Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: Izani Uzair Zubair

46 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh

Abstract:

Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

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45 Extraction of Compound Words in Malay Sentences Using Linguistic and Statistical Approaches

Authors: Zamri Abu Bakar Zamri, Normaly Kamal Ismail Normaly, Mohd Izani Mohamed Rawi Izani

Abstract:

Malay noun compound are phrases that consist of two or more nouns. The key characteristic behind noun compounds lies on its frequent occurrences within the text. Therefore, extracting these noun compounds is essential for several domains of research such as Information Retrieval, Sentiment Analysis and Question Answering. Many research efforts have been proposed in terms of extracting Malay noun compounds using linguistic and statistical approaches. Most of the existing methods have concentrated on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, extracting noun+verb, noun+adjective and noun+prepositional is challenging due to the difficulty of selecting an appropriate method with effective results. Thus, there is still room for improvement in terms of enhancing the effectiveness of compound word extraction. Therefore, this study proposed a combination of linguistic approach and statistical measures in order to enhance the extraction of compound words. Several preprocessing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization, and stemming. The linguistic approach that has been used in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. In addition, a new linguistic pattern for named entities has been utilized using a list of Malays named entities in order to enhance the linguistic approach in terms of noun compound recognition. The proposed statistical measures consists of NC-value, NTC-value and NLC value.

Keywords: Compound Word, Noun Compound, Linguistic Approach, Statistical Approach

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44 Exploring Tweeters’ Concerns and Opinions about FIFA Arab Cup 2021: An Investigation Study

Authors: Md. Rafiul Biswas, Uzair Shah, Mohammad Alkayal, Zubair Shah, Othman Althawadi, Kamila Swart

Abstract:

Background: Social media platforms play a significant role in the mediated consumption of sport, especially so for sport mega-event. The characteristics of Twitter data (e.g., user mentions, retweets, likes, #hashtag) accumulate the users in one ground and spread information widely and quickly. Analysis of Twitter data can reflect the public attitudes, behavior, and sentiment toward a specific event on a larger scale than traditional surveys. Qatar is going to be the first Arab country to host the mega sports event FIFA World Cup 2022 (Q22). Qatar has hosted the FIFA Arab Cup 2021 (FAC21) to serve as a preparation for the mega-event. Objectives: This study investigates public sentiments and experiences about FAC21 and provides an insight to enhance the public experiences for the upcoming Q22. Method: FCA21-related tweets were downloaded using Twitter Academic research API between 01 October 2021 to 18 February 2022. Tweets were divided into three different periods: before T1 (01 Oct 2021 to 29 Nov 2021), during T2 (30 Nov 2021 -18 Dec 2021), and after the FAC21 T3 (19 Dec 2021-18 Feb 2022). The collected tweets were preprocessed in several steps to prepare for analysis; (1) removed duplicate and retweets, (2) removed emojis, punctuation, and stop words (3) normalized tweets using word lemmatization. Then, rule-based classification was applied to remove irrelevant tweets. Next, the twitter-XLM-roBERTa-base model from Huggingface was applied to identify the sentiment in the tweets. Further, state-of-the-art BertTopic modeling will be applied to identify trending topics over different periods. Results: We downloaded 8,669,875 Tweets posted by 2728220 unique users in different languages. Of those, 819,813 unique English tweets were selected in this study. After splitting into three periods, 541630, 138876, and 139307 were from T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Most of the sentiments were neutral, around 60% in different periods. However, the rate of negative sentiment (23%) was high compared to positive sentiment (18%). The analysis indicates negative concerns about FAC21. Therefore, we will apply BerTopic to identify public concerns. This study will permit the investigation of people’s expectations before FAC21 (e.g., stadium, transportation, accommodation, visa, tickets, travel, and other facilities) and ascertain whether these were met. Moreover, it will highlight public expectations and concerns. The findings of this study can assist the event organizers in enhancing implementation plans for Q22. Furthermore, this study can support policymakers with aligning strategies and plans to leverage outstanding outcomes.

Keywords: FIFA Arab Cup, FIFA, Twitter, machine learning

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43 Numerical Investigation of Hybrid Ferrofluid Unsteady Flow through Porous Channel

Authors: Wajahat Hussain Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi

Abstract:

The viscous, two-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar time-dependent heat transfer flow through a ferromagnetic fluid is considered in this paper. Flow takes place in a channel between two porous walls under the influence of the magnetic field located beyond the channel. It is assumed that there are no electric field effects and the variation in the magnetic field vector that could occur within the F

Keywords: hybrid ferrofluid, heat transfer, magnetic field, porous channel

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42 Cubic Trigonometric B-Spline Approach to Numerical Solution of Wave Equation

Authors: Shazalina Mat Zin, Ahmad Abd. Majid, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Muhammad Abbas

Abstract:

The generalized wave equation models various problems in sciences and engineering. In this paper, a new three-time level implicit approach based on cubic trigonometric B-spline for the approximate solution of wave equation is developed. The usual finite difference approach is used to discretize the time derivative while cubic trigonometric B-spline is applied as an interpolating function in the space dimension. Von Neumann stability analysis is used to analyze the proposed method. Two problems are discussed to exhibit the feasibility and capability of the method. The absolute errors and maximum error are computed to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results were found to be in good agreement with known solutions and with existing schemes in literature.

Keywords: collocation method, cubic trigonometric B-spline, finite difference, wave equation

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41 Perfomance of PAPR Reduction in OFDM System for Wireless Communications

Authors: Alcardo Alex Barakabitze, Saddam Aziz, Muhammad Zubair

Abstract:

The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a special form of multicarrier transmission that splits the total transmission bandwidth into a number of orthogonal and non-overlapping subcarriers and transmit the collection of bits called symbols in parallel using these subcarriers. In this paper, we explore the Peak to Average Power Reduction (PAPR) problem in OFDM systems. We provide the performance analysis of CCDF and BER through MATLAB simulations.

Keywords: bit error ratio (BER), OFDM, peak to average power reduction (PAPR), sub-carriers

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40 A Boundary Fitted Nested Grid Model for Tsunami Computation along Penang Island in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Md. Fazlul Karim, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail, Mohammed Ashaque Meah

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of a 2-D Boundary Fitted and Nested Grid (BFNG) model to compute the tsunami propagation of Indonesian tsunami 2004 along the coastal region of Penang in Peninsular Malaysia. In the presence of a curvilinear coastline, boundary fitted grids are suitable to represent the model boundaries accurately. On the other hand, when large gradient of velocity within a confined area is expected, the use of a nested grid system is appropriate to improve the numerical accuracy with the least grid numbers. This paper constructs a shallow water nested and orthogonal boundary fitted grid model and presents computational results of the tsunami impact on the Penang coast due to the Indonesian tsunami of 2004. The results of the numerical simulations are compared with available data.

Keywords: boundary fitted nested model, tsunami, Penang Island, 2004 Indonesian Tsunami

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39 An Analysis and Design of Mobile Payment System Based on NFC Technology

Authors: Shafiq ur Rehman, Zubair Ahmed Shaikh

Abstract:

This research provides the comparative study of different mobile payment system and proposes an efficient solution of mobile payment system. The research involves discovering how the mobile payment methods can be used and implemented keeping user and system interaction under consideration. The implementation of Nielsen’s heuristic and universal design principles enhanced the user’s interaction design and made the system more appropriate, understandable and visible to the end user. The design of application is greatly affected by the user driven factors. These factors help in the efficiency of the application usage.

Keywords: mobile payment system, m-commerce, usability, near field communication

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38 Analyzing Architectural Narrative in 21st-Century Museums

Authors: Ihjaz Zubair Pallakkan Tharammal, Lakshmi S. R.

Abstract:

Storytelling has been an important part of human life throughout history. It allows communities to unlearn, learn and relearn. There are different mediums of storytelling that are used in an individual's day to day life. For instance, ideas are shared through oral stories, comics, music, art, architecture, etc. This paper explores the concept of architectural narrative and its significance in conveying messages and stories. The research aims to study and analyse the potential of museums and the importance of incorporating architectural narratives in museums, particularly in 21st century India. The research is also an exploratory and comparative analysis of narrative elements like semiotics, symbolism, spatial structure, etc., and finally derives strategies to design spaces that speak to the users.

Keywords: museum, architectural narrative, narratology, spatial storytelling

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37 Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

Authors: Yongkui Cui, Fengping Wang, Hailei Zhao, Muhammad Zubair Iqbal, Ziya Wang, Yan Li, Pengpeng LV

Abstract:

The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions.The XRD results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1 of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

Keywords: electrochemical property, hydrothermal synthesis, lithium ion battery, stannous oxide

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36 Measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in Soil Samples Collected from Coal City Dhanbad, India

Authors: Zubair Ahmad

Abstract:

Specific activities of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using γ - ray spectrometric technique in soil samples collected from the city of Dhanbad, which is located near coal mines. Mean activity values for 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be 60.29 Bq/kg, 64.50 Bq/kg and 481.0 Bq/kg, respectively. Mean radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, outdoor dose, external hazard index, internal hazard index, for the area under study were determined as 189.53 Bq/kg, 87.21 nGy/h, 0.37 mSv/y, 0.52 and 0.64, respectively. The annual effective dose to the general public was found 0.44 mSv/y. This value lies well below the limit of 1 mSv/y as recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. Measured values were found safe for environment and public health.

Keywords: coal city Dhanbad, gamma-ray spectroscopy, natural radioactivity, soil samples

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35 A Comparative Study of Techniques Applied for Offline Recognition of Electric Circuit Schematic Diagrams

Authors: W. Uzair, D. Chai, A. Rassau

Abstract:

Electric circuit schematic diagrams are a symbolic representation of electric circuits. Due to their ease of use, it is common practice for students and professionals to use circuit diagrams to construct an idea or an initial design on paper. Computer recognition of circuit diagrams would be very useful to enable the translation of paper-based circuit diagrams to digital form for simulation of the circuits using computer tools. The accuracy of classification techniques applied to circuit diagrams plays is a dominant factor in the overall accuracy of the process. This paper presents a review and analysis of different techniques and their combinations that have been applied for the recognition of circuit diagrams. Several works relating to the recognition of circuit diagrams are analysed for their limitations and practicality based on defined criteria. Object-detection models proved to be highly accurate, and these models eliminated the need for pre-classification stages. There is still much work needed to completely understand a hand-drawn circuit.

Keywords: image recognition, document understanding, support vector machine, schematic diagrams, electric circuit recognition, offline recognition

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34 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf

Abstract:

Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

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33 Challenges and Opportunities of Cloud-Based E-Learning Systems

Authors: Kashif Laeeq, Zubair A. Shaikh

Abstract:

The paradigm of education is drastically changing from conventional to e-learning model. Due to ease of learning with various other benefits, several educational institutions are adopting the e-learning models. Some institutions are still willing to transform their educational system on to e-learning, but due to limited resources, they are still compromising on the old traditional system. The cloud computing could be one of the best solutions to overcome this problem by providing hardware, software, and infrastructure resources with cost efficient manner. The adoption of cloud computing in education will bring revolution in this paradigm. This paper introduces various positive features of e-learning and presents a way how cloud computing technology can be provisioned e-learning model. This paper also investigates the numerous challenges and opportunities that would be observed in cloud computing adoption in e-learning domain. The concept and knowledge present in this paper may create a new direction of research in the domain of cloud-based e-learning.

Keywords: cloud-based e-learning, e-learning, cloud computing application, smart learning

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32 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Essential Oils in Synergy with Amoxicillin against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Naheed Niaz, Nimra Naeem, Bushra Uzair, Riffat Tahira

Abstract:

Antibacterial activity of different traditional plants essential oils against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion method was evaluated. All the tested essential oils, in different concentrations, inhibited growth of S. aureus to varying degrees. Cinnamon and Thyme essential oils were observed to be the “best” against test pathogen. Even at lowest concentration of these essential oils i.e. 25 µl/ml, clear zone of inhibition was recorded 9+0.085mm and 8+0.051mm respectively, and at higher concentrations there was a total reduction in growth of MRSA. The study also focused on analyzing the synergistic effects of essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. Results showed that oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils which were not very effective alone turned out to be strong synergistic enhancers. The activity increased with increase in concentration of the essential oils. It may be concluded from present results that cinnamon and thyme essential oils could be used as potential antimicrobial source for the treatment of infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, essential oils, antibiotics, combination therapy, minimum inhibitory concentration

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31 The Scattering in Flexible Reactive Silencer Containing Rigid Partitioning

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Junaid Uzair Satti

Abstract:

The noise emanating from the ducting of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is often attenuated by using the dissipative silencers. Such devices work well for the high-frequency noise but are less operative in the low-frequency noise range. The present study analyzes a reactive silencer comprising expansion chamber of the elastic membranes partitioned symmetrically by a rigid plate. The Mode-Matching scheme has been developed to solve the governing boundary value problem. The orthogonal and non-orthogonal duct modes of acoustic pressures and normal velocities are matched at interfaces. It enables to recast the differential system into the infinite system of linear algebraic of equations, which is, then truncated and inverted for the solution. The truncated solution is validated through the conservation of energy and reconstruction of matching conditions. The results for scattering energy flux and transmission loss are shown against frequency and the dimensions of the chamber. It is seen that the stop-band of the silencer can be shifted to the broadband by changing the dimensions of the chamber and the properties of the elastic membranes. The modeled reactive silencer is more efficient in low frequency regime where the passive devices are least effective.

Keywords: acoustic scattering, elastic membranes mode-matching, reactive silencer

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30 Modeling of a UAV Longitudinal Dynamics through System Identification Technique

Authors: Asadullah I. Qazi, Mansoor Ahsan, Zahir Ashraf, Uzair Ahmad

Abstract:

System identification of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), to acquire its mathematical model, is a significant step in the process of aircraft flight automation. The need for reliable mathematical model is an established requirement for autopilot design, flight simulator development, aircraft performance appraisal, analysis of aircraft modifications, preflight testing of prototype aircraft and investigation of fatigue life and stress distribution etc.  This research is aimed at system identification of a fixed wing UAV by means of specifically designed flight experiment. The purposely designed flight maneuvers were performed on the UAV and aircraft states were recorded during these flights. Acquired data were preprocessed for noise filtering and bias removal followed by parameter estimation of longitudinal dynamics transfer functions using MATLAB system identification toolbox. Black box identification based transfer function models, in response to elevator and throttle inputs, were estimated using least square error   technique. The identification results show a high confidence level and goodness of fit between the estimated model and actual aircraft response.

Keywords: fixed wing UAV, system identification, black box modeling, longitudinal dynamics, least square error

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29 Analysis of Economic Order Quantity, Safety Stock, Maximum Inventory Control, Lot Size and Reorder Point for Engro Polymers and Chemicals

Authors: Ali Akber Jaffri, Asad Naseem, Javeria Khan, Zubair Hamza, Ishtiaq

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine safety stock, maximum inventory level, reordering point, and reordering quantity by rearranging lot sizes for supplier and customer in MRO (maintenance repair operations) warehouse of Engro Polymers & Chemicals. To achieve the aim, physical analysis method and excel commands were carried out to elicit the customer and supplier data provided by the company. Initially, we rearranged the current lot sizes and MOUs (measure of units) in SAP software. Due to change in lot sizes, we have to determine the new quantities for safety stock, maximum inventory, reordering point and reordering quantity as per company's demand. By proposed system, we saved extra cost in terms of reducing time of receiving from vendor and in issuance to customer, ease of material handling in MRO warehouse and also reduce human efforts.

Keywords: maintenance repair operation, maximum inventory, reorder quantity, safety stock

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
28 Thermal Analysis for Darcy Forchheimer Effect with Hybrid Ferro Fluid Flow

Authors: Behzad Ali Khan, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi

Abstract:

The article analyzes the Darcy Forchheimer 2D Hybrid ferrofluid. The flow of a Hybrid ferrofluid is made due to an unsteady porous channel. The classical liquid water is treated as a based liquid. The flow in the permeable region is characterized by the Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Heat transfer phenomena are studied during the flow. The transformation of a partial differential set of equations into a strong ordinary differential frame is formed through appropriate variables. The numerical Shooting Method is executed for solving the simplified set of equations. In addition, a numerical analysis (ND-Solve) is utilized for the convergence of the applied technique. The influence of some flow model quantities like Pr (Prandtle number), r (porous medium parameter), F (Darcy-porous medium parameter), Re (Reynolds number), Pe (Peclet number) on velocity and temperature field are scrutinized and studied through sketches. Certain physical factors like f ''(η) (skin friction coefficient) and θ^'(η) (rate of heat transfer) are first derived and then presented through tables.

Keywords: darcy forcheimer, hybrid ferro fluid, porous medium, porous channel

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27 To Determine the Effects of Regulatory Food Safety Inspections on the Grades of Different Categories of Retail Food Establishments across the Dubai Region

Authors: Shugufta Mohammad Zubair

Abstract:

This study explores the Effect of the new food System Inspection system also called the new inspection color card scheme on reduction of critical & major food safety violations in Dubai. Data was collected from all retail food service establishments located in two zones in the city. Each establishment was visited twice, once before the launch of the new system and one after the launch of the system. In each visit, the Inspection checklist was used as the evaluation tool for observation of the critical and major violations. The old format of the inspection checklist was concerned with scores based on the violations; but the new format of the checklist for the new inspection color card scheme is divided into administrative, general major and critical which gives a better classification for the inspectors to identify the critical and major violations of concerned. The study found that there has been a better and clear marking of violations after the launch of new inspection system wherein the inspectors are able to mark and categories the violations effectively. There had been a 10% decrease in the number of food establishment that was previously given A grade. The B & C grading were also considerably dropped by 5%.

Keywords: food inspection, risk assessment, color card scheme, violations

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26 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan

Abstract:

This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: slope stability, Rocscience, Clara W., 2d analysis, 3D analysis, sensitivity analysis

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25 Received Signal Strength Indicator Based Localization of Bluetooth Devices Using Trilateration: An Improved Method for the Visually Impaired People

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Aziz, Thomas Owens, Uzair Khaleeq uz Zaman

Abstract:

The instantaneous and spatial localization for visually impaired people in dynamically changing environments with unexpected hazards and obstacles, is the most demanding and challenging issue faced by the navigation systems today. Since Bluetooth cannot utilize techniques like Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) and Time of Arrival (TOA), it uses received signal strength indicator (RSSI) to measure Receive Signal Strength (RSS). The measurements using RSSI can be improved significantly by improving the existing methodologies related to RSSI. Therefore, the current paper focuses on proposing an improved method using trilateration for localization of Bluetooth devices for visually impaired people. To validate the method, class 2 Bluetooth devices were used along with the development of a software. Experiments were then conducted to obtain surface plots that showed the signal interferences and other environmental effects. Finally, the results obtained show the surface plots for all Bluetooth modules used along with the strong and weak points depicted as per the color codes in red, yellow and blue. It was concluded that the suggested improved method of measuring RSS using trilateration helped to not only measure signal strength affectively but also highlighted how the signal strength can be influenced by atmospheric conditions such as noise, reflections, etc.

Keywords: Bluetooth, indoor/outdoor localization, received signal strength indicator, visually impaired

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24 Protein Derived Biodegradable Food Packaging Material from Poultry By-Product

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Aman Ullah, Jianping Wu

Abstract:

During the last decades, petroleum derived synthetic polymers like polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene has extensively been used in the field of food packaging and mostly are non-degradable. Biopolymers are a good fit for single-use or short-lived products such as food packaging. Spent hens, a poultry by-product which is of little economic value and their disposal are environmentally harmful. Through current study, we have explored the possibility to transform proteins from spent fowl into green food packaging material. Proteins from spent fowl were extracted within 1 hour using pH shift method with recovery of about 74%. Different plasticizers were tried like glycerol, sorbitol, glutaraldehyde, 1,2 ethylene glycol and 1,2 butanediol. Glycerol was the best plasticizer among all these plasticizers. A naturally occurring and non-toxic cross-linking agent, chitosan, was used to form the chitosan/glycerol/protein blend by casting and compression molding techniques. The mechanical properties were characterized using tensile strength analyzer. The nano-reinforcements with homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles lead to improved physical properties suggesting that these materials have great potential for food packaging applications.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, spent hen

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23 The Physical Impact of Nano-Layer Due to Dispersions of Carbon Nano-Tubes through an Absorbent Channel: A Numerical Nano-Fluid Flow Model

Authors: Muhammad Zubair Akbar Qureshi, Abdul Bari Farooq

Abstract:

The intention of the current study to analyze the significance of nano-layer in incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Newtonian nano-fluid consisting of carbon nano-materials has been considered through an absorbent channel with moving porous walls. Using applicable similarity transforms, the governing equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are solved by using the 4th-order Runge-Kutta technique together with shooting methodology. The phenomena of nano-layer have also been modeled mathematically. The inspiration behind this segment is to reveal the behavior of involved parameters on velocity and temperature profiles. A detailed table is presented in which the effects of involved parameters on shear stress and heat transfer rate are discussed. Specially presented the impact of the thickness of the nano-layer and radius of the particle on the temperature profile. We observed that due to an increase in the thickness of the nano-layer, the heat transfer rate increases rapidly. The consequences of this research may be advantageous to the applications of biotechnology and industrial motive.

Keywords: carbon nano-tubes, magneto-hydrodynamics, nano-layer, thermal conductivity

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22 Towards Long-Range Pixels Connection for Context-Aware Semantic Segmentation

Authors: Muhammad Zubair Khan, Yugyung Lee

Abstract:

Deep learning has recently achieved enormous response in semantic image segmentation. The previously developed U-Net inspired architectures operate with continuous stride and pooling operations, leading to spatial data loss. Also, the methods lack establishing long-term pixels connection to preserve context knowledge and reduce spatial loss in prediction. This article developed encoder-decoder architecture with bi-directional LSTM embedded in long skip-connections and densely connected convolution blocks. The network non-linearly combines the feature maps across encoder-decoder paths for finding dependency and correlation between image pixels. Additionally, the densely connected convolutional blocks are kept in the final encoding layer to reuse features and prevent redundant data sharing. The method applied batch-normalization for reducing internal covariate shift in data distributions. The empirical evidence shows a promising response to our method compared with other semantic segmentation techniques.

Keywords: deep learning, semantic segmentation, image analysis, pixels connection, convolution neural network

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21 Numerical Study of Entropy Generation Due to Hybrid Nano-Fluid Flow through Coaxial Porous Disks

Authors: Muhammad Bilal Ameen, M. Zubair Akbar Qureshi

Abstract:

The current investigation of two-dimensional hybrid nanofluid flows with two coaxial parallel disks has been presented. Consider the hybrid nanofluid has been taken as steady-state. Consider the coaxial disks that have been porous. Consider the heat equation to examine joule heating and viscous dissipation effects. Nonlinear partial differential equations have been solved numerically. For shear stress and heat transfer, results are tabulated. Hybrid nanoparticles and Eckert numbers are increasing for heat transfer. Entropy generation is expanded with radiation parameters Eckert, Reynold, Prandtl, and Peclet numbers. A set of ordinary differential equations is obtained to utilize the capable transformation variables. The numerical solution of the continuity, momentum, energy, and entropy generation equations is obtaining using the command bvp4c of Matlab as a solver. To explore the impact of main parameters like suction/infusion, Prandtl, Reynold, Eckert, Peclet number, and volume fraction parameters, various graphs have been plotted and examined. It is concluded that a convectional nanofluid is highly compared by entropy generation with the boundary layer of hybrid nanofluid.

Keywords: entropy generation, hybrid nano fluid, heat transfer, porous disks

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20 The Development of Shariah-Based Cooperative and Its Governance System: Cases in Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia

Authors: Zurina Shafii, Mohamed Obaidullah, Rochania Ayu Yunanda, Nor Farha Zubair

Abstract:

Cooperative members (also known as user-owners) are responsible in running the cooperative businesses in order to improve their socio economic well-being. Cooperatives have always been recognized as a vehicle to elevate the standard of living of the poor and low-income earners by improving their ability to mobilize resources among the people within the urban and rural sectors of the population. To improve its performance and role, the cooperative should ensure the existence of its specific governance. Using narrative analysis and quasi-statistics, this paper describes the state of operation, growth and nature of products and services offered in Sakofah Savings Co-op (the largest Islamic cooperative in Krabi), Koperasi Muslimin Malaysia Berhad (KMMB) in Malaysia and KOSPIN Jasa Keuangan in Indonesia. Furthermore, it identifies and evaluates the current governance system in each cooperatives and proposes governance framework which may enhance the performance of the cooperatives. The paper, in turn discusses the challenges to cooperative growth and investment from the aspects of governance and monitoring, transparency and human capital. The paper will be useful for regulators and governance organs of cooperatives, namely Board of Members, Management and Shariah Committee in order for these parties to strengthen the governance within cooperatives to further grow this economic sector.

Keywords: Islamic cooperatives, governance, Shariah governance, case study

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19 Prevalence of Cognitive Decline in Major Depressive Illness

Authors: U. B. Zubair, A. Kiyani

Abstract:

Introduction: Depressive illness predispose individuals to a lot of physical and mental health issues. Anxiety and substance use disorders have been studied widely as comorbidity. Biological symptoms also now considered part of the depressive spectrum. Cognitive abilities also decline or get affected and need to be looked into in detail in depressed patients. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cognitive decline among patients with major depressive illness and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Methods: 190 patients of major depressive illness were included in our study to determine the presence of cognitive decline among them. Depression was diagnosed by a consultant psychiatrist by using the ICD-10 criteria for major depressive disorder. British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI) was the psychometric tool used to determine the cognitive decline. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and the relationship of various factors with cognitive decline was also ascertained. Findings: 70% of the patients suffering from depression included in this study showed the presence of some degree of cognitive decline, while 30% did not show any evidence of cognitive decline when screened through BCCCI. Statistical testing revealed that the female gender was the only socio-demographic parameter linked significantly with the presence of cognitive decline. Conclusion: Decline in cognitive abilities was found in a significant number of patients suffering from major depression in our sample population. Screening for this parameter f mental function should be done in depression clinics to pick it early.

Keywords: depression, cognitive decline, prevalence, socio-demographic factors

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18 Effects of Dietary E on Semen, Hormonal Profile and Testicular Biometry in Teddy Goat Bucks

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Maqbool Ahmad, Al-Hafizah Shafia Tehseen Gul, Shujait Ali

Abstract:

The use of vitamins has significant effects on the reproductive system of mammals. The present study was conducted to investigate the useful effects of vitamin E on reproductive functions of Teddy bucks. For this purpose, 8 adult Teddy bucks were randomly divided into two treatment groups viz; A (control) and B (vitamin E with dose of 200 mg/kg BW/day). These treatments continued for 12 weeks. Semen quality parameters (volume, motility, sperm morphology and sperm DNA integrity) of experimental bucks of each group was evaluated on weekly basis, while testicular measurements (length, scrotal circumference and weights) were recorded at 0 and 12th week of experiment. Serum concentrations of male sex hormones (testosterone, LH, FSH) and cortisol were recorded fortnightly. Similarly, body weights of bucks were also measured fortnightly until completion of the study. The data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance, followed by Duncan test for multiple mean comparisons. Supplementation of vitamin E improved significantly (P<0.05) the semen quality parameter, body weights, testicular measurements and serum levels of sex hormones. However, there was no effect on serum cortisol. It was concluded from the present study that dietary supplementation of vitamin E has beneficial effects on the semen and hormones in male reproductive system.

Keywords: hormones, semen, teddy bucks, testicular measurements

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17 Securitizing Terrorism: A Critical Appraisal of Pakistan’s Counter-Terrorism Approach

Authors: Bilal Zubair

Abstract:

In a constantly challenging internal security environment, Pakistan is making ways to improvise and respond to the new variations in the pervasive phenomenon of terrorism. The state’s endeavors towards securitizing terrorism as an existential threat are both extensive and intensive which have systematically incorporated both military and non-military means. Since 2007, the military has been conducting intermittent operations and by 2014 has successfully neutralized the terrorist ability to target vital security installations and security personal. The terrorists have responded by targeting communities which are soft targets and extremely vulnerable to organized assaults. Within this context, the study aims to explain the emerging trends of terrorism in Pakistan, which multi-layered and complex developments are having far-reaching implications for state and society. With a view to explore the underlining reasons, present trends and ensuing ramifications of the emerging trends in terrorism, this study would examine the following: First, the historical processes and development of Terrorism in Pakistan; secondly the processes of securitization which include political consensus, legal frameworks and military operations against the terrorist groups; thirdly , the socio-cultural dimensions and geopolitical influences on the transforming nature of sectarian terrorism. The study will also highlight the grey areas and weak links in the ongoing securitization process. Finally, the study will thoroughly explore the societal insecurity which is manifested in internal displacements, identity crisis and weakening the socio-political fabric of the state.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, terrorism, sectarianism, securitizing

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