Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Penang

25 A Boundary Fitted Nested Grid Model for Tsunami Computation along Penang Island in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Mohammed Ashaque Meah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of a 2-D Boundary Fitted and Nested Grid (BFNG) model to compute the tsunami propagation of Indonesian tsunami 2004 along the coastal region of Penang in Peninsular Malaysia. In the presence of a curvilinear coastline, boundary fitted grids are suitable to represent the model boundaries accurately. On the other hand, when large gradient of velocity within a confined area is expected, the use of a nested grid system is appropriate to improve the numerical accuracy with the least grid numbers. This paper constructs a shallow water nested and orthogonal boundary fitted grid model and presents computational results of the tsunami impact on the Penang coast due to the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. The results of the numerical simulations are compared with available data.

Keywords: boundary fitted nested model, tsunami, Penang Island, 2004 Indonesian Tsunami

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24 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh

Abstract:

Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

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23 Heritage Landmark of Penang: Segara Ninda, a Mix of Culture

Authors: Normah Sulaiman, Yong Zhi Kang, Nor Hayati Hussain, Abdul Rehman Khalid

Abstract:

Segara Ninda owned by Din Ku Meh, the governor of the province Satul, a Malay man with a big role liaising with Thailand. This mansion is part of the legacy he left behind among other properties in George Town, Penang, besides his family. The island’s geographical location is strategic which has benefitted it through important trade routes for Europe, Middle, East, India, and China in the past. Due to this reasoning, various architectural styles were introduced in Penang; Late Straits Eclectic style is one of the forms of the Colonial Architectural style widely spread as vernacular shophouses in George Town. Segara Ninda is located among the mixture of nouveau-riche, historical and heritage sites at the most important street; Penang Road, which dated back to the late 18th century. This paper examines the strait eclectic style that Segara Ninda encompasses. Acknowledging the mixture of colonial architecture in Georgetown, we argue that the mansion faces challenging issues in conservation processes to be vindicated. This is reflected by analysing the spatial layout, visual elements quality, and its activity through interviews with the occupants of the mansion. The focus will be on the understanding of building form, features, and functions; respecting the architectural spaces and their activity. The methodology applied is to promote our understanding of the mix of culture that the mansion holds through documentation, observation and measuring exercises. This offers a positional interpretation of the mix of culture that the mansion holds. This conservation effort will further contribute exposure to the public and recognize it in the society as its essence is a deficiency character to the existing built environment.

Keywords: eclectic, heritage, spatial organization, culture

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22 Tsunami Disasters Preparedness among the Coastal Residence in Penang, Malaysia

Authors: A. R. Shakura, A. B. Elistina, M. S. Aini, S. Norhasmah, A. Fakhru’l-Razi

Abstract:

Tsunami 2004 was an unforeseeable event that caught Malaysia of guard resulting with 68 losses of lives and with an estimated economic loss of about 55.15billion US dollar. Scientists predict that if the earthquake epicentre originates from the Andaman-Nicobar region, the coastal population of Penang will have about 30 minutes to evacuate to safety. Thus, a study was conducted to enhance resiliency of Penang community as the area was the worst affected region during 2004 tsunami disaster. This paper is intended to examine the factors that influence intention to prepare for future tsunami among the coastal residence in Penang. The differences in the level of intention to prepare were also examined between those who experience and did not experience the 2004 tsunami. This study utilized a cross-sectional research design using a survey method. A total of 503 respondents were chosen systematically and data gathered were analysed using SPSS. Both genders, male and female were equally represented with a mean age of 44 years. Data indicated that the level of intention to prepare for tsunami disaster was moderate (M=3.72) with no significant difference in intention to prepare between those who had experienced or had not experienced the 2004 tsunami. Subsequently, results from a multiple regression analysis found that sense of community to be the most influential factor followed by subjective norm, trust, positive outcome expectancy and risk perception, explaining the 57% variance in intention to prepare. These factors reflect the influence of the collectivistic culture in Malaysia whereby households plus communities have a central role in encouraging each other. Therefore, the findings highlights the potential of adopting a community based disaster risk management as recommended by the United Nations International Strategy Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) which encompasses the cooperation between the local community and relevant stakeholders in preparing for future tsunami disaster.

Keywords: disaster management, experience, intention to prepare, tsunami

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21 Challenges in Adopting 3R Concept in the Heritage Building Restoration

Authors: H. H. Goh, K. C. Goh, T. W. Seow, N. S. Said, S. E. P. Ang

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Malaysia is rich with historic buildings, particularly in Penang and Malacca states. Restoration activities are increasingly important as these states are recognized under UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Restoration activities help to maintain the uniqueness and value of a heritage building. However, increasing in restoration activities has resulted in large quantities of waste. To cope with this problem, the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) is introduced. The 3R concept is one of the waste management hierarchies. This concept is still yet to apply in the building restoration industry compared to the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to promote the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study aims to examine the importance of 3R concept and to identify challenges in applying the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study focused on contractors and consultants who are involved in heritage restoration projects in Penang. Literature review and interviews helps to reach the research objective. Data that obtained is analyzed by using content analysis. For the research, application of 3R concept is important to conserve natural resources and reduce pollution problems. However, limited space to organise waste is the obstruction during the implementation of this concept. In conclusion, the 3R concept plays an important role in promoting environmental conservation and helping in reducing the construction waste

Keywords: 3R Concept, heritage building, restoration activities, building science

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20 The Combined Influences of Salinity, Light and Nitrogen Limitation on the Growth and Biochemical Composition of Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., Isolated from Penang National Park Coastal Waters, Malaysia

Authors: Mohamed M. Alsull

Abstract:

In the present study, two microalgae species “Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp.” isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia; were cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions “salinity, light, nitrogen limitation and starvation”. Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipid and protein contents, were estimated at mid exponential growth phase. Both Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. showed remarkable decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and protein content companied with increase in lipid content under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions. Maintaining Nannochloropsis sp. under salinity 15‰ caused only significant decrease in total protein content; while Tetraselmis sp. grown at the same salinity caused decrease in the growth rate, chlorophyll a, dry weight and total protein content only when nitrogen was available.

Keywords: biochemical composition, light, microalgae, nitrogen limitation, salinity

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19 Landslide Study Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Resistivity Survey at Bkt Kukus, Penang Island, Malaysia

Authors: Kamal Bahrin Jaafar

Abstract:

The study area is located at Bukit Kukus, Penang where the construction of twin road project in ongoing. A landslide event has occurred on 19th October 2018, which causes fatal deaths. The purpose of this study is to figure out the causes of failure, the estimated volume of failure, and its balance. The study comprises of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensing and resistivity survey. The resistivity method includes spreading three lines of 200m length resistivity survey with the depth of penetration in the subsurface not exceeding 35m. The result of UAV shows the current view of the site condition. Based on resistivity result, the dominant layer in the study area consists of residual soil/filling material with a thickness of more than 35m. Three selected cross sections from construction drawing are overlain with the current cross sections to understand more on the condition of the subsurface profile. By comparison, there is a difference between past and present topography. The combination of result from the previous data and current condition shows the calculated volume of failure is 85,000 m³, and its balance is 50,000 m³. In conclusion, the failure occurs since the contractor has conducted the construction works without following the construction drawing supplied by the consultant. Besides, the cause of failure is triggered by the geology condition, such as a fault that should be considered prior to the commencement of work.

Keywords: UAV, landslide, resistivity survey, cause of failure

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18 Pyrethroid and Organophosphate Susceptibility Status of Aedesaegypti (Linnaeus), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in Penang, Malaysia

Authors: Hadura Abu Hasan, Zairi Jaal, P. J. McCall

Abstract:

Dengue is a serious problem in Malaysia, particularly in high-density urban communities with lower socio-economic levels. This study evaluated the susceptibility of local populations of Aedesaegypti (Linnaeus), Aedesalbopictus (Skuse) and Culexquinquefasciatus (Say) from the traditional community of BaganDalam, Penang, Malaysia to lambdacyhalothrin and pirimiphos-methyl using standard World Health Organization (WHO) adult bioassay test. Unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days were exposed to WHO recommended dosages of insecticides over fixed time periods with results presented as knock-down time (KT50) for each strain.The insecticide susceptible VCRU laboratory strain was usedas control. All three specieswere highly resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin with less than 10% mortality at 24 hours after treatment. In contrast, Ae.aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl, showing 100% mortality recorded 24 hoursafter treatment. Cx. quinquefasciatuswasclassed as ‘suspected resistant’ to pirimiphos-methyl as mortality recorded 24 hours after treatment was 94-96%. The results indicate that organophosphates such as pirimiphos-methyl might be used as alternative to pyrethroid for dengue vector control in this dengue-prone area.

Keywords: vector control, aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, dengue, culex quinquefasciatus, residuals insecticides, pyrethroid, organophosphate, resistant, mosquito

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17 Influence of People and Places on the Identity of Ethnic Enclaves: A Visual Analysis of Little India, Penang

Authors: Excellent Hansda

Abstract:

Over the past years, a lot of research has been on the ethnic enclaves from historical, sociological and economic point of view. However there exist a research gap in the built environment and spatial layout of these areas. When immigrants (People) assimilate in a different place, they struggle to preserve their original identity to maintain their heritage. Then there is the Place, which is the physical manifestation of the heritage, shown through streetscape and architecture. Together 'People and Place' form a relationship with the authenticity of the enclave. As immigrants come in the host country, they try to bring their culture into the place, but at the same time, the culture of the host country also affects the immigrants. This creates conflicts not only in the lifestyle and culture of the immigrants, but also the built characteristics of the place. In the midst of such conflicts, one may easily question the authenticity of an ethnic enclave. In Malaysia, a number of ethnic enclaves emerged due to trade during the medieval times. Little India is one among the other ethnic enclaves present in Chulia Street in Malaysia. The study investigates the factors of 'Place and People', affecting the authenticity of a little India, in the context of an evolving state of Penang in Malaysia. The study is carried through extensive literature review of existing data, followed by observations drawn by visual analysis, discussions and interviews with the stakeholders of the study area. The findings of this research suggest the contribution of 'people and places' in the process of place making in an ethnic enclave. The findings are essential for conservation and further development of ethnic enclaves.

Keywords: conservation, ethnic enclaves, heritage, identity

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16 A Cloud-Based Mobile Auditing Tools for Muslim-Friendly Hospitality Services

Authors: Mohd Iskandar Illyas Tan, Zuhra Junaida Mohamad Husny, Farawahida Mohd Yusof

Abstract:

The potentials of Muslim-friendly hospitality services bring huge opportunities to operators (hoteliers, tourist guides, and travel agents), especially among the Muslim countries. In order to provide guidelines that facilitate the operations among these operators, standards and manuals have been developing by the authorities. Among the challenges is the applicability and complexity of the standard to be adopted in the real world. Mobile digital technology can be implemented to overcome those challenges. A prototype has been developed to help operators and authorities to assess their readiness in complying with MS2610:2015. This study analyzes the of mobile digital technology characteristics that are suitable for the user in conducting sharia’ compliant hospitality audit. A focus group study was conducted in the state of Penang, Malaysia that involves operators (hoteliers, tourist guide, and travel agents) as well as agencies (Islamic Tourism Center, Penang Islamic Affairs Department, Malaysian Standard) that involved directly in the implementation of the certification. Both groups were given the 3 weeks to test and provide feedback on the usability of the mobile applications in order to conduct an audit on their readiness towards the Muslim-friendly hospitality services standard developed by the Malaysian Standard. The feedbacks were analyzed and the overall results show that three criteria (ease of use, completeness and fast to complete) show the highest responses among both groups for the mobile application. This study provides the evidence that the mobile application development has huge potentials to be implemented by the Muslim-friendly hospitality services operator and agencies.

Keywords: hospitality, innovation, audit, compliance, mobile application

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15 Determining Water Infiltration Zone Using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Technique

Authors: Azim Hilmy Mohamad Yusof, Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail

Abstract:

Infiltration is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces. This paper explains how the water infiltration will be identified using 2-D resistivity imaging. Padang Minden, in Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang has been chosen as the survey area during this study. The study area consists of microcline granite with grain size of medium to coarse. 2-D Resistivity Imaging survey is used to detect subsurface layer for many years by making measurements on the ground surface. The result shows that resistivity value of 0.015 Ωm - 10 Ωm represent the salt water intrusion zone while the resistivity value of 11 Ωm - 100 Ωm is suggested as the boundary zone between the salt water intrusion zone and low saturated zone.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity imaging, microcline granite, salt water intrusion, water infiltration

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14 Social Implementation of Information Sharing Road Safety Measure in South-East Asia

Authors: Hiroki Kikuchi, Atsushi Fukuda, Hirokazu Akahane, Satoru Kobayakawa, Tuenjai Fukuda, Takeru Miyokawa

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According to WHO reports, fatalities by road traffic accidents in many countries of South-East Asia region especially Thailand and Malaysia are increasing year by year. In order to overcome these serious problems, both governments are focusing on road safety measures. In response, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) of Japan and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have begun active support based on the experiences to reduce the number of fatalities in road accidents in Japan in the past. However, even if the successful road safety measures in Japan is adopted in South-East Asian countries, it is not sure whether it will work well or not. So, it is necessary to clarify the issues and systematize the process for the implementation of road safety measures in South-East Asia. On the basis of the above, this study examined the applicability of "information sharing traffic safety measure" which is one of the successful road safety measures in Japan to the social implementation of road safety measures in South-East Asian countries. The "Information sharing traffic safety measure" is carried out traffic safety measures by stakeholders such as residents, administration, and experts jointly. In this study, we extracted the issues of implementation of road safety measures under local context firstly. This is clarifying the particular issues with its implementation in South-East Asian cities. Secondly, we considered how to implement road safety measures for solving particular issues based on the method of "information sharing traffic safety measure". In the implementation method, the location of the occurrence of a dangerous event was extracted based on the “HIYARI-HATTO” data which were obtained from the residents. This is because it is considered that the implementation of the information sharing traffic safety measure focusing on the location where the dangerous event occurs leads to the reduction of traffic accidents. Also, the target locations for the implementation of measures differ for each city. In Penang, we targeted the intersections in the downtown, while in Suphan Buri, we targeted mainly traffic control on the intercity highway. Finally, we proposed a method for implementing traffic safety measures. For Penang, we proposed a measure to improve the signal phase and showed the effect of the measure on the micro traffic simulation. For Suphan Buri, we proposed the suitable measures for the danger points extracted by collecting the “HIYARI-HATTO” data of residents to the administration. In conclusion, in order to successfully implement the road safety measure based on the "information sharing traffic safety measure", the process for social implementation of the road safety measures should be consistent and carried out repeatedly. In particular, by clarifying specific issues based on local context in South-East Asian countries, the stakeholders, not only such as government sectors but also local citizens can share information regarding road safety and select appropriate countermeasures. Finally, we could propose this approach to the administration that had the authority.

Keywords: information sharing road safety measure, social implementation, South-East Asia, HIYARI-HATTO

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13 Level of Gross Motor Development and Age Equivalents of Children 9 Years

Authors: Masri Baharom

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The purpose of the study is to identify the age group of children 9 who have experienced delays in gross motor development. Instrument used in this study is Test Gross Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) which was adopted at the international level. Gross motor development data were obtained by video recording (Sony (DRC-SR42 with a 40x optical zoom capability, and software Ultimate Studio 14) on locomotor and manipulative skills. A total n = 192 persons, children of 9 years (9.30 ± .431) at Sekolah Kebangsaan Mutiara Perdana, Bayan Lepas, Penang were involved as subjects. Children age 9 years experienced delays AELS (4.61 ± .69), AEMS (5:52 ± .62) and GMDQ (7.26 ± .2.14). The findings based on descriptive rating indicated that the performance of children age 9 years acquired low levels of AELS, MSS, AEMS and very low in LSS and GMDS.

Keywords: gross motor development score, locomotor standard score, age equivalent locomotor score, manipulative standard score, age equivalent manipulative score

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12 Level Of Gross Motor Development And Age Equivalents Of 9-Year-Old Children

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Masri Baharom

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to identify the age group of children 9 who have experienced delays in gross motor development. Instrument used in this study is Test Gross Motor Development / TGMD-2 (Ulrich, 2000) which was adopted at the international level. Gross motor development data were obtained by video recording (Sony (DRC-SR42 with a 40x optical zoom capability, and software Ultimate Studio 14) on locomotor and manipulative skills. A total n = 192 persons, children of 9 years (9.30 ± .431) at Sekolah Kebangsaan Mutiara Perdana, Bayan Lepas, Penang were involved as subjects. Children age 9 years experienced delays AELS (4.61 ± .69), AEMS (5:52 ± .62) and GMDQ (7.26 ± .2.14). The findings based on descriptive rating indicated that the performance of children age 9 years acquired low levels of AELS, MSS, AEMS and very low in LSS and GMDS.

Keywords: gross motor development score, locomotor standard score, age equivalent locomotor score, manipulative standard score, age equivalent manipulative score

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11 Factors Influencing the Housing Price: Developers’ Perspective

Authors: Ernawati Mustafa Kamal, Hasnanywati Hassan, Atasya Osmadi

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The housing industry is crucial for sustainable development of every country. Housing is a basic need that can enhance the quality of life. Owning a house is therefore the main aim of individuals. However, affordability has become a critical issue towards homeownership. In recent years, housing price in the main cities has increased tremendously to unaffordable level. This paper investigates factors influencing the housing price from developer’s perspective and provides recommendation on strategies to tackle this issue. Online and face-to-face survey was conducted on housing developers operating in Penang, Malaysia. The results indicate that (1) location; (2) macroeconomics factor; (3) demographic factors; (4) land/zoning and; (5) industry factors are the main factors influencing the housing price. This paper contributes towards better understanding on developers’ view on how the housing price is determined and form a basis for government to help tackle the housing affordability issue.

Keywords: factors influence, house price, housing developers, Malaysia

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10 Phylogenetic Relationships of the Malaysian Primates Cercopithecine Based on COI Gene Sequences

Authors: B. M. Md-Zain, N. A. Rahman, M. A. B. Abdul-Latiff, W. M. R. Idris

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We conducted molecular research to portray phylogenetic relationships of Malaysian primates particularly in the genus of Macaca. We have sequenced cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) of mitochondrial DNA of several individuals from M. fascicularis and M. arctoides. PCR amplifications were performed and COI DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalW. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using distance analyses by employing neighbor-joining algorithm (NJ). We managed to sequence 700 bp of COI DNA sequences. The tree topology showed that M. fascicularis did not clump based on phyleogeography division in Peninsular Malaysia. Individuals from Negeri Sembilan merged together with samples from Perak and Penang into one clade. In addition, phylogenetic analyses indicated that M. arctoides was classified into sinica group instead of fascicularis group supported by genetic distance data. COI gene is an effective locus to clarify phylogenetic position of M. arctoides but not in discriminating M. fascicularis population in Peninsular Malaysia.

Keywords: cercopithecine, long-tailed macaque, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca arctoides

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9 Value Engineering and Its Impact on Drainage Design Optimization for Penang International Airport Expansion

Authors: R.M. Asyraf, A. Norazah, S.M. Khairuddin, B. Noraziah

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Designing a system at present requires a vital, challenging task; to ensure the design philosophy is maintained in economical ways. This paper perceived the value engineering (VE) approach applied in infrastructure works, namely stormwater drainage. This method is adopted in line as consultants have completed the detailed design. Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagram and VE job plan, information, function analysis, creative judgement, development, and recommendation phase are used to scrutinize the initial design of stormwater drainage. An estimated cost reduction using the VE approach of 2% over the initial proposal was obtained. This cost reduction is obtained from the design optimization of the drainage foundation and structural system, where the pile design and drainage base structure are optimized. Likewise, the design of the on-site detention tank (OSD) pump was revised and contribute to the cost reduction obtained. This case study shows that the VE approach can be an important tool in optimizing the design to reduce costs.

Keywords: value engineering, function analysis system technique, stormwater drainage, cost reduction

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8 Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus)) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Penang Island, Malaysia

Authors: A. H. Maimusa, A. Abu Hassan, Nur Faeza A. Kassim

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In this study, we report on the main life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The raw life history data of the two species were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage and two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development times were 9.47 days (Ae. albopictus) and 8.76 days (Ae. aegypti). The adult pre-oviposition periods (APOP) was 1.61 day for Ae. albopictus and 2.02 for Ae. aegypti. The total pre-oviposition period (TPOP) of Ae. albopictus is significantly longer (11.66 days) than (10.75 days) for Ae. aegypti. The mean intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.124 days (Ae. albopictus) and 1.151 days (Ae. aegypti) while the mean finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.13 day (Ae. albopictus) and (1.16 d) (Ae. aegypti). The net reproductive rates (Ro) were 8.10 and 10.75 for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The mean generation time (T) for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, were 16.81 days and 15.77 days respectively. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature (r = -0.208, p > 0.05) and (r = -0.312, p > 0.05) for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The life expectancy was 19.01 and 19.94 days for Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respectively. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage and ranged between 0.01 and 0.07%. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategist characterized by a high r, a large Ro, and short T. This kind of information is crucial in understanding mosquito population dynamics in disease transmission and control.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, age-stage, life table, two-sex

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7 Growth and Biochemical Composition of Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. under Varied Growth Conditions

Authors: M. Alsull

Abstract:

In this study, Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. isolated from Penang National Park coastal waters, Malaysia, and cultivated under combined various laboratory conditions (temperature, light and nitrogen limitation and starvation). Growth rate, dry weight, chlorophyll a content, total lipids content and total carbohydrates content were estimated at mid-exponential growth phase. Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorella sp. showed remarkably decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when maintained under nitrogen limitation and starvation conditions, as well as when grown under 12:12 h light, dark regime conditions. Chlorella sp. showed ability to counter the fluctuation in temperature with no significant effects on the measured parameters; in contrast, Tetraselmis sp. showed a decrease in growth rate, chlorophyll a content and dry weight when grown under 15±1˚C temperature. Cultures maintained under nitrogen full concentration, and 24 h light regime showed decrease in total lipids content, compared with 12:12 h light, dark cycle regime, in the two tested species.

Keywords: microalgae, biochemical composition, temperature, light, nitrogen limitation

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6 Incorporating Spatial Selection Criteria with Decision-Maker Preferences of A Precast Manufacturing Plant

Authors: M. N. A. Azman, M. S. S. Ahamad

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The Construction Industry Development Board of Malaysia has been actively promoting the use of precast manufacturing in the local construction industry over the last decade. In an era of rapid technological changes, precast manufacturing significantly contributes to improving construction activities and ensuring sustainable economic growth. Current studies on the location decision of precast manufacturing plants aimed to enhanced local economic development are scarce. To address this gap, the present research establishes a new set of spatial criteria, such as attribute maps and preference weights, derived from a survey of local industry decision makers. These data represent the input parameters for the MCE-GIS site selection model, for which the weighted linear combination method is used. Verification tests on the model were conducted to determine the potential precast manufacturing sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The tests yield a predicted area of 12.87 acres located within a designated industrial zone. Although, the model is developed specifically for precast manufacturing plant but nevertheless it can be employed to other types of industries by following the methodology and guidelines proposed in the present research.

Keywords: geographical information system, multi criteria evaluation, industrialised building system, civil engineering

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5 Graphic Animation: Innovative Language Learning for Autistic Children

Authors: Norfishah Mat Rabi, Rosma Osman, Norziana Mat Rabi

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It is difficult for autistic children to mix with and be around with other people. Language difficulties are a problem that affects their social life. A lack of knowledge and ability in language are factors that greatly influence their behavior, and their ability to communicate and interact. Autistic children need to be assisted to improve their language abilities through the use of suitable learning resources. This study is conducted to identify weather graphic animation resources can help autistic children learn and use transitive verbs more effectively. The study was conducted in a rural secondary school in Penang, Malaysia. The research subject comprised of three autistic students ranging in age from 14 years to 16 years. The 14-year-old student is placed in A Class and two 16-year-old students placed in B Class. The class placement of the subjects is based on the diagnostic test results conducted by the teacher and not based on age. Data collection is done through observation and interviews for the duration of five weeks; with the researcher allocating 30 minutes for every learning activity carried out. The research finding shows that the subjects learn transitive verbs better using graphic animation compared to static pictures. It is hoped that this study will give a new perspective towards the learning processes of autistic children.

Keywords: graphic animation, autistic children, language learning, teaching

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4 Revisiting Pedestrians’ Appraisals of Urban Streets

Authors: Norhaslina Hassan, Sherina Rezvanipour, Amirhosein Ghaffarian Hoseini, Ng Siew Cheok

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The walkability features of urban streets are prominent factors that are often focused on achieving a pedestrian-friendly environment. The limited attention that walkability enhancements devote to pedestrians' experiences or perceptions, on the other hand, raises the question of whether walkability enhancement is sufficient for pedestrians to enjoy using the streets. Thus, this paper evaluates the relationship between the socio-physical components of urban streets and pedestrians’ perceptions. A total of 1152 pedestrians from five urban streets in two major Malaysian cities, Kuala Lumpur, and George Town, Penang, participated in this study. In particular, this study used pedestrian preference scores towards socio-physical attributes that exist in urban streets to assess their impact on pedestrians’ appraisals of street likeability, comfort, and safety. Through analysis, the principal component analysis extracted eight socio-physical components, which were then tested via an ordinal regression model to identify their impact on pedestrian street likeability, comfort (visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory), and safety (physical safety, environmental safety, and security). Furthermore, a non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test was used to identify whether the results were subjected to any socio-demographic differences. The results found that all eight components had some degree of effect on the appraisals. It was also revealed that pedestrians’ preferences towards the attributes as well as their appraisals significantly varied based on their age, gender, ethnicity and education. These results and their implications for urban planning are further discussed in this paper.

Keywords: pedestrian appraisal, pedestrian perception, street sociophysical attributes, walking experience

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3 A Retrospective Study on the Age of Onset for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed A. Hammad, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Muhammad Qamar

Abstract:

There is a progressive increase in the prevalence of early onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early detection of Type 2 diabetes enhances the length and/or quality of life which might result from a reduction in the severity, frequency or prevent or delay of its long-term complications. The study aims to determine the onset age for the first diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective study conducted in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang in Penang, Malaysia, January- December 2016. Records of 519 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened to collect demographic data and determine the age of first-time diabetes mellitus diagnosis. Patients classified according to the age of diagnosis, gender, and ethnicity. The study included 519 patients with age (55.6±13.7) years, female 265 (51.1%) and male 254 (48.9%). The ethnicity distribution was Malay 191 (36.8%), Chinese 189 (36.4%) and Indian 139 (26.8%). The age of Type 2 diabetes diagnosis was (42±14.8) years. The female onset of diabetes mellitus was at age (41.5±13.7) years, while male (42.6±13.7) years. Distribution of diabetic onset by ethnicity was Malay at age (40.7±13.7) years, Chinese (43.2±13.7) years and Indian (42.3±13.7) years. Diabetic onset was classified by age as follow; ≤20 years’ cohort was 33 (6.4%) cases. Group >20- ≤40 years was 190 (36.6%) patients, and category >40- ≤60 years was 270 (52%) subjects. On the other hand, the group >60 years was 22 (4.2%) patients. The range of diagnosis was between 10 and 73 years old. Conclusion: Malay and female have an earlier onset of diabetes than Indian, Chinese and male. More than half of the patients had diabetes between 40 and 60 years old. Diabetes mellitus is becoming more common in younger age <40 years. The age at diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has decreased with time.

Keywords: age of onset, diabetes diagnosis, diabetes mellitus, Malaysia, outpatients, type 2 diabetes, retrospective study

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2 Slope Stability Study at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia by Using 2-D Resistivity Method

Authors: Muhamad Iqbal Mubarak Faharul Azman, Azim Hilmy Mohd Yusof, Nur Azwin Ismail, Noer El Hidayah Ismail

Abstract:

Landslides and rock falls are the examples of environmental and engineering problems in Malaysia. There are various methods that can be applied for the environmental and engineering problems but geophysical methods are seldom applied as the main investigation technique. This paper aims to study the slope stability by using 2-D resistivity method at Jalan Tun Sardon and Sungai Batu, Pulau Pinang. These areas are considered as highly potential for unstable slope in Penang Island based on recent cases of rockfall and landslide reported especially during raining season. At both study areas, resistivity values greater than 5000 ohm-m are detected and considered as the fresh granite. The weathered granite is indicated by resistivity value of 750-1500 ohm-m with depth of < 14 meters at Sungai Batu area while at Jalan Tun Sardon area, the weathered granite with resistivity values of 750-2000 ohm-m is found at depth < 14 meter at distance 0-90 meter but at distance of 95-150 meter, the weathered granite is found at depth < 26 meter. Saturated zone is detected only at Sungai Batu with resistivity value <250 ohm-m at distance 100-120 meter. A fracture is detected at distance about 70 meter at Jalan Tun Sardon area. Unstable slope is expected to be affected by the weathered granite that dominates the subsurface of the study areas along with triggering factor such as heavy rainfall.

Keywords: 2-D resistivity, environmental issue, landslide, slope stability

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1 Effective Energy Saving of a Large Building through Multiple Approaches

Authors: Choo Hong Ang

Abstract:

The most popular approach to save energy for large commercial buildings in Malaysia is to replace the existing chiller plant of high kW/ton to one of lower kW/ton. This approach, however, entails large capital outlay with a long payment period of up to 7 years. This paper shows that by using multiple approaches, other than replacing the existing chiller plant, an energy saving of up to 20 %, is possible. The main methodology adopted was to identify and then plugged all heat ingress paths into a building, including putting up glass structures to prevent mixing of internal air-conditioned air with the ambient environment, and replacing air curtains with glass doors. This methodology could save up to 10 % energy bill. Another methodology was to change fixed speed motors of air handling units (AHU) to variable speed drive (VSD) and changing escalators to motion-sensor type. Other methodologies included reducing heat load by blocking air supply to non-occupied parcels, rescheduling chiller plant operation, changing of fluorescent lights to LED lights, and conversion from tariff B to C1. A case example of Komtar, the tallest building in Penang, is given here. The total energy bill for Komtar was USD2,303,341 in 2016 but was reduced to USD 1,842,927.39 in 2018, a significant saving of USD460,413.86 or 20 %. In terms of kWh, there was a reduction from 18, 302,204.00 kWh in 2016 to 14,877,105.00 kWh in 2018, a reduction of 3,425,099.00 kWh or 18.71 %. These methodologies used were relatively low cost and the payback period was merely 24 months. With this achievement, the Komtar building was awarded champion of the Malaysian National Energy Award 2019 and second runner up of the Asean Energy Award. This experience shows that a strong commitment to energy saving is the key to effective energy saving.

Keywords: chiller plant, energy saving measures, heat ingress, large building

Procedia PDF Downloads 39