Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3306

Search results for: building envelope

3306 A Comparative Analysis of Thermal Performance of Building Envelope Types over Time

Authors: Aram Yeretzian, Yaser Abunnasr, Zahraa Makki, Betina Abi Habib


Developments in architectural building typologies that are informed by prevalent construction techniques and socio-cultural practices generate different adaptations in the building envelope. While different building envelope types exhibit different climate responsive passive strategies, the individual and comparative thermal performance analysis resulting from these technologies is yet to be understood. This research aims to develop this analysis by selecting three building envelope types from three distinct building traditions by measuring the heat transmission in the city of Beirut. The three typical residential buildings are selected from the 1920s, 1940s, and 1990s within the same street to ensure similar climatic and urban conditions. Climatic data loggers are installed inside and outside of the three locations to measure indoor and outdoor temperatures, relative humidity, and heat flow. The analysis of the thermal measurements is complemented by site surveys on window opening, lighting, and occupancy in the three selected locations and research on building technology from the three periods. Apart from defining the U-value of the building envelopes, the collected data will help evaluate the indoor environments with respect to the thermal comfort zone. This research, thus, validates and contextualizes the role of building technologies in relation to climate responsive design.

Keywords: architecture, wall construction, envelope performance, thermal comfort

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3305 Classification of Opaque Exterior Walls of Buildings from a Sustainable Point of View

Authors: Michelle Sánchez de León Brajkovich, Nuria Martí Audi


The envelope is one of the most important elements when one analyzes the operation of the building in terms of sustainability. Taking this into consideration, this research focuses on setting a classification system of the envelopes opaque systems, crossing the knowledge and parameters of construction systems with requirements in terms of sustainability that they may have, to have a better understanding of how these systems work with respect to their sustainable contribution to the building. Therefore, this paper evaluates the importance of the envelope design on the building sustainability. It analyses the parameters that make the construction systems behave differently in terms of sustainability. At the same time it explains the classification process generated from this analysis that results in a classification where all opaque vertical envelope construction systems enter.

Keywords: sustainable, exterior walls, envelope, facades, construction systems, energy efficiency

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3304 Conceptual Perimeter Model for Estimating Building Envelope Quantities

Authors: Ka C. Lam, Oluwafunmibi S. Idowu


Building girth is important in building economics and mostly used in quantities take-off of various cost items. Literature suggests that the use of conceptual quantities can improve the accuracy of cost models. Girth or perimeter of a building can be used to estimate conceptual quantities. Hence, the current paper aims to model the perimeter-area function of buildings shapes for use at the conceptual design stage. A detailed literature review on existing building shape indexes was carried out. An empirical approach was used to study the relationship between area and the shortest length of a four-sided orthogonal polygon. Finally, a mathematical approach was used to establish the observed relationships. The empirical results obtained were in agreement with the mathematical model developed. A new equation termed “conceptual perimeter equation” is proposed. The equation can be used to estimate building envelope quantities such as external wall area, external finishing area and scaffolding area before sketch or detailed drawings are prepared.

Keywords: building envelope, building shape index, conceptual quantities, cost modelling, girth

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3303 Sustainable Design for Building Envelope in Hot Climates: A Case Study for the Role of the Dome as a Component of an Envelope in Heat Exchange

Authors: Akeel Noori Almulla Hwaish


Architectural design is influenced by the actual thermal behaviour of building components, and this in turn depends not only on their steady and periodic thermal characteristics, but also on exposure effects, orientation, surface colour, and climatic fluctuations at the given location. Design data and environmental parameters should be produced in an accurate way for specified locations, so that architects and engineers can confidently apply them in their design calculations that enable precise evaluation of the influence of various parameters relating to each component of the envelope, which indicates overall thermal performance of building. The present paper will be carried out with an objective of thermal behaviour assessment and characteristics of the opaque and transparent parts of one of the very unique components used as a symbolic distinguished element of building envelope, its thermal behaviour under the impact of solar temperatures, and its role in heat exchange related to a specific U-value of specified construction materials alternatives. The research method will consider the specified Hot-Dry weather and new mosque in Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Also, data will be presented in light of the criteria of indoor thermal comfort in terms of design parameters and thermal assessment for a“model dome”. Design alternatives and considerations of energy conservation, will be discussed as well using comparative computer simulations. Findings will be incorporated to outline the conclusions clarifying the important role of the dome in heat exchange of the whole building envelope for approaching an indoor thermal comfort level and further research in the future.

Keywords: building envelope, sustainable design, dome impact, hot-climates, heat exchange

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3302 Investigation on the Physical Conditions of Façade Systems of Campus Buildings by Infrared Thermography Tests

Authors: N. Türkmenoğlu Bayraktar, E. Kishalı


Campus buildings are educational facilities where various amount of energy consumption for lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation occurs. Some of the new universities in Turkey, where this investigation takes place, still continue their educational activities in existing buildings primarily designed for different architectural programs and converted to campus buildings via changes of function, space organizations and structural interventions but most of the time without consideration of appropriate micro climatic conditions. Reducing energy consumption in these structures not only contributes to the national economy but also mitigates the negative effects on environment. Furthermore, optimum thermal comfort conditions should be provided during the refurbishment of existing campus structures and their building envelope. Considering this issue, the first step is to investigate the climatic performance of building elements regarding refurbishment process. In the context of the study Kocaeli University, Faculty of Design and Architecture building constructed in 1980s in Anıtpark campus located in the central part of Kocaeli, Turkey was investigated. Climatic factors influencing thermal conditions; the deteriorations on building envelope; temperature distribution; heat losses from façade elements observed by thermography were presented in order to improve strategies for retrofit process for the building envelope. Within the scope of the survey, refurbishment strategies towards providing optimum climatic comfort conditions, increasing energy efficiency of building envelope were proposed.

Keywords: building envelope, IRT, refurbishment, non-destructive test

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3301 Multi-Factor Optimization Method through Machine Learning in Building Envelope Design: Focusing on Perforated Metal Façade

Authors: Jinwooung Kim, Jae-Hwan Jung, Seong-Jun Kim, Sung-Ah Kim


Because the building envelope has a significant impact on the operation and maintenance stage of the building, designing the facade considering the performance can improve the performance of the building and lower the maintenance cost of the building. In general, however, optimizing two or more performance factors confronts the limits of time and computational tools. The optimization phase typically repeats infinitely until a series of processes that generate alternatives and analyze the generated alternatives achieve the desired performance. In particular, as complex geometry or precision increases, computational resources and time are prohibitive to find the required performance, so an optimization methodology is needed to deal with this. Instead of directly analyzing all the alternatives in the optimization process, applying experimental techniques (heuristic method) learned through experimentation and experience can reduce resource waste. This study proposes and verifies a method to optimize the double envelope of a building composed of a perforated panel using machine learning to the design geometry and quantitative performance. The proposed method is to achieve the required performance with fewer resources by supplementing the existing method which cannot calculate the complex shape of the perforated panel.

Keywords: building envelope, machine learning, perforated metal, multi-factor optimization, façade

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3300 A New Perspective: The Use of Low-Cost Phase Change Material in Building Envelope System

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan


The use of the low-cost paraffinic phase change material can be rather effective in smart building envelopes in the South China region. Particular attention has to be paid to the PCM optimization as an exploitation conditions and the envelope insulation changes its thermal characteristics. The studied smart building envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum exterior, polymeric insulation foam, phase change material and reinforced interior gypsum board. A prototype sample was tested to validate the numerical scheme using EnergryPlus software. Three scenarios of insulation thermal resistance loss (ΔR/R = 0%, 25%, 50%) were compared with the different PCM thicknesses (tP=0, 1, 2.5, 5 mm). The comparisons were carried out for a west facing enveloped office building (50 storey). PCM optimization was applied to find the maximum efficiency for the different ΔR/R cases. It was found, during the optimization, that the PCM is an important smart component, lowering the peak energy demand up to 2.7 times. The results are not influenced by the insulation aging in terms of ΔR/R during long-term exploitation. In hot and humid climates like Hong Kong, the insulation core of the smart systems is recommended to be laminated completely. This can be very helpful in achieving an acceptable payback period.

Keywords: smart building envelope, thermal performance, phase change material, energy efficiency, large-scale sandwich panel

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3299 Tuning of the Thermal Capacity of an Envelope for Peak Demand Reduction

Authors: Isha Rathore, Peeyush Jain, Elangovan Rajasekar


The thermal capacity of the envelope impacts the cooling and heating demand of a building and modulates the peak electricity demand. This paper presents the thermal capacity tuning of a building envelope to minimize peak electricity demand for space cooling. We consider a 40 m² residential testbed located in Hyderabad, India (Composite Climate). An EnergyPlus model is validated using real-time data. A Parametric simulation framework for thermal capacity tuning is created using the Honeybee plugin. Diffusivity, Thickness, layer position, orientation and fenestration size of the exterior envelope are parametrized considering a five-layered wall system. A total of 1824 parametric runs are performed and the optimum wall configuration leading to minimum peak cooling demand is presented.

Keywords: thermal capacity, tuning, peak demand reduction, parametric analysis

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3298 Effective Thermal Retrofitting Methods to Improve Energy Efficiency of Existing Dwellings in Sydney

Authors: Claire Far, Sara Wilkinson, Deborah Ascher Barnstone


Energy issues have been a growing concern in current decades. Limited energy resources and increasing energy consumption from one side and environmental pollution and waste of resources from the other side have substantially affected the future of human life. Around 40 percent of total energy consumption of Australian buildings goes to heating and cooling due to the low thermal performance of the buildings. Thermal performance of buildings determines the amount of energy used for heating and cooling of the buildings which profoundly influences energy efficiency. Therefore, employing sustainable design principles and effective use of construction materials for building envelope can play crucial role in the improvement of energy efficiency of existing dwellings and enhancement of thermal comfort of the occupants. The energy consumption for heating and cooling normally is determined by the quality of the building envelope. Building envelope is the part of building which separates the habitable areas from exterior environment. Building envelope consists of external walls, external doors, windows, roof, ground and the internal walls that separate conditioned spaces from non-condition spaces. The energy loss from the building envelope is the key factor. Heat loss through conduction, convection and radiation from building envelope. Thermal performance of the building envelope can be improved by using different methods of retrofitting depending on the climate conditions and construction materials. Based on the available studies, the importance of employing sustainable design principles has been highlighted among the Australian building professionals. However, the residential building sector still suffers from a lack of having the best practice examples and experience for effective use of construction materials for building envelope. As a result, this study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing dwellings in Sydney, the most populated city in Australia. Based on the research findings, the best thermal retrofitting methods for increasing thermal comfort and energy efficiency of existing residential dwellings as well as reducing their environmental impact and footprint have been identified and proposed.

Keywords: thermal comfort, energy consumption, residential dwellings, sustainable design principles, thermal retrofit

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3297 Thermal Simulation for Urban Planning in Early Design Phases

Authors: Diego A. Romero Espinosa


Thermal simulations are used to evaluate comfort and energy consumption of buildings. However, the performance of different urban forms cannot be assessed precisely if an environmental control system and user schedules are considered. The outcome of such analysis would lead to conclusions that combine the building use, operation, services, envelope, orientation and density of the urban fabric. The influence of these factors varies during the life cycle of a building. The orientation, as well as the surroundings, can be considered a constant during the lifetime of a building. The structure impacts the thermal inertia and has the largest lifespan of all the building components. On the other hand, the building envelope is the most frequent renovated component of a building since it has a great impact on energy performance and comfort. Building services have a shorter lifespan and are replaced regularly. With the purpose of addressing the performance, an urban form, a specific orientation, and density, a thermal simulation method were developed. The solar irradiation is taken into consideration depending on the outdoor temperature. Incoming irradiation at low temperatures has a positive impact increasing the indoor temperature. Consequently, overheating would be the combination of high outdoor temperature and high irradiation at the façade. On this basis, the indoor temperature is simulated for a specific orientation of the evaluated urban form. Thermal inertia and building envelope performance are considered additionally as the materiality of the building. The results of different thermal zones are summarized using the 'Degree day method' for cooling and heating. During the early phase of a design process for a project, such as Masterplan, conclusions regarding urban form, density and materiality can be drawn by means of this analysis.

Keywords: building envelope, density, masterplanning, urban form

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3296 Simplified 3R2C Building Thermal Network Model: A Case Study

Authors: S. M. Mahbobur Rahman


Whole building energy simulation models are widely used for predicting future energy consumption, performance diagnosis and optimum control.  Black box building energy modeling approach has been heavily studied in the past decade. The thermal response of a building can also be modeled using a network of interconnected resistors (R) and capacitors (C) at each node called R-C network. In this study, a model building, Case 600, as described in the “Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Program”, ASHRAE standard 140, is studied along with a 3R2C thermal network model and the ASHRAE clear sky solar radiation model. Although building an energy model involves two important parts of building component i.e., the envelope and internal mass, the effect of building internal mass is not considered in this study. All the characteristic parameters of the building envelope are evaluated as on Case 600. Finally, monthly building energy consumption from the thermal network model is compared with a simple-box energy model within reasonable accuracy. From the results, 0.6-9.4% variation of monthly energy consumption is observed because of the south-facing windows.

Keywords: ASHRAE case study, clear sky solar radiation model, energy modeling, thermal network model

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3295 A Review on the Use of Salt in Building Construction

Authors: Vesna Pungercar, Florian Musso


Identifying materials that can substitute rare or expensive natural resources is one of the key challenges for improving resource efficiency in the building sector. With a growing world population and rising living standards, more and more salt is produced as waste through seawater desalination and potash mining processes. Unfortunately, most of the salt is directly disposed of into nature, where it causes environmental pollution. On the other hand, salt is affordable, is used therapeutically in various respiratory treatments, and can store humidity and heat. It was, therefore, necessary to determine salt materials already in use in building construction and their hygrothermal properties. This research aims to identify salt materials from different scientific branches and historically, to investigate their properties and prioritize the most promising salt materials for indoor applications in a thermal envelope. This was realized through literature review and classification of salt materials into three groups (raw salt materials, composite salt materials, and processed salt materials). The outcome of this research shows that salt has already been used as a building material for centuries and has a potential for future applications due to its hygrothermal properties in a thermal envelope.

Keywords: salt, building material, hygrothermal properties, environment

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3294 Wind Energy Loss Phenomenon Over Volumized Building Envelope with Porous Air Portals

Authors: Ying-chang Yu, Yuan-lung Lo


More and more building envelopes consist of the construction of balconies, canopies, handrails, sun-shading, vertical planters or gardens, maintenance platforms, display devices, lightings, ornaments, and also the most commonly seen double skin system. These components form a uniform but three-dimensional disturbance structure and create a complex surface wind field in front of the actual watertight building interface. The distorted wind behavior would affect the façade performance and building ventilation. Comparing with sole windscreen walls, these three-dimensional structures perform like distributed air portal assembly, and each portal generates air turbulence and consume wind pressure and energy simultaneously. In this study, we attempted to compare the behavior of 2D porous windscreens without internal construction, porous tubular portal windscreens, porous tapered portal windscreens, and porous coned portal windscreens. The wind energy reduction phenomenon is then compared to the different distributed air portals. The experiments are conducted in a physical wind tunnel with 1:25 in scale to simulate the three-dimensional structure of a real building envelope. The experimental airflow was set up to smooth flow. The specimen is designed as a plane with a distributed tubular structure behind, and the control group uses different tubular shapes but the same fluid volume to observe the wind damping phenomenon of various geometries.

Keywords: volumized building envelope, porous air portal, wind damping, wind tunnel test, wind energy loss

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3293 Applying ASHRAE Standards on the Hospital Buildings of UAE

Authors: Hanan M. Taleb


Energy consumption associated with buildings has a significant impact on the environment. To that end, and as a transaction between the inside and outside and between the building and urban space, the building skin plays an especially important role. It provides protection from the elements; demarcates private property and creates privacy. More importantly, it controls the admission of solar radiation. Therefore, designing the building skin sustainably will help to achieve optimal performance in terms of both energy consumption and thermal comfort. Unfortunately, with accelerating construction expansion, many recent buildings do not pay attention to the importance of the envelope design. This piece of research will highlight the importance of this part of the creation of buildings by providing evidence of a significant reduction in energy consumption if the envelopes are redesigned. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to enhance the performance of the hospital envelope in order to achieve sustainable performance. A hospital building sited in Abu Dhabi, in the UAE, has been chosen to act as a case study. A detailed analysis of the annual energy performance of the case study will be performed with the use of a computerised simulation; this is in order to explore their energy performance shortcomings. The energy consumption of the base case will then be compared with that resulting from the new proposed building skin. The results will inform architects and designers of the savings potential from various strategies.

Keywords: ASHREA, building skin, building envelopes, hospitals, Abu Dhabi, UAE, IES software

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3292 Effect of Using PCMs and Transparency Rations on Energy Efficiency and Thermal Performance of Buildings in Hot Climatic Regions. A Simulation-Based Evaluation

Authors: Eda K. Murathan, Gulten Manioglu


In the building design process, reducing heating and cooling energy consumption according to the climatic region conditions of the building are important issues to be considered in order to provide thermal comfort conditions in the indoor environment. Applying a phase-change material (PCM) on the surface of a building envelope is the new approach for controlling heat transfer through the building envelope during the year. The transparency ratios of the window are also the determinants of the amount of solar radiation gain in the space, thus thermal comfort and energy expenditure. In this study, a simulation-based evaluation was carried out by using Energyplus to determine the effect of coupling PCM and transparency ratio when integrated into the building envelope. A three-storey building, a 30m x 30m sized floor area and 10m x 10m sized courtyard are taken as an example of the courtyard building model, which is frequently seen in the traditional architecture of hot climatic regions. 8 zones (10m x10m sized) with 2 exterior façades oriented in different directions on each floor were obtained. The percentage of transparent components on the PCM applied surface was increased at every step (%30, %40, %50). For every zone differently oriented, annual heating, cooling energy consumptions, and thermal comfort based on the Fanger method were calculated. All calculations are made for the zones of the intermediate floor of the building. The study was carried out for Diyarbakır provinces representing the hot-dry climate region and Antalya representing the hot-humid climate region. The increase in the transparency ratio has led to a decrease in heating energy consumption but an increase in cooling energy consumption for both provinces. When PCM is applied to all developed options, It was observed that heating and cooling energy consumption decreased in both Antalya (6.06%-19.78% and %1-%3.74) and Diyarbakır (2.79%-3.43% and 2.32%-4.64%) respectively. When the considered building is evaluated under passive conditions for the 21st of July, which represents the hottest day of the year, it is seen that the user feels comfortable between 11 pm-10 am with the effect of night ventilation for both provinces.

Keywords: building envelope, heating and cooling energy consumptions, phase change material, transparency ratio

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3291 A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment: The Design of a High Performance Building Envelope and the Impact on Operational and Embodied Energy

Authors: Stephanie Wall, Guido Wimmers


The construction and operation of buildings greatly contribute to environmental degradation through resource and energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The design of the envelope system affects the environmental impact of a building in two major ways; 1) high thermal performance and air tightness can significantly reduce the operational energy of the building and 2) the material selection for the envelope largely impacts the embodied energy of the building. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a scientific methodology that is used to systematically analyze the environmental load of processes or products, such as buildings, over their life. The paper will discuss the results of a comparative LCA of different envelope designs and the long-term monitoring of the Wood Innovation Research Lab (WIRL); a Passive House (PH), industrial building under construction in Prince George, Canada. The WIRL has a footprint of 30m x 30m on a concrete raft slab foundation and consists of shop space as well as a portion of the building that includes a two-story office/classroom space. The lab building goes beyond what was previously thought possible in regards to energy efficiency of industrial buildings in cold climates due to their large volume to surface ratio, small floor area, and high air change rate, and will be the first PH certified industrial building in Canada. These challenges were mitigated through the envelope design which utilizes solar gains while minimizing overheating, reduces thermal bridges with thick (570mm) prefabricated truss walls filled with blown in mineral wool insulation and a concrete slab and roof insulated with EPS rigid insulation. The envelope design results in lower operational and embodied energy when compared to buildings built to local codes or with steel. The LCA conducted using Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings identifies project specific hot spots as well illustrates that for high-efficiency buildings where the operational energy is relatively low; the embodied energy of the material selection becomes a significant design decision as it greatly impacts the overall environmental footprint of the building. The results of the LCA will be reinforced by long-term monitoring of the buildings envelope performance through the installation of temperature and humidity sensors throughout the floor slab, wall and roof panels and through detailed metering of the energy consumption. The data collected from the sensors will also be used to reinforce the results of hygrothermal analysis using WUFI®, a program used to verify the durability of the wall and roof panels. The WIRL provides an opportunity to showcase the use of wood in a high performance envelope of an industrial building and to emphasize the importance of considering the embodied energy of a material in the early stages of design. The results of the LCA will be of interest to leading researchers and scientists committed to finding sustainable solutions for new construction and high-performance buildings.

Keywords: high performance envelope, life cycle assessment, long term monitoring, passive house, prefabricated panels

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3290 Solving the Overheating on the Top Floor of Energy Efficient Houses: The Envelope Improvement

Authors: Sormeh Sharifi, Wasim Saman, Alemu Alemu, David Whaley


Although various energy rating schemes and compulsory building codes are using around the world, there are increasing reports on overheating in energy efficient dwellings. Given that the cooling demand of buildings is rising globally because of the climate change, it is more likely that the overheating issue will be observed more. This paper studied the summer indoor temperature in eight air-conditioned multi-level houses in Adelaide which have complied with the Australian Nationwide Houses Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) minimum energy performance of 7.5 stars. Through monitored temperature, this study explores that overheating is experienced on 75.5% of top floors during cooling periods while the air-conditioners were running. This paper found that the energy efficiency regulations have significantly improved thermal comfort in low floors, but not on top floors, and the energy-efficient house is not necessarily adapted with the air temperature fluctuations particularly on top floors. Based on the results, this study suggests that the envelope of top floors for multi-level houses in South Australian context need new criteria to make the top floor more heat resistance in order to: preventing the overheating, reducing the summer pick electricity demand and providing thermal comfort. Some methods are used to improve the envelope of the eight case studies. The results demonstrate that improving roofs was the most effective part of the top floors envelope in terms of reducing the overheating.

Keywords: building code, climate change, energy-efficient building, energy rating, overheating, thermal comfort

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3289 Thermal Characterization of Smart and Large-Scale Building Envelope System in a Subtropical Climate

Authors: Andrey A. Chernousov, Ben Y. B. Chan


The thermal behavior of a large-scale, phase change material (PCM) enhanced building envelope system was studied in regard to the need for pre-fabricated construction in subtropical regions. The proposed large-scale envelope consists of a reinforced aluminum skin, insulation core, phase change material and reinforced gypsum board. The PCM impact on an energy efficiency of an enveloped room was resolved by validation of the Energy Plus numerical scheme and optimization of a smart material location in the core. The PCM location was optimized by a minimization method of a cooling energy demand. It has been shown that there is good agreement between the test and simulation results. The optimal location of the PCM layer in Hong Kong summer conditions has been then recomputed for core thicknesses of 40, 60 and 80 mm. A non-dimensional value of the optimal PCM location was obtained to be same for all the studied cases and the considered external and internal conditions.

Keywords: thermal performance, phase change material, energy efficiency, PCM optimization

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3288 Adopting Precast Insulated Concrete Panels for Building Envelope in Hot Climate Zones

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad


The absorbedness of solar radiation within the concrete building is higher than other buildings type, especially in hot climate zones. However, one of the primary issues of architects and the owners in hot climate zones is the building’s exterior plastered and painted finishing which is commonly used are fading and peeling adding a high cost on maintenance. Case studies of different exterior finishing’ treatments used in vernacular and contemporary dwellings in the United Arab Emirates were surveyed. The traditional plastered façade treatment was more sustainable than new buildings. In addition, using precast concrete insulated sandwich panels with the exposed colored aggregate surface in contemporary designed dwellings sustained the extensive heat reducing the overall cost of maintenance and contributed aesthetically to the buildings’ envelope in addition to its thermal insulation property.

Keywords: precast concrete panels, façade treatment, hot climate

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3287 Identification and Characterization of Nuclear Envelope Protein Interactions

Authors: Mohammed Hakim Jafferali, Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Ricardo A. Figueroa, Ellinor Crafoord, Veronica J. Larsson, Einar Hallberg, Santhosh Gudise


The nuclear envelope which surrounds the chromatin of eukaryotic cells contains more than a hundred transmembrane proteins. Mutations in some genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins give rise to human diseases including neurological disorders. The function of many nuclear envelope proteins is not well established. This is partly because nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions are difficult to study due to the inherent resistance to extraction of nuclear envelope proteins. We have developed a novel method called MCLIP, to identify interacting partners of nuclear envelope proteins in live cells. Using MCLIP, we found three new binding partners of the inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1: the intermediate filament protein Lamin B1, the LINC complex protein Sun1 and the G-protein Ran. Furthermore, using in vitro studies, we show that Samp1 binds both Emerin and Ran directly. We have also studied the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in detail. The results show that the Samp1 binds stronger to RanGTP than RanGDP. Samp1 is the first transmembrane protein known to bind Ran and it is tempting to speculate that Samp1 may provide local binding sites for RanGTP at membranes.

Keywords: MCLIP, nuclear envelope, ran, Samp1

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3286 Influence of Orientation in Complex Building Architecture in Various Climatic Regions in Winter

Authors: M. Alwetaishi, Giulia Sonetti


It is architecturally accepted that building form and design is considered as one of the most important aspects in affecting indoor temperature. The total area of building plan might be identical, but the design will have a major influence on the total area of external walls. This will have a clear impact on the amount of heat exchange with outdoor. Moreover, it will affect the position and area of glazing system. This has not received enough consideration in research by the specialists, since most of the publications are highlighting the impact of building envelope in terms of physical heat transfer in buildings. This research will investigate the impact of orientation of various building forms in various climatic regions. It will be concluded that orientation and glazing to wall ratio were recognized to be the most effective variables despite the shape of the building. However, linear ad radial forms were found more appropriate shapes almost across the continent.

Keywords: architectural building design, building form, building design in different climate, indoor air temperature

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3285 Reduce the Environmental Impacts of the Intensive Use of Glass in New Buildings in Khartoum, Sudan

Authors: Sawsan Domi


Khartoum is considering as one of the hottest cities all over the world, the mean monthly outdoor temperature remains above 30 ºC. Solar Radiation on Building Surfaces considered within the world highest values. Buildings in Khartoum is receiving huge amounts of watts/m2. Northern, eastern and western facades always receive a greater amount than the south ones. Therefore, these facades of the building must be better protected than the others. One of the most important design limits affecting indoor thermal comfort and energy conservation are building envelope design, self-efficiency in building materials and optical and thermo-physical properties of the building envelope. A small sun-facing glazing area is very important to provide thermal comfort in hot dry climates because of the intensive sunshine. This study aims to propose a work plan to help minimize the negative environmental effect of the climate on buildings taking the intensive use of glazing. In the last 15 years, there was a rapid growth in building sector in Khartoum followed by many of wrong strategies getting away of being environmental friendly. The intensive use of glazing on facades increased to commercial, industrial and design aspects, while the glass envelope led to quick increase in temperature by the reflection affects the sun on faces, cars and bodies. Logically, being transparent by using glass give a sense of open spaces, allowing natural lighting and sometimes natural ventilation keeping dust and insects away. In the other hand, it costs more and give more overheated. And this is unsuitable for a hot dry climate city like Khartoum. Many huge projects permitted every year from the Ministry of Planning in Khartoum state, with a design based on the intensive use of glazing on facades. There are no Laws or Regulations to control using materials in construction, the last building code -building code 2008- Khartoum state- only focused in using sustainable materials with no consider to any environmental aspects. Results of the study will help increase the awareness for architects, engineers and public about this environmentally problem. Objectives vary between Improve energy performance in buildings and Provide high levels of thermal comfort in the inner environment. As a future project, what are the changes that can happen in building permits codes and regulations. There could be recommendations for the governmental sector such as Obliging the responsible authorities to version environmental friendly laws in building construction fields and Support Renewable energy sector in buildings.

Keywords: building envelope, building regulations, glazed facades, solar radiation

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3284 Effect of Residential Block Scale Envelope in Buildings Energy Consumption: A Vernacular Case Study in an Iranian Urban Context

Authors: M. Panahian


A global challenge which is of paramount significance today is the issue of devising innovative solutions to tackle the environmental issues, as well as more intelligent and foresightful consumption of and management of natural resources. Changes in global climate resulting from the burning of fossil fuel and the rise in the level of energy consumption are a few examples of environmental issues detrimental to any form of life on earth, which are aggravated year by year. Overall, energy-efficient designs and construction strategies can be studied at three scales: building, block, and city. Nevertheless, as the available literature suggests, the greatest emphasis has been on building and city scales, and little has been done as to the energy-efficient designs at block scale. Therefore, the aim of the current research is to investigate the influences of residential block scale envelope on the energy consumption in buildings. To this end, a case study of residential block scale has been selected in the city of Isfahan, in Iran, situated in a hot and dry climate with cold winters. Eventually, the most effective variables in energy consumption, concerning the block scale envelope, will be concluded.

Keywords: sustainability, passive energy saving solutions, residential block scale, energy efficiency

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3283 Effect of Porous Multi-Layer Envelope System on Effective Wind Pressure of Building Ventilation

Authors: Ying-Chang Yu, Yuan-Lung Lo


Building ventilation performance is an important indicator of indoor comfort. However, in addition to the geometry of the building or the proportion of the opening, the ventilation performance is also very much related to the actual wind pressure of the building. There are more and more contemporary building designs built with multi-layer exterior envelope. Due to ventilation and view observatory requirement, the porous outer layer of the building is commonly adopted and has a significant wind damping effect, causing the phenomenon of actual wind pressure loss. However, the relationship between the wind damping effect and the actual wind pressure is not linear. This effect can make the indoor ventilation of the building rationalized to reasonable range under the condition of high wind pressure, and also maintain a good amount of ventilation performance under the condition of low wind pressure. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were carried out to simulate the different wind pressures flow through the porous outer layer, and observe the actual wind pressure strength engage with the window layer to find the decreasing relationship between the damping effect of the porous shell and the wind pressure. Experiment specimen scale was designed to be 1:50 for testing real-world building conditions; the study found that the porous enclosure has protective shielding without affecting low-pressure ventilation. Current study observed the porous skin may damp more wind energy to ease the wind pressure under high-speed wind. Differential wind speed may drop the pressure into similar pressure level by using porous skin. The actual mechanism and value of this phenomenon will need further study in the future.

Keywords: multi-layer facade, porous media, wind damping, wind tunnel test, building ventilation

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3282 The Effect of Smart-Nano Materials in Thermal Retrofit of Healthcare Envelope Layout in Desert Climate: A Case Study on Semnan

Authors: Foroozan Sadri, Mohammadmehdi Moulaii, Farkhondeh Vahdati


Smart materials can create a great revolution in our built environment, as living systems do. In this research, the optimal structure of healthcare building envelopes is analyzed in terms of thickness according to the utility of the smart-nano materials as nontoxic substances in the region. The research method in this paper is based on library studies and simulation. Grasshopper program is employed to simulate thermal characteristics to achieve the optimum U-value in Semnan desert climate, according to Iranian national standards. The potential of healthcare envelope layouts in thermal properties development (primarily U-value) of these buildings is discussed due to the high thermal loads of healthcare buildings and also toxicity effects of conventional materials. As a result, envelope thicknesses are calculated, and the performance of the nano-PCM and gypsum wallboards are compared. A solution with comparable performance using smart-nano materials instead of conventional materials would determine a decrease in wall thickness.

Keywords: energy saving, exterior envelope, smart-nano materials, thermal performance, U-value

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3281 Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates

Authors: Qiong He, S. Thomas Ng


Upgrading the thermal performance of building envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time. Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously, overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of overhang device on building energy performance under different climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.

Keywords: overhang, energy analysis, computer-based simulation, design builder, high-rise residential building, climate, BIM model

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3280 Minimizing Energy Consumption of Educational Buildings by Testing Alternatives of Green Envelopes in Alexandria

Authors: Ahmed Mahmoud, Maye Yehia, Ahmed Abu El-Wafa


A green building is a building that is ecologically responsible for using eco-friendly building materials and construction practices. Through better design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal, architects can preserve natural resources, contribute significantly to the decarbonization of the built environment and consequently improve quality of life. In that respect, building envelopes are not just physical separators between indoor and outdoor environments, but they play an important role in reducing energy consumption for the whole building and in improving the indoor environmental quality. To make better decisions, technology can significantly assist architects in the Pre-design stage or retrofit interventions to select the appropriate parameters for green buildings. In that matter, modeling and simulation tools for integrating the parameters and materials of green architecture in building envelopes are user interfaces. Based on the relevant bibliography, the research developed the parameters of green building envelopes, which were experimentally and numerically investigated one by one through a case study conducted on an educational building in Alexandria. Autodesk Revit Architecture software is used to create the building model and energy simulation is performed using Design Builder to assess the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption. Hygrothermal comfort (interior air temperature and relative humidity) and green gas emissions (indoor environmental quality), and cooling electricity (energy consumption) are assessed throughout the year to measure the difference between the performance of the building’s envelope before and after modifying the parameters of green buildings. The results show that by setting the interior air temperature at 25° C in the simulation process, integrating parameters of green envelopes will realize a 20% decrease in energy consumption and CO₂ emissions at June and 19% decrease in energy consumption and CO₂ emissions at September.

Keywords: green building envelope, energy consumption, computer simulation, indoor environmental quality, Egypt

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3279 Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

Authors: Bin Su


Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

Keywords: building envelope, building mass effect, building thermal comfort, building thermal performance, school building

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3278 Building Envelope Engineering and Typologies for Complex Architectures: Composition and Functional Methodologies

Authors: Massimiliano Nastri


The study examines the façade systems according to the constitutive and typological characters, as well as the functional and applicative requirements such as the expressive, constructive, and interactive criteria towards the environmental, perceptive, and energy conditions. The envelope systems are understood as instruments of mediation, interchange, and dynamic interaction between environmental conditions. The façades are observed for the sustainable concept of eco-efficient envelopes, selective and multi-purpose filters, adaptable and adjustable according to the environmental performance.

Keywords: typologies of façades, environmental and energy sustainability, interaction and perceptive mediation, technical skins

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3277 Comparison of Illuminance Levels in Old Omani and Portuguese Forts in Oman

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi


Nowadays the reduction of the energy consumed by buildings to achieve mainly the thermal comfort for the occupants represent the main concern for architects and building designers. The common and traditional solution to achieve this target is the design of a highly insulated envelope and reduce the opening and the transparent elements such windows. However, this will lead to the artificial lighting system to consume more energy to compensate the lack of natural lighting coming through the glazed parts of the building envelope. Therefore, a good balance between sufficient daylight and control thermal heat through the building envelope should be considered for energy saving purpose. To achieve a better indoor environment the windows size and spacing including the interior finishing and the location of the partition must be assessed accurately. Daylighting is the controlled admission of natural light into space through windows and transparent elements of the building envelope which helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants. The main concern is not to provide enough daylight to an occupied space, but how to achieve this without any undesirable side effect. Indeed, the glare is a major problem in glazed façade buildings, and this could be reduced by using tinted windows. The main target of this research is to investigate the daylight adequacy of functional needs in old Omani Forts and how they have been designed and built to avoid glare and overheating with the appropriate window-to-floor ratio. Because more windows do not automatically result in more daylighting but that is natural light has been controlled and distributed properly throughout the space. Spaces from different Omani and Portuguese Forts under the same climate conditions are considered in order to compare the daylight illuminance levels and examine the similarities and differences in visual attributes between them. The result of this study indicates that lighting preference is not universal and people from different geographical locations are adapted to certain illuminance levels. Therefore, the standards could not be generalized for the entire world. This would be useful to practitioners who are designing to effectively address the diversity of user’s lighting levels preferences in our globally connected society.

Keywords: day lighting, energy, forts, thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 95