Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1749

Search results for: cathodic protection

1749 Design Considerations on Cathodic Protection for X65 Steel Tank Containing Fresh Water

Authors: A. M. Al-Sabagh, M. A. Deyab, M. N. Kroush


The present study focused on critical and detailed approach for using aluminum electrode as impressed current anode for cathodic protection of X65 steel tank containing fresh water. The impressed current design calculation showed 0.6 A of current demand and voltage of 0.33 V required to adequately protect the X65 steel tank with internal surface area of 421 m². We used here one transformer rectifier with current and voltage output of 25 A and 25 V, respectively. The data showed that the potentials ranged from -0.474 to -0.509 V (vs. Cu/CuSO₄), prior to the application of cathodic protection. When the potential was measured 1 h after the application of cathodic protection, the potential values showed considerable shift within protection range (-0.950 V vs. Cu/CuSO₄). The results confirmed that aluminum anode can be used in freshwater applications with high efficiency (current capacity) and low consumption rate.

Keywords: cathodic protection, aluminum, steel, fresh water

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
1748 Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Energy for Cathodic Protection of Oil and Gas Buried Pipelines in Southwestern of Iran

Authors: M. Goodarzi, M. Mohammadi, A. Gharib


Solar energy is a renewable energy which has attracted special attention in many countries. Solar cathodic protectionsystems harness the sun’senergy to protect underground pipelinesand tanks from galvanic corrosion. The object of this study is to design and the economic analysis a cathodic protection system by impressed current supplied with solar energy panels applied to underground pipelines. In the present study, the technical and economic analysis of using solar energy for cathodic protection system in southwestern of Iran (Khuzestan province) is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The economic analyses were done using computer code to investigate the feasibility analysis from the using of various energy sources in order to cathodic protection system. The overall research methodology is divided into four components: Data collection, design of elements, techno economical evaluation, and output analysis. According to the results, solar renewable energy systems can supply adequate power for cathodic protection system purposes.

Keywords: renewable energy, solar energy, solar cathodic protection station, lifecycle cost method

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1747 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert


Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1746 Effect of Soil Resistivity on the Development of a Cathodic Protection System Using Zinc Anode

Authors: Chinedu F. Anochie


The deterioration of materials as a result of their interaction with the environment has been a huge challenge to engineering. Many steps have been taking to tackle corrosion and its effects on harmful effects on engineering materials and structures. Corrosion inhibition, coating, passivation, materials selection, and cathodic protection are some of the methods utilized to curtail the rate at which materials corrode. The use of sacrificial anodes (magnesium, aluminum, or zinc) to protect the metal of interest is a widespread technique used to prevent corrosion in underground structures, ship hauls, and other structures susceptible to corrosion attack. However, certain factors, like resistivity, affect the performance of sacrificial anodes. To establish the effect of soil resistivity on the effectiveness of a cathodic protection system, a mild steel specimen was cathodically protected around Workshop 2 area, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Design calculations showed that one zinc anode was sufficient to protect the pipe. The specimen (mild steel pipe) was coated with white and black polykene tapes and was subsequently buried in a high resistivity soil. The pipe-to-soil potential measurements were obtained using a digital fluke multimeter. The protection potential obtained on installation was higher than the minimum protection criteria. However, the potential results obtained over a fourteen-day intervals continually decreased to a value significantly lower than the minimum protection criteria. This showed that the sacrificial anode (zinc) was rendered ineffective by the high resistivity of the area of installation. It has been shown that the resistivity of the soil has a marked effect on the feasibility of cathodic protection systems. This work justified that zinc anode cannot be used for cathodic protection around Workshop 2 area, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, because of the high resistivity of the area. An experimental data which explains the effectiveness of galvanic anode cathodic protection system on corrosion control of a small steel structure, exposed to a soil of high resistivity has been established.

Keywords: cathodic protection, corrosion, pipe, sacrificial anode

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1745 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods

Authors: P van Tonder, U Bagdadi, BMD Lario, Z Masina, TR Motshwari


This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.

Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel bars

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1744 Flow Measurement Using Magnetic Meters in Large Underground Cooling Water Pipelines

Authors: Humanyun Zahir, Irtsam Ghazi


This report outlines the basic installation and operation of magnetic inductive flow velocity sensors on large underground cooling water pipelines. Research on the effects of cathodic protection as well as into other factors that might influence the overall performance of the meter are presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out on an immersion type magnetic meter specially used for flow measurement of cooling water pipeline. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline guidelines that can ensure accurate measurement related to immersion type magnetic meters on underground pipelines.

Keywords: magnetic induction, flow meter, Faraday's law, immersion, cathodic protection, anode, cathode, flange, grounding, plant information management system, electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
1743 Experimental Study on Using the Aluminum Sacrificial Anode as a Cathodic Protection for Marine Structures

Authors: A. Radwan, A. Elbatran, A. Mehanna, M. Shehadeh


The corrosion is natural chemical phenomenon that is applied in many engineering structures. Hence, it is one of the important topics to study in the engineering research. Ship and offshore structures are most exposed to corrosion due to the presence of corrosive medium of air and the seawater. Consequently, investigation of the corrosion behavior and properties over ship and offshore hulls is one of the important topics to study in the marine engineering research. Using sacrificial anode is the most popular solution for protecting marine structures from corrosion. Hence, this research investigates the extent of corrosion between the composite ship model and relative velocity of water, along with the sacrificial aluminum anode consumption and its degree of protection in seawater. In this study, the consumption rate of sacrificial aluminum anode with respect to relative velocity at different Reynold’s numbers was studied experimentally, and it was found that, the degree of cathodic protection represented by the cathode potential at a given distance from the aluminum anode was decreased slightly with increment of the relative velocity.

Keywords: corrosion, Reynold's numbers, sacrificial anode, velocity

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1742 Study of the Behavior of an Organic Coating Applied on Algerian Oil Tanker in Seawater

Authors: N. Hammouda, K. Belmokre


The paints are used extensively today in the industry to protect the metallic structures of the aggressive environments. This work is devoted to the study of corrosion resistance and aging behavior of a paint coating providing external protection for oil tankers. To avoid problems related to corrosion of these vessels, two protection modes are provided: An electro chemical active protection (cathodic protection of the hull). A passive protection by external painting. Investigations are conducted using stationary and non-stationary electro chemical tools such as electro chemical impedance spectroscopy has allowed us to characterize the protective qualities of these films. The application of the EIS on our damaged in-situ painting shows the existence of several capacitive loops which is an indicator of the failure of our tested paint. Microscopic analysis (micrograph) helped bring essential elements in understanding the degradation of our paint condition and immersion training corrosion products.

Keywords: epoxy paints, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, corrosion mechanisms, seawater

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
1741 Laboratory Simulation of Subway Dynamic Stray Current Interference with Cathodically Protected Structures

Authors: Mohammad Derakhshani, Saeed Reza Allahkaram, Michael Isakani-Zakaria, Masoud Samadian, Hojat Sharifi Rasaey


Dynamic stray currents tend to change their magnitude and polarity with time at their source which will create anodic and cathodic spots on a nearby interfered structure. To date, one of the biggest known dynamic stray current sources are DC traction systems. Laboratory simulation is a suitable method to apply theoretical principles in order to identify effective parameters in dynamic stray current influenced corrosion. Simulation techniques can be utilized for various mitigation methods applied in a small scales for selection of the most efficient method with regards to field applications. In this research, laboratory simulation of potential fluctuations caused by dynamic stray current on a cathodically protected structure was investigated. A lab model capable of generating DC static and dynamic stray currents and simulating its effects on cathodically protected samples were developed based on stray current induced (contact-less) polarization technique. Stray current pick-up and discharge spots on an influenced structure were simulated by inducing fluctuations in the sample’s stationary potential. Two mitigation methods for dynamic stray current interference on buried structures namely application of sacrificial anodes as preferred discharge point for the stray current and potentially controlled cathodic protection was investigated. Results showed that the application of sacrificial anodes can be effective in reducing interference only in discharge spot. But cathodic protection through potential controlling is more suitable for mitigating dynamic stray current effects.

Keywords: simulation, dynamic stray current, fluctuating potentials, sacrificial anode

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
1740 Study of Cathodic Protection for Trunk Pipeline of Al-Garraf Oil Field

Authors: Maysoon Khalil Askar


The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along the external face of an underground oil pipeline in Trunk line of Al- Garraf oil field was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and study the contribution of pH, Moisture Content in Soil and Presence chlorides, sulfates and total dissolve salts in soil and water. The test sites represent a physical and chemical properties of soils. The hydrogen-ion concentration of soil and groundwater range from 7.2 to 9.6, and the resistivity values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained using the YH302B model resistivity meter having values between 1588 and 720 Ohm-cm. the chloride concentration in soil and groundwater is high (more than 1000 ppm), total soulable salt is more than 5000 ppm, and sulphate range from 0.17% and 0.98% in soil and more than 600 ppm in groundwater. The soil is poor aeration, the soil texture is fine (clay and silt soil), the water content is high (the groundwater is close to surface), the chloride and sulphate is high in the soil and groundwater, the total soulable salt is high in ground water and finally the soil electric resistivity is low that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure. These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting along buried pipelines which need to be protected. Routine electrical geophysical investigations along buried oil pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its attendant environmental, human and economic consequences.

Keywords: soil resistivity, corrosion, cathodic protection, chloride concentration, water content

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1739 Application of Carbon Nanotubes as Cathodic Corrosion Protection of Steel Reinforcement

Authors: M. F. Perez, Ysmael Verde, B. Escobar, R. Barbosa, J. C. Cruz


Reinforced concrete is one of the most important materials in the construction industry. However, in recent years the durability of concrete structures has been a worrying problem, mainly due to corrosion of reinforcing steel; the consequences of corrosion in all cases lead to shortening of the life of the structure and decrease in quality of service. Since the emergence of this problem, they have implemented different methods or techniques to reduce damage by corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures; as the use of polymeric materials as coatings for the steel rod, spiked inhibitors of concrete during mixing, among others, presenting different limitations in the application of these methods. Because of this, it has been used a method that has proved effective, cathodic protection. That is why due to the properties attributed to carbon nanotubes (CNT), these could act as cathodic corrosion protection. Mounting a three-electrode electrochemical cell, carbon steel as working electrode, saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode, and a graphite rod as a counter electrode to close the system is performed. Samples made were subjected to a cycling process in order to compare the results in the corrosion performance of a coating composed of CNT and the others based on an anticorrosive commercial painting. The samples were tested at room temperature using an electrolyte consisting NaCl and NaOH simulating the typical pH of concrete, ranging from 12.6 to 13.9. Three test samples were made of steel rod, white, with commercial anticorrosive paint and CNT based coating; delimiting the work area to a section of 0.71 cm2. Tests cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry electrochemical spectroscopy each impedance of the three samples were made with a window of potential vs SCE 0.7 -1.7 a scan rate of 50 mV / s and 100 mV / s. The impedance values were obtained by applying a sine wave of amplitude 50 mV in a frequency range of 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The results obtained in this study show that the CNT based coating applied to the steel rod considerably decreased the corrosion rate compared to the commercial coating of anticorrosive paint, because the Ecorr was passed increase as the cycling process. The samples tested in all three cases were observed by light microscopy throughout the cycling process and micrographic analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results from electrochemical measurements show that the application of the coating containing carbon nanotubes on the surface of the steel rod greatly increases the corrosion resistance, compared to commercial anticorrosive coating.

Keywords: anticorrosive, carbon nanotubes, corrosion, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
1738 Subway Stray Current Effects on Gas Pipelines in the City of Tehran

Authors: Mohammad Derakhshani, Saeed Reza Allahkarama, Michael Isakhani-Zakaria, Masoud Samadian, Hojjat Sharifi Rasaey


In order to investigate the effects of stray current from DC traction systems (subway) on cathodically protected gas pipelines, the subway and the gas network maps in the city of Tehran were superimposed and a comprehensive map was prepared. 213 intersections and about 100150 meters of parallel sections of gas pipelines were found with respect to the railway right of way which was specified for field measurements. The potential measurements data were logged for one hour in each test point. 24-hour potential monitoring was carried out in selected test points as well. Results showed that dynamic stray current from subway on pipeline potential appears as fluctuations in its static potential that is visible in the diagrams during night periods. These fluctuations can cause the pipeline potential to exit the safe zone and lead to corrosion or overprotection. In this study, a maximum potential shift of 100 mv in the pipe-to-soil potential was considered as a criterion for dynamic stray current effective presence. Results showed that a potential fluctuation range between 100 mV to 3 V exists in measured points on pipelines which exceeds the proposed criterion and needs to be investigated. Corrosion rates influenced by stray currents were calculated using coupons. Results showed that coupon linked to the pipeline in one of the locations at region 1 of the city of Tehran has a corrosion rate of 4.2 mpy (with cathodic protection and under influence of stray currents) which is about 1.5 times more than free corrosion rate of 2.6 mpy.

Keywords: stray current, DC traction, subway, buried Pipelines, cathodic protection list

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1737 Development of (Cu2o-Zno) Binary Oxide Anode for Electrochemical Degradation of Dye

Authors: M. El Hajji, A. Hallaoui, L. Bazzi, A. Benlhachemi, O. Jbara, A. Tara, B. Bakiz, L. Bazzi, M. Hilali


The objective of this study was the development of zinc-copper binary oxide "Cu2O-ZnO" thin films by the electrochemical method "cathodic electrodeposition" and their uses for the degradation of a basic dye "Congo Red" by direct anodic oxidation. The anode materials synthesized were characterized by X-ray diffraction "XRD" and by scanning electron microscopy "SEM" coupled to EDS.

Keywords: Cu2O-ZnO thin films, cathodic electrodeposition, electrodegradation, Congo Red, BDD

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1736 Electrochemical Behavior and Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Dianabol Steroid in Urine at Bare Glassy Carbon Paste Electrode

Authors: N. Al-Orfi, M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh


The electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive and selective determination of dianabol steroid (DS) in phosphate, Britton-Robinson (B-R) and HEPES buffers of pH 2.0 - 11, 2.0 - 11 and 6.2 - 8.0, respectively using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) at bare GCE was studied. The dependence of the CV response of the developed cathodic peak potential (Ep, c), peak current (ip, c) and the current function (ip, c / υ1/2) on the scan rate (υ) at the bare GCE revealed the occurrence of electrode coupled chemical reaction of EC type mechanism. The selectivity of the proposed method was assessed in the presence of high concentrations of major interfering species e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and ions Na+, K+, PO4-3, NO3- and SO42-. The recovery of the method was not significant where t(critical)=2.20 > texp=1.81-1.93 at 95% confidence. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in biological fluids as urine was investigated. The results were demonstrated as recovery percentages in the range 95±2.5-97±4.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.5-1.5%.

Keywords: dianabol, determination, modified electrode, urine

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
1735 Remote Monitoring and Control System of Potentiostat Based on the Internet of Things

Authors: Liang Zhao, Guangwen Wang, Guichang Liu


Constant potometer is an important component of pipeline anti-corrosion systems in the chemical industry. Based on Internet of Things (IoT) technology, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) technology and database technology, this paper developed a set of a constant potometer remote monitoring management system. The remote monitoring and remote adjustment of the working status of the constant potometer are realized. The system has real-time data display, historical data query, alarm push management, user permission management, and supporting Web access and mobile client application (APP) access. The actual engineering project test results show the stability of the system, which can be widely used in cathodic protection systems.

Keywords: internet of things, pipe corrosion protection, potentiostat, remote monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
1734 Rhizospheric Oxygen Release of Hydroponically Grown Wetland Macrophytes as Passive Source for Cathodic Reduction in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Chabungbam Niranjit Khuman, Makarand Madhao Ghangrekar, Arunabha Mitra


The cost of aeration is one of the limiting factors in the upscaling of microbial fuel cells (MFC) for field-scale applications. Wetland macrophytes have the ability to release oxygen into the water to maintain aerobic conditions in their root zone. In this experiment, the efficacy of rhizospheric oxygen release of wetland macrophytes as a source of oxygen in the cathodic chamber of MFC was conducted. The experiment was conducted in an MFC consisting of a three-liter anodic chamber made of ceramic cylinder and a 27 L cathodic chamber. Untreated carbon felts were used as electrodes (i.e., anode and cathode) and connected to an external load of 100 Ω using stainless steel wire. Wetland macrophytes (Canna indica) were grown in the cathodic chamber of the MFC in a hydroponic fashion using a styrofoam sheet (termed as macrophytes assisted-microbial fuel cell, M-MFC). The catholyte (i.e., water) in the M-MFC had negligible contact with atmospheric air due to the styrofoam sheet used for maintaining the hydroponic condition. There was no mixing of the catholyte in the M-MFC. Sucrose based synthetic wastewater having chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3000 mg/L was fed into the anodic chamber of the MFC in fed-batch mode with a liquid retention time of four days. The C. indica thrived well throughout the duration of the experiment without much care. The average dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH value in the M-MFC were 3.25 mg/L and 7.07, respectively, in the catholyte. Since the catholyte was not in contact with air, the DO in the catholyte might be considered as solely liberated from the rhizospheric oxygen release of C. indica. The maximum COD removal efficiency of M-MFC observed during the experiment was 76.9%. The inadequacy of terminal electron acceptor in the cathodic chamber in M-MFC might have hampered the electron transfer, which in turn, led to slower specific microbial activity, thereby resulting in lower COD removal efficiency than the traditional MFC with aerated catholyte. The average operating voltage (OV) and open-circuit voltage (OCV) of 294 mV and 594 mV, respectively, were observed in M-MFC. The maximum power density observed during polarization was 381 mW/m³, and the maximum sustainable power density observed during the experiment was 397 mW/m³ in M-MFC. The maximum normalized energy recovery and coulombic efficiency of 38.09 Wh/m³ and 1.27%, respectively, were observed. Therefore, it was evidenced that rhizospheric oxygen release of wetland macrophytes (C. indica) was capable of sustaining the cathodic reaction in MFC for field-scale applications.

Keywords: hydroponic, microbial fuel cell, rhizospheric oxygen release, wetland macrophytes

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1733 Electrochemical Synthesis and Morphostructural Study of the Cuprite Thin Film

Authors: M. El Hajji, A. Hallaoui, L. Bazzi, A. Benlhachemi, Lh. Bazzi, M. Hilali, O. Jbara, A. Tara, B. Bakiz


The cathodic electro deposition of the cuprite Cu2O by chrono potentiometry is performed on two types of electrodes "titanium and stainless steel", in a basic medium containing the precursor of copper. The plot produced vs SCE, shows the formation of a brown layer on the electrode surface. The chrono potentiometric recording made between - 0.2 and - 1 mA/cm2, has allowed us to have a deposit having different morphologies and structural orientation obtained as a function of the variation of many parameters. The morphology, the size of crystals, and the phase of the deposits produced were studied by conventional techniques of analysis of the solid, particularly the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) and quantitative chemical analysis (EDS). The results will be presented and discussed, they show that the majority of deposits are pure and uniform.

Keywords: cathodic electrodeposition, cuprite Cu2O, XRD, SEM, EDS analysis

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1732 Anticorrosive Properties of Poly(O-Phenylendiamine)/ZnO Nanocomposites Coated Stainless Steel

Authors: Aisha Ganash


Poly(o-phenylendiamine) and poly(ophenylendiamine)/ZnO(PoPd/ZnO) nanocomposites coating were prepared on type-304 austenitic stainless steel (SS) using H2SO4 acid as electrolyte by potentiostatic methods. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composition and structure of PoPd/ZnO nanocomposites. The corrosion protection of polymer coatings ability was studied by Eocp-time measurement, anodic and cathodic potentiodynamic polarization and Impedance techniques in 3.5% NaCl as a corrosive solution. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles improve the barrier and electrochemical anticorrosive properties of poly(o-phenylendiamine).

Keywords: anticorrosion, conducting polymers, electrochemistry, nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1731 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han


This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

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1730 Electro-oxidation of Catechol in the Presence of Nicotinamide at Different pH

Authors: M. A. Motin, M. A. Aziz, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Hasem


The redox behavior of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide as nucleophiles has been studied in aqueous solution with various pH values and different concentration of nicotinamide using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry of catechol in buffer solution (3.00 < pH < 9.00) shows one anodic and corresponding cathodic peak which relates to the transformation of catechol to corresponding o-benzoquinone and vice versa within a quasi reversible two electron transfer process. Cyclic voltammogram of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide in buffer solution of pH 7, show one anodic peak in the first cycle of potential and on the reverse scan the corresponding cathodic peak slowly decreases and new peak is observed at less positive potential. In the second cycle of potential a new anodic peak is observed at less positive potential. This indicates that nicotinamide attached with catechol and formed adduct after first cycle of oxidation. The effect of pH of catechol in presence of nicotinamide was studied by varying pH from 3 to 11. The substitution reaction of catechol with nicotimamide is facilitated at pH 7. In buffer solution of higher pH (>9), the CV shows different pattern. The effect of concentration of nicotinamide was studied by 2mM to 100 mM. The maximum substitution reaction has been found for 50 mM of nicotinamide and of pH 7. The proportionality of the first scan anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate suggests that the peak current of the species at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process. The current functions (1/v-1/2) of the anodic peak decreased with the increasing of scan rate demonstrated that the behavior of the substitution reaction is of ECE type.

Keywords: redox interaction, catechol, nicotinamide, substituion reaction, pH effect

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1729 Strengthening Legal Protection of Personal Data through Technical Protection Regulation in Line with Human Rights

Authors: Tomy Prihananto, Damar Apri Sudarmadi


Indonesia recognizes the right to privacy as a human right. Indonesia provides legal protection against data management activities because the protection of personal data is a part of human rights. This paper aims to describe the arrangement of data management and data management in Indonesia. This paper is a descriptive research with qualitative approach and collecting data from literature study. Results of this paper are comprehensive arrangement of data that have been set up as a technical requirement of data protection by encryption methods. Arrangements on encryption and protection of personal data are mutually reinforcing arrangements in the protection of personal data. Indonesia has two important and immediately enacted laws that provide protection for the privacy of information that is part of human rights.

Keywords: Indonesia, protection, personal data, privacy, human rights, encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1728 Efficient Backup Protection for Hybrid WDM/TDM GPON System

Authors: Elmahdi Mohammadine, Ahouzi Esmail, Najid Abdellah


This contribution aims to present a new protected hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Line Protection devices. The objective from using these technologies is to improve flexibility and enhance the protection of GPON networks.

Keywords: Wavlenght Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON), Time Division Multiplexed PON (TDM-PON), architecture, Protection, Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), Optical Line Protection (OLP)

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1727 Utilization of Watermelon Rind Extract as Green Anti-Scalent for Cooling Water Systems

Authors: Elsayed G. Zaki, Nora A. Hamad, Hadeel G. El-Shorbagy


The effect of watermelon rind extract as green inhibitors for the formation of calcium sulphate scale have been investigated using conductivity measurements concurrently with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopic examinations. Mineral scales were deposited from the brine solution by cathodic polarization of the steel surface. The results show up that the anti-scaling property of the extracts could be attributed to the presence of citrulline. In solution, citrulline retards calcium sulphate precipitation via formation of a complex with the calcium cations. Thin, smooth and non adherent film formed over the steel surface, under cathodic polarization, by the deposition of the calcium- citrulline complex. The stability of the aqueous extracts with time was also investigated.

Keywords: anti-scaling, scale inhibitor, green extracts, water treatment

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1726 Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations on Nickel Electrodeposition from Industrial Sulfate Electrolyte in Presence of Ca(II), Mg(II), Na(I) Ions

Authors: Udit Mohanty, Mari Lundstrom


Electrochemical investigation by cyclic voltammetry was conducted to explore the polarization behavior of reactions occurring in nickel electrowinning in presence of cationic impurities such as Ca2+ (0-100 mg/L), Na+ (1-10 g/L) and Mg2+ (10-100 mg/L). A comparative study was devised between industrial and synthetic electrolytes to observe the shift in the nucleation overpotentials of nickel deposition, dissolution and hydrogen evolution reactions at the cathode and anode respectively. Significant polarization of cathodic reactions were observed with concentrations of Na ≥ 8g /L and Ca ≤ 40 mg /L in the synthetic electrolytes. Nevertheless, a progressive increase in the concentration of Ca, Mg and Na in the industrial electrolyte demonstrated a depolarization behavior in the cathodic reactions related to nickel deposition and/or hydrogen evolution. Synergistic effect of Ca with Mg and Na in both the industrial and synthetic electrolytes induced a notable depolarization effect, also reflected in the peak currents.

Keywords: cationic impurities, cyclic voltammetry, electrowinning, nickel, polarization

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
1725 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar


This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

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1724 Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing

Authors: Wei Zha, Jingzeng Zhang, Chen Zhao, Ran Cai, Xueyuan Nie


Cathodic plasma electrolysis (CPE) is used to create surface textures on cast iron samples for improving the tribological properties. Micro craters with confined size distribution were successfully formed by CPE process. These craters can generate extra hydrodynamic pressure that separates two sliding surfaces, increase the oil film thickness and accelerate the transition from boundary to mixed lubrication. It was found that the optimal crater size was 1.7 μm, at which the maximum lubrication efficiency was achieved. The Taguchi method was used to optimize the process parameters (voltage and roughness) for CPE surface texturing. The orthogonal array and the signal-to-noise ratio were employed to study the effect of each process parameter on the coefficient of friction. The results showed that with higher voltage and lower roughness, the lower friction coefficient can be obtained, and thus the lubrication can be more efficiently used for friction reduction.

Keywords: cathodic plasma electrolysis, friction, lubrication, plasma surface texturing

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1723 Lightning Protection Design Applied to Sustainable Development

Authors: Sylvain Fauveaux, T. Nowicki


Lightning protection is nowadays applied worldwide since the advent of international standards. Lightning protection is widely justified by the casualties and damages involved. As a matter of fact, the lightning business is constantly growing as more and more sensible areas need to be protected. However, the worldwide demand of copper materiel is increasing as well, its price too. Furthermore, the most frequently used method of protection is consuming a lot of copper. The copper production is also consuming a large amount of natural and power resources, not to mention the ecologic balance.

Keywords: ESEAT, Lightning protection , natural resources management, NF C 17-102, sustainable development

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1722 Pilot Directional Protection Scheme Using Wireless Communication

Authors: Nitish Sharma, G. G. Karady


This paper presents a scheme for the protection of loop system from all type of faults using the direction of fault current. The presence of distributed generation in today’s system increases the complexity of fault detection as the power flow is bidirectional. Hence, protection scheme specific to this purpose needs to be developed. This paper shows a fast protection scheme using communication which can be fiber optic or wireless. In this paper, the possibility of wireless communication for protection is studied to exchange the information between the relays. The negative sequence and positive sequence directional elements are used to determine the direction of fault current. A PSCAD simulation is presented and validated using commercial SEL relays.

Keywords: smart grid protection, pilot protection, power system simulation, wireless communication

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1721 The Use of Crisis Workplace Technology to Protect Communication Processes of Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Jiri Barta, Jiří F. Urbanek


This paper deals with a protection of the national and European infrastructure. It is issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to critical infrastructure protection. The research project deals with computers aided technologies are used from the perspective of new, better protection of selected infrastructure objects. Protection is focused on communication and information channels. These communication and information channels are very important for the functioning of the system of protection of critical infrastructure elements.

Keywords: interoperability, communication systems, controlling proces, critical infrastructure, crisis workplaces, continuity

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1720 Production Structures of Energy Based on Water Force, Its Infrastructure Protection, and Possible Causes of Failure

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Mădălina-Elena Mavrodin, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Florin Adrian Grădinaru


The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of a hydroelectric plant protection by coordinating protection measures and existing security and introducing new measures under a risk management process. Also, the plan identifies key critical elements of a hydroelectric plant, from its level vulnerabilities and threats it is subjected to in order to achieve the necessary protection measures to reduce the level of risk.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, risk analysis, critical infrastructure protection, vulnerability, risk management, turbine, impact analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 402