amount of FOS it is necessary to remove the small, non-prebiotic sugars, present. Two methods for producing high-purity FOS have been developed: the use of microorganisms able to consume small saccharides; and the use of continuous chromatography to separate sugars: simulated moving bed (SMB). It is herein proposed the combination of both methods. The aim of this study is to optimize the composition of the fermentative broth (in terms of salts and sugars) that will be further purified by SMB. A yield of 0.63 gFOS.g Sucrose-1 was obtained with A. pullulans using low amounts of salts in the initial fermentative broth. By removing the small sugars, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis increased the percentage of FOS from around 56.0% to 83% (w/w) in average, losing only 10% (w/w) of FOS during the recovery process.

Keywords: fructo-oligosaccharides, microbial treatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis

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18 In Vitro Fermentation Of Rich In B-glucan Pleurotus Eryngii Mushroom: Impact On Faecal Bacterial Populations And Intestinal Barrier In Autistic Children

Authors: Georgia Saxami, Evangelia N. Kerezoudi, Evdokia K. Mitsou, Marigoula Vlassopoulou, Georgios Zervakis, Adamantini Kyriacou

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex group of developmental disorders of the brain, characterized by social and communication dysfunctions, stereotypes and repetitive behaviors. The potential interaction between gut microbiota (GM) and autism has not been fully elucidated. Children with autism often suffer gastrointestinal dysfunctions, while alterations or dysbiosis of GM have also been observed. Treatment with dietary components has been postulated to regulate GM and improve gastrointestinal symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches in autism, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the effects of Pleurotus eryngii mushroom (candidate prebiotic) and inulin (known prebiotic compound) on gut microbial composition, using faecal samples from autistic children in an in vitro batch culture fermentation system. Selected members of GM were enumerated at baseline (0 h) and after 24 h fermentation by quantitative PCR. After 24 h fermentation, inulin and P. eryngii mushroom induced a significant increase in total bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii compared to the negative control (gut microbiota of each autistic donor with no carbohydrate source), whereas both treatments induced a significant increase in levels of total bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Prevotella spp. compared to baseline (t=0h) (p for all <0.05). Furthermore, this study evaluated the impact of fermentation supernatants (FSs), derived from P. eryngii mushroom or inulin, on the expression levels of tight junctions’ genes (zonulin-1, occludin and claudin-1) in Caco-2 cells stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Pre-incubation of Caco-2 cells with FS from P. eryngii mushroom led to a significant increase in the expression levels of zonulin-1, occludin and claudin-1 genes compared to the untreated cells, the cells that were subjected to LPS and the cells that were challenged with FS from negative control (p for all <0.05). In addition, incubation with FS from P. eryngii mushroom led to the highest mean expression values for zonulin-1 and claudin-1 genes, which differed significantly compared to inulin (p for all <0.05). Overall, this research highlighted the beneficial in vitro effects of P. eryngii mushroom on the composition of GM of autistic children after 24 h of fermentation. Also, our data highlighted the potential preventive effect of P. eryngii FSs against dysregulation of the intestinal barrier, through upregulation of tight junctions’ genes associated with the integrity and function of the intestinal barrier. This research has been financed by "Supporting Researchers with Emphasis on Young Researchers - Round B", Operational Program "Human Resource Development, Education and Lifelong Learning."

Keywords: gut microbiota, intestinal barrier, autism spectrum disorders, Pleurotus Eryngii

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17 Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Kefir, Kefir Yogurt and Chickpea Yogurt

Authors: Nuray Güzeler, Elif Ari, Gözde Konuray, Çağla Özbek

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The consumption of functional foods is very common. For this reason, many products which are probiotic, prebiotic, energy reduced and fat reduced are developed. In this research, physicochemical and microbiological properties of functional kefir, kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt were examined. For this purpose, pH values, titration acidities, viscosity values, water holding capacities, serum separation values, acetaldehyde contents, tyrosine contents, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria count and mold-yeast counts were determined. As a result of performed analysis, the differences between titration acidities, serum separation values, water holding capacities, acetaldehyde and tyrosine contents of samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences on pH values, viscosities, and microbiological properties of samples (p > 0.05). Consequently industrial production of functional kefir yogurt and chickpea yogurt may be advised.

Keywords: chickpea yogurt, kefir, kefir yogurt, milk

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16 Effect of Inulin-Substituted Ice Cream on Waist Circumference and Blood Pressure of Adolescents with Abdominal Obesity

Authors: Nur H. Ahmad, Silvia S. Inge, Vanessa A. Julliete, A. Veraditias, Laila F. Febinda

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Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome and mostly found in adolescents. Waist circumference is related to abdominal obesity which has a significant effect on the increase of blood pressure. Inulin is one of prebiotic, that has health benefits by offering the potential for lipid management, that can be useful to decrease the risk factor of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the research is to evaluate the effect of 10 gram inulin-substituted ice cream in waist circumference and blood pressure of abdominal obesity adolescents. Inulin had the ability to produce Short Chain Fatty Acid which can improve blood pressure and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased in the treatment group (p=0.028) with the mean of reduction 7.35 ± 11.59 mmHg. However, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference showed no significant effect. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was decreased in control group. These results suggest that inulin-substituted ice cream used as therapeutics and prevention for the early onset of metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: blood pressure, inulin, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference

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15 Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics: Optimization of Different Cultivation Parameters on Their Microbial Production

Authors: Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed, Azza Noor El-Deen, Mohamed A. Farid, Mohamed A. Wadaan

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Recently, a great attention has been paid to the use of dietary carbohydrates as prebiotic functional foods. Among the new commercially available products, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are microbial produced from sucrose, have attracted special interest due to their valuable properties and, thus, have a great economic potential for the sugar industrial branch. They are non-cariogenic sweeteners of low caloric value, as they are not hydrolyzed by the gastro-intestinal enzymes, promoting selectively the growth of the bifidobacteria in the colon, helping to eliminate the harmful microbial species to human and animal health and preventing colon cancer. FOS has been also found to reduce cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride levels in blood. FOS has been mainly produced by microbial fructosyltransferase (FTase) enzymes. The present work outlines bioprocess optimization for different cultivation parameters affecting the production of FTase by Penicillium aurantiogriseum AUMC 5605. The optimization involves both traditional as well as fractional factorial design approaches. Additionally, the production process will be compared under batch and fed-batch conditions. Finally, the optimized process conditions will be applied to 5-L stirred tank bioreactor cultivations.

Keywords: prebiotics, fructooligosaccharides, optimization, cultivation

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14 De Novo Design of a Minimal Catalytic Di-Nickel Peptide Capable of Sustained Hydrogen Evolution

Authors: Saroj Poudel, Joshua Mancini, Douglas Pike, Jennifer Timm, Alexei Tyryshkin, Vikas Nanda, Paul Falkowski

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On the early Earth, protein-metal complexes likely harvested energy from a reduced environment. These complexes would have been precursors to the metabolic enzymes of ancient organisms. Hydrogenase is an essential enzyme in most anaerobic organisms for the reduction and oxidation of hydrogen in the environment and is likely one of the earliest evolved enzymes. To attempt to reinvent a precursor to modern hydrogenase, we computationally designed a short thirteen amino acid peptide that binds the often-required catalytic transition metal Nickel in hydrogenase. This simple complex can achieve hundreds of hydrogen evolution cycles using light energy in a broad range of temperature and pH. Biophysical and structural investigations strongly indicate the peptide forms a di-nickel active site analogous to Acetyl-CoA synthase, an ancient protein central to carbon reduction in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and capable of hydrogen evolution. This work demonstrates that prior to the complex evolution of multidomain enzymes, early peptide-metal complexes could have catalyzed energy transfer from the environment on the early Earth and enabled the evolution of modern metabolism

Keywords: hydrogenase, prebiotic enzyme, metalloenzyme, computational design

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13 Nutraceuticals of Chemical Synthesis: Special Glycans as Prebiotics for the Holobiont

Authors: M. Menapace

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Introduction: Herbal remedies express the idea of natural products used as pharmacotherapy or supplementation in case of need. Whether they are obtained directly by plants or synthesised chemically, prebiotics are considered nutraceuticals of natural origin, i.e., products made available for health reasons and self-medication. Methods: A literature review has been performed by screening manuscripts with prebiotics as herbal nutraceuticals (including chemically synthesized compounds, such as human milk oligosaccharides [HMO]) and evaluating the chemical structure of fibers in diverse food sources (principally herbals). Results: An examination of recent literature led to the fundamental concept of the holobiont as key in understanding the importance of prebiotics for the nonhost part of the metaorganism (microbiota) called a human being. This multispecies entity requires prebiotic fibers to avoid a state of disequilibrium (dysbiosis) that fosters diseases. Conclusions: Numerous human-derived glycans (special oligosaccharides that mimic in structure and function not only blood type antigens but also herbal fibers) have been identified as essential for the maintenance of the equilibrium (eubiosis) within the human holobiont in the modern age. These products are planned to be used not just as additions to baby milk formulas but as food supplements for the health of adults. In the context of alternative medicine, human-derived glycan-based supplements may represent the next step on the road to complete well-being.

Keywords: glycans, herbal remedy, prebiotics, food supplement

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12 The Effect of Probiotics Lactococcus plantarum and Prebiotic Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas sp.) on Performance and Cholesterol Meat of Local Ducks

Authors: Husmaini, Rijal Zein, Zulkarnain, Marlito Latifa, Syahrul E. Rambee

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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of probiotics–fermented purple sweet potato (PPSP) on performance and cholesterol meat of local ducks. One hundred two weeks old male local ducks placed in 4 treatment doses for ten weeks. The treatments were the dosage of PPSP, i.e., 0, 1, 2 and 3 grams of PPSP/bird/week. One gram PPSP contains 1.3 x 108 colony form unit. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS and DMRT. The results showed that PPSP administration in local ducks did not affect intestinal villi height and fed consumption (P > 0.05), but highly significant (P < 0.01) increasing duodenum thickness, body weight, carcass yield and reducing both feed conversion and cholesterol meat content. The difference in PPSP dosage (1.2 and 3 grams) had the same effect on body weight gain. However, it has a different impact on feed conversion and meat cholesterol levels. The higher the PPSP dose given, the lower the feed conversion and meat cholesterol level. This study has shown that administration of PPSP can improve performance and reduce cholesterol levels of local duck meat. Giving PPSP as much as 3 grams per bird every week has provided the best results.

Keywords: cholesterol, local duck, performance, probiotics, purple sweet potato

Procedia PDF Downloads 59