Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1343

Search results for: thin films

1343 CuO Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis: Influence of Precursor Solution Properties

Authors: M. Lamri Zeggar, F. Bourfaa, A. Adjimi, F. Boutebakh, M. S. Aida, N. Attaf


CuO thin films were deposited by spray ultrasonic pyrolysis with different precursor solution. Two staring solution slats were used namely: Copper acetate and copper chloride. The influence of these solutions on CuO thin films proprieties of is instigated. The X rays diffraction (XDR) analysis indicated that the films deposed with copper acetate are amorphous however the films elaborated with copper chloride have monoclinic structure. UV- Visible transmission spectra showed a strong absorbance of the deposited CuO thin films in the visible region. Electrical characterization has shown that CuO thin films prepared with copper acetate have a higher electrical conductivity.

Keywords: thin films, cuprous oxide, spray pyrolysis, precursor solution

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1342 Effect of Deposition Time on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi, A. Attaf


Tin sulfide thin films on glass substrate were prepared by spray ultrasonic technique, at different experimental conditions. The influence of deposition time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on different properties of thin films, such us, (XRD) and (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. X-ray diffraction showing that thin films crystallized in SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3 phases. The results of (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 4 min are large transmittance 60% in the visible region.

Keywords: SnS, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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1341 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina


Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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1340 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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1339 Characterization the Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf A., I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi


Spray ultrasonic deposition technique of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin films know wide application due to their adequate physicochemical properties for microelectronic applications and especially for solar cells. SnS2 film was deposited by spray ultrasonic technique, on pretreated glass substrates at well-determined conditions.The effect of SnS2 concentration on different optical properties of SnS2 Thin films, such us MEB, XRD, and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. MEB characterization technique shows that the morphology of this films is uniform, compact and granular. x-ray diffraction study detects the best growth crystallinity in hexagonal structure with preferential plan (001). The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 0.1 mol/l is large transmittance greater than 25% in the visible region.The band gap energy is 2.54 Ev for molarity 0.1 mol/l.

Keywords: MEB, thin disulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-Ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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1338 Morphological Characteristic of Hybrid Thin Films

Authors: Azyuni Aziz, Syed A. Malik, Shahrul Kadri Ayop, Fatin Hana Naning


Currently, organic-inorganic hybrid thin films have attracted researchers to explore them, where these thin films can give a lot of benefits. Hybrid thin films are thin films that consist of inorganic and organic materials. Inorganic and organic materials give high efficiency and low manufacturing cost in some applications such as solar cells application, furthermore, organic materials are environment-friendly. In this study, poly (3-hexylthiophene) was choosing as organic material which combined with inorganic nanoparticles, Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) quantum dots. Samples were prepared using new technique, Angle Lifting Deposition (ALD) at different weight percentage. All prepared samples were then characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to study surface of samples and determine their surface roughness. Results show that these inorganic nanoparticles have affected the surface of samples and surface roughness of samples increased due to increasing of weight percentage of CdS in the thin films samples.

Keywords: AFM, CdS, FESEM-EDX, hybrid thin films, P3HT

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1337 Production and Characterization of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films for Biomedical Applications

Authors: C. L Popa, C.S. Ciobanu, S. L. Iconaru, P. Chapon, A. Costescu, P. Le Coustumer, D. Predoi


In this paper, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films and their antimicrobial activity characterized is reported. The resultant Ag: HAp films coated on commercially pure Si disks substrates were systematically characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy detector (X-EDS), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). GDOES measurements show that a substantial Ag content has been deposited in the films. The X-EDS and GDOES spectra revealed the presence of a material composed mainly of phosphate, calcium, oxygen, hydrogen and silver. The antimicrobial efficiency of Ag:HAp thin films against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated. Ag:HAp thin films could lead to a decrease of infections especially in the case of bone and dental implants by surface modification of implantable medical devices.

Keywords: silver, hydroxyapatite, thin films, GDOES, SEM, FTIR, antimicrobial effect

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1336 Gamma Irradiation Effects on the Crystal Structural and Transport Properties of Bi₂Te₃ Thin Films Grown by Thermal Evaporation

Authors: Shoroog Alraddadi


In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the structural and transport properties of Bismuth Telluride (Bi₂Te₃) thin films was investigated. Bi₂Te₃ thin films with thicknesses varying from 100 nm to 500 nm were grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum 10⁻⁵ Torr. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (50, 200, and 500 kGy). The crystal structure of Bi₂Te₃ thin films was studied by XRD diffraction. It was showed that the degree of crystallinity of films increases as the doses increase. Furthermore, it was found that the electrical conductivity of Bi₂Te₃ increase as the doses increase. From these results, it can be concluding that the effect of radiation on the structural and transport properties was positive at the levels of irradiation used.

Keywords: bismuth telluride, gamma irradiation, thin film, transport properties

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1335 Elaboration and Characterization of CdxZn1-XS Thin Films Deposed by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Zellagui Rahima, Chaumont Denis, Boughelout Abderrahman, Adnane Mohamed


Thin films of CdxZn1-xS were deposed by chemical bath deposition on glass substrates for photovoltaic applications. The thin films CdZnS were synthesized by chemical bath (CBD) with different deposition protocols for optimized the parameter of deposition as the temperature, time of deposition, concentrations of ion and pH. Surface morphology, optical and chemical composition properties of thin film CdZnS were investigated by SEM, EDAX, spectrophotometer. The transmittance is 80% in visible region 300 nm – 1000 nm; it has been observed in that films the grain size is between 50nm and 100nm measured by SEM image and we also note that the shape of particle is changing with the change in concentration. This result favors of application these films in solar cells; the chemical analysis with EDAX gives information about the presence of Cd, Zn and S elements and investigates the stoichiometry.

Keywords: thin film, solar cells, transmition, cdzns

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1334 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee


In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: Cr-doped ZnO, ferromagnetic properties, magnetization, sputtering, thin film

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1333 Superhydrophobic Behavior of SnO₂-TiO₂ Composite Thin Films

Authors: Debarun Dhar Purkayastha, Talinungsang


SnO₂-TiO₂ nanocomposite thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method on borosilicate glass substrate. The films were annealed at a temperature of 300ᵒC, 400ᵒC, and 500ᵒC respectively for 2h in the air. The films obtained were further modified with stearic acid in order to decrease the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films after annealing at different temperatures can be indexed to the mixture of TiO₂ (rutile and anatase) and SnO₂ (tetragonal) phases. The average crystallite size calculated from Scherrer’s formula is found to be 6 nm. The SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films were hydrophilic which on modification with stearic acid exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. The increase in hydrophobicity of SnO₂ film with stearic acid modification is attributed to the change in surface energy of the film. The films exhibit superhydrophilic behavior under UV irradiation for 1h. Thus, it is observed that stearic acid modified surfaces are superhydrophobic but convert into superhydrophilic on being subjected to UV irradiation. SnO₂-TiO₂ thin films have potential for self-cleaning applications because of photoinduced hydrophilicity under UV irradiation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, self-cleaning, superhydrophobic, surface energy

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1332 Elaboration and Characterization of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf, I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi


Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by spray ultrasonic technique on glass substrates at different experimental conditions. The effect of deposition time (2, 4, 6, and 7 min) on different properties of SnS2 thin films was investigated by XRD and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction study detected the preferential orientation growth of SnS2 compound having structure along (001) plane increased with the deposition time. The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum showed that films deposited at 4 min have high transmittance, up to 60%, in the visible region.

Keywords: structural and optical properties, tin sulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray

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1331 Fabrication of Pure and Doped MAPbI3 Thin Films by One Step Chemical Vapor Deposition Method for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: S. V. N. Pammi, Soon-Gil Yoon


In the present study, we report a facile chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for Perovskite MAPbI3 thin films by doping with Br and Cl. We performed a systematic optimization of CVD parameters such as deposition temperature, working pressure and annealing time and temperature to obtain high-quality films of CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx and CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction pattern showed that the perovskite films have a large grain size when compared to traditional spin coated thin films. To the best of our knowledge, there are very few reports on highly quality perovskite thin films by various doping such as Br and Cl using one step CVD and there is scope for significant improvement in device efficiency. In addition, their band-gap can be conveniently and widely tuned via doping process. This deposition process produces perovskite thin films with large grain size, long diffusion length and high surface coverage. The enhancement of the output power, CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films when compared to spin coated films and enhancement in output power by doping in doped films was demonstrated in detail. The facile one-step method for deposition of perovskite thin films shows a potential candidate for photovoltaic and energy harvesting applications.

Keywords: perovskite thin films, chemical vapor deposition, energy harvesting, photovoltaics

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1330 Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposition by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: Bourfaa Fouzia, Meryem Lamri Zeggar, Adjimi Amel, Mohammed Salah Aida, Nadir Attaf


Semiconductor photocatalysts such as ZnO has attracted much attention in recent years due to their various applications for the degradation of organic pollutants in water, air and in dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cell. In the present work, ZnO thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis by using different precursors namely: Acetate, chloride and zinc nitrate in order to investigate their influence on ZnO photocatalytic activity. The films crystalline structure was studied by mean of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and the films surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The films optical properties were studied by mean of UV–visible spectroscopy. The prepared films were tested for the degradation of the red reactive dye largely used in textile industry. As a result, we found that the zinc nitrate is the best precursor to prepare ZnO thin films suitable for a good photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: precursor, thins films, spray pyrolysis, zinc oxide

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1329 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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1328 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün


Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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1327 Effect of Precursors Aging Time on the Photocatalytic Activity of Zno Thin Films

Authors: N. Kaneva, A. Bojinova, K. Papazova


Thin ZnO films are deposited on glass substrates via sol–gel method and dip-coating. The films are prepared from zinc acetate dehydrate as a starting reagent. After that the as-prepared ZnO sol is aged for different periods (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 days). Nanocrystalline thin films are deposited from various sols. The effect ZnO sols aging time on the structural and photocatalytic properties of the films is studied. The films surface is studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The effect of the aging time of the starting solution is studied inrespect to photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments are conducted upon UV-light illumination and in complete darkness. The variation of the absorption spectra shows the degradation of RB5 dissolved in water, as a result of the reaction acurring on the surface of the films, and promoted by UV irradiation. The initial concentrations of dye (5, 10 and 20 ppm) and the effect of the aging time are varied during the experiments. The results show, that the increasing aging time of starting solution with respect to ZnO generally promotes photocatalytic activity. The thin films obtained from ZnO sol, which is aged 30 days have best photocatalytic degradation of the dye (97,22%) in comparison with the freshly prepared ones (65,92%). The samples and photocatalytic experimental results are reproducible. Nevertheless, all films exhibit a substantial activity in both UV light and darkness, which is promising for the development of new ZnO photocatalysts by sol-gel method.

Keywords: ZnO thin films, sol-gel, photocatalysis, aging time

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1326 Effect of O2 Pressure of Fe-Doped TiO2 Nanostructure on Morphology Properties for Gas Sensing

Authors: Samar Y. Al-Dabagh, Adawiya J. Haider, Mirvat D. Majed


Pure nanostructure TiO2 and thin films doped with transition metal Fe were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si (111) substrate. The thin films structures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology properties were determined from atomic force microscopy (AFM), which shows that the roughness increases when TiO2 is doped with Fe. Results show TiO2 doped with Fe metal thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate has maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapor at 10 mbar oxygen pressure than at 0.01 and 0.1 mbar with optimum operation temperature of 250°C.

Keywords: pulsed laser deposition (PLD), TiO2 doped thin films, nanostructure, gas sensor

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1325 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao


In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients

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1324 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal


Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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1323 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D. E. Arafah


Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS

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1322 Effects of Copper and Cobalt Co-Doping on Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Tio2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol Gel Method

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreeddine Toubal


Un-doped TiO2, Co single doped TiO2 and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 thin films have been growth on silicon substrates by the sol-gel dip coating technique. We mainly investigated both effects of the dopants and annealing temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 films using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of Co-doped and (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films were confirmed by XRD, Raman and FTIR studies. The average grain sizes of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites were increased with annealing temperature. AFM and SEM reveal a completely the various nanostructures of CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites thin films. The films exhibit a high optical reflectance with a large band gap. The highest electrical conductivity was obtained for the (Cu-Co) co-doped TiO2 films. The polyhedral surface morphology might possibly improve the surface contact between particle sizes and then contribute to better electron mobility as well as conductivity. The obtained results suggest that the prepared TiO2 films can be used for optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, TiO2 thin films, CoTiO3-TiO2 nanocomposites films, Electrical conductivity

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1321 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by CBD at Different Bath pH

Authors: Lynda Beddek, Nadhir Attaf, Mohamed Salah Aida


PbS thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precursor aqueous bath contained 1 mole of lead nitrate, 1 mole of Thiourea and complexing agents (triethanolamine (TEA) and NaOH). Bath temperature and deposition time were fixed at 60°C and 3 hours, respectively. However, the PH of bath was varied from 10.5 to 12.5. Structural properties of the deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The preferred direction was revealed to be along (111) and the PbS crystal structure was confirmed. Strains and grains sizes were also calculated. Optical studies showed that films thicknesses do not exceed 600nm. Energy band gap values of films decreases with increase in pH and reached a value ~ 0.4eV at pH equal 12.5. The small value of the energy band gap makes PbS one of the most interesting candidate for solar energy conversion near the infrared ray.

Keywords: CBD, PbS, pH, thin films, x-ray diffraction

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1320 Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured Acropora-Like Lead Sulfide Thin Films

Authors: S. Kaci, A. Keffous, O. Fellahi, I. Bozetine, H. Menari


In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of Acropora-like lead sulfide nanostructured thin films using chemical bath deposition. The method has the strong points of low temperature and no surfactant, comparing with the other method. The preferential growth directions of the broad branches were indexed as along (200) directions. The photoelectrochemical property of the as-deposited thin films was also investigated. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed in the aim to determine the flat band potential (Vfb) and to confirm the n-type character of PbS, elucidated from the J(V) curves both in the dark and under illumination. The apparition of the photocurrent Jph started at a potential VON of −0.41 V/ECS and increased towards the anodic direction, which is typical of n-type behavior. The near infrared absorbance spectrum displayed an absorbance edge at 1959 nm, showing blue shift comparing to bulk PbS (3020 nm). These nanostructured lead sulfide thin films may have potential application as dispersed photoelectrode capable of generating H2 under visible light.

Keywords: lead sulfide, nanostructures, photo-conversion, thin films

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1319 Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres

Authors: J. Pantoja Enríquez, G. P. Hernández, G. I. Duharte, X. Mathew, J. Moreira, P. J. Sebastian


Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.

Keywords: cds, thin films, annealing, optical, electrical properties

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1318 Theoretical and Experimental Study of Iron Oxide Thin Film

Authors: Fahima Djefaflia, M. Loutfi Benkhedir


The aim of this work was to development and characterisation of iron oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. Influences of deposition parameters pile temperature on structural and optical properties have been studied Thin films are analysed by various techniques of materials. The structural characterization of films by analysis of spectra of X-ray diffraction showed that the films prepared at T=350,400,450 are crystalline and amorphous at T=300C. For particular condition, two phases hematiteFe2O3 and magnetite Fe3O4 have been observed.The UV-Visible spectrophotometer of this films confirms that it is possible to obtain films with a transmittance of about 15-30% in the visible range. In addition, this analysis allowed us to determine the optical gap and disorder of films. We conclude that the increase in temperature is accompanied by a reduction in the optical gap with increasing in disorder. An ab initio calculation for this phase shows that the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: spray pyrolysis technique, iron oxide, ab initio calculation, optical properties

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1317 Structural and Optical Properties of RF-Sputtered ZnS and Zn(S,O) Thin Films

Authors: Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mounir Chaik, Hind El Aakib, Mohamed Aggour, Abdelkader Outzourhit


Zinc sulfide [ZnS] and oxygenated zinc sulfide Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited on glass substrates, by reactive cathodic radio-frequency (RF) sputtering. The substrates power and percentage of oxygen were varied in the range of 100W to 250W and from 5% to 20% respectively. The structural, morphological and optical properties of these thin films were investigated. The optical properties (mainly the refractive index, absorption coefficient and optical band gap) were examined by optical transmission measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-near Infrared wavelength range. XRD analysis indicated that all sputtered ZnS films were a single phase with a preferential orientation along the (111) plane of zinc blend (ZB). The crystallite size was in the range of 19.5 nm to 48.5 nm, the crystallite size varied with RF power reaching a maximum at 200 W. The Zn(O,S) films, on the other hand, were amorphous. UV-Visible, measurements showed that the ZnS film had more than 80% transmittance in the visible wavelength region while that of Zn(O,S is 85%. Moreover, it was observed that the band gap energy of the ZnS films increases slightly from 3.4 to 3.52 eV as the RF power was increased. The optical band gap of Zn(O,S), on the other hand, decreased from 4.2 to 3.89 eV as the oxygen partial pressure is increased in the sputtering atmosphere at a fixed RF-power. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed smooth surfaces for both type of films. The X-ray reflectometry measurements on the ZnS films showed that the density of the films (3.9 g/cm3) is close that of bulk ZnS.

Keywords: thin films Zn(O, S) properties, Zn(O, S) by Rf-sputtering, ZnS for solar cells, thin films for renewable energy

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1316 Optical and Magnetic Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Ni Co-Doped TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: Rabah Bensaha, Badreddine Toubal


We investigate the structural, optical and magnetic properties of TiO2, Co-doped TiO2, Ni-doped TiO2 and Co-Ni co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip coating method. Fully anatase phase was obtained by adding metal ions without any detectable impurity phase or oxide formed. AFM and SEM micrographs clearly confirm that the addition of Co-Ni affects the shape of anatase nanoparticles. The crystallite sizes and surface roughness of TiO2 films increase with Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping, respectively. The refractive index, thickness and optical band gap values of the films were obtained by means of optical transmittance spectra measurements. The band gap of TiO2 sample was decreased by Co-doping, Ni-doping and Co–Ni co-doping TiO2 films. Both undoped and Co-Ni co-doped films were found to be ferromagnetic at room temperature may due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defect and the probable formation of metal clusters Co-Ni.

Keywords: Co-Ni co-doped, anatase TiO2, ferromagnetic, sol-gel method, thin films

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1315 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Gd Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method

Authors: S. M. AL-Shomar, N. B. Ibrahim, Sahrim Hj. Ahmad


ZnO thin films with various Gd doping concentration (0, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 mol/L) have been synthesized by sol–gel method on quartz substrates at annealing temperature of 600 ºC. X-ray analysis reveals that ZnO(Gd) films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. No peaks that correspond to Gd metal clusters or gadolinium acetylacetonate are detected in the patterns. The position of the main peak (101) shifts to higher angles after doping. The surface morphologies studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) showed that the grain size and the films thickness reduced gradually with the increment of Gd concentration. The roughness of ZnO film investigated by an atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the films are smooth and high dense grain. The roughness of doped films decreased from 6.05 to 4.84 rms with the increment of dopant concentration.The optical measurements using a UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy showed that the Gd doped ZnO thin films have high transmittance (above 80%) in the visible range and the optical band gap increase with doping concentration from 3.13 to 3.39 eV. The doped films show low electrical resistivity 2.6 × 10-3Ω high doping concentration.

Keywords: Gd doped ZnO, electric, optics, microstructure

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1314 Structural and Optical Study of Cu doped ZnS Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: Hamid Merzouk, D. T. Talantikite, H. Haddad, Amel Tounsi


ZnS is an important II-VI binary compound with large band-gap energy at room temperature. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. The depositions are performed by a simple chemical bath deposition route. Structural properties are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical transmittance is investigated by the UV-visible spectroscopy at room temperature.

Keywords: chemical, bath, method, Cu, doped, ZnS, thin, films

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