Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 981

Search results for: irregular migration

981 Exploring Causes of Irregular Migration: Evidence from Rural Punjab, India

Authors: Kulwinder Singh

Abstract:

Punjab is one of the major labour exporting states of India. Every year more than 20,000 youths from Punjab attempt irregular migration. About 84 irregular migrants are from rural areas and 16 per cent from urban areas. Irregular migration could only be achieved if be organized through highly efficient international networks with the countries of origin, transit, and destination. A good number of Punjabis continue to immigrate into the UK for work through unauthorized means entering the country on visit visas and overstaying or getting ‘smuggled into’ the country with the help of transnational networks of agents. Although, the efforts are being made by the government to curb irregular migration through The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Rules (2012, 2014) and Punjab Travel Regulation Act (2012), but yet it exists parallel to regular migration. Despite unprecedented miseries of irregular migrants and strict laws implemented by the state government to check this phenomenon, ‘why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly’ is the important question to answer. This study addresses this question through the comparison of irregular migration with regular one. In other words, this analysis reveals major causes, specifically economic ones, of irregular migration from rural Punjab. This study is unique by presenting economics of irregular migration, given previous studies emphasize the role of sociological and psychological factors. Addressing important question “why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly?”, the present study reveals that Punjabi, being far-sighted, endeavor irregular migration as it is, though, economically nonviable in short run, but offers lucrative economic gains as gets older. Despite its considerably higher cost viz-a-viz regular migration, it is the better employment option to irregular migrants with higher permanent income than local low paid jobs for which risking life has become the mindset of the rural Punjabis. Although, it carries considerably lower economic benefits as compared to regular migration, but provides the opportunity of migrating abroad to less educated, semi-skilled and language-test ineligible Punjabis who cannot migrate through regular channels. As its positive impacts on source and destination countries are evident, it might not be restricted, rather its effective management, through liberalising restrictive migration policies by destination nations, can protect the interests of all involved stakeholders.

Keywords: cost, migration, income, irregular, regular, remittances

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980 Managing Maritime Security in the Mediterranean Sea: The Roles of the EU in Tackling Irregular Migration

Authors: Shazwanis Shukri

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The Mediterranean Sea, at the crossroads of three continents has always been the focus of pan-European and worldwide attention. Over the past decade, the Mediterranean Sea has become a hotbed for irregular migration particularly from the African continent toward the Europe. Among the major transit routes in the Mediterranean Sea include the Strait of Gibraltar, Canary Island and island of Lampedusa. In recent years, Mediterranean Sea has witnessed significant numbers of accidents and shipwrecks involving the irregular migrants and refugees trying to reach Europe via the sea. The shipwrecks and traffickers exploitation of migrants draw most of the attention particularly for the European Union (EU). This incident has been a wakeup call for the EU and become the top political agenda in the EU policy to tackle irregular migration and human smuggling at sea. EU has repeatedly addressed irregular migration as one of the threats the EU and its citizens may be confronted with and therefore immediate measures are crucial to tackle the crisis. In light of this, various initiatives have been adopted by the EU to strengthen external border control and restrict access to irregular migrants, notably through the enforcement of Frontex and Eunavfor Med. This paper analyses current development of counter-migration operations by the EU in response to migration crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis is threefold. First, this study examines the patterns and trends of irregular migration’s movements from recent perspective. Second, this study concentrates on the evolution of the EU operations that are in place in the Mediterranean Sea, notably by Frontex and Eunavfor Med to curb the influx of irregular migrants to the European countries, including, among others, Greece and Italy. Third, this study investigates the EU approaches to fight against the proliferation of human trafficking networks at sea. This study is essential to determine the roles of the EU in tackling migration crisis and human trafficking in the Mediterranean Sea and the effectiveness of their counter-migration operations to reduce the number of irregular migrants travelling via the sea. Elite interviews and document analysis were used as a methodology in this study. The study discovers that the EU operations have successfully contributed to reduce the numbers of irregular migrant’s arrival to Europe. The study also shows that the operations were effective to disrupt smugglers business models particularly from Libya. This study provides essential understanding about the roles of the EU not limited to tackle the migration crisis and disrupt trafficking networks, but also pledged to prevent further loss of lives at sea.

Keywords: European union, frontex, irregular migration, Mediterranean sea

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979 The Methodology of Out-Migration in Georgia

Authors: Shorena Tsiklauri

Abstract:

Out-migration is an important issue for Georgia as well as since independence has loosed due to emigration one fifth of its population. During Soviet time out-migration from USSR was almost impossible and one of the most important instruments in regulating population movement within the Soviet Union was the system of compulsory residential registrations, so-called “propiska”. Since independent here was not any regulation for migration from Georgia. The majorities of Georgian migrants go abroad by tourist visa and then overstay, becoming the irregular labor migrants. The official statistics on migration published for this period was based on the administrative system of population registration, were insignificant in terms of numbers and did not represent the real scope of these migration movements. This paper discusses the data quality and methodology of migration statistics in Georgia and we are going to answer the questions: what is the real reason of increasing immigration flows according to the official numbers since 2000s?

Keywords: data quality, Georgia, methodology, migration

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978 Migration Law in Republic of Panama

Authors: Ronel Solis, Leonardo Collado

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Migration law in the Republic of Panama has been regulated mainly by the executive branch. This has created a crisis not only institutional but also social because the evolution of these norms has rested greatly from the discretion of the government in office. This has created instability in immigration regulation and more now, with the migration crisis of which Panama is also part. Different migration policies have been established. The most recent is that of the controlled migration flow, in which, for humanitarian reasons, migrants move from the border with Colombia to the border with Costa Rica. Unfortunately, such control is not enough, and in some cases, unprotected migrants have been confined for months, their passports have been withheld, and no recognition of their rights is offered. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights has condemned Panama for the unfair detention of an irregular migrant, who was detained for two years in Panamanian prisons, without having committed a crime and without accessing a just defense. This is the case Vélez Loor vs. the Republic of Panama. Uncontrollable migration has been putting pressure on Panamanian public health services. The recent denunciation of HIV-related NGOs that warns that there are hundreds of foreigners who receive expensive antiretroviral therapy in Panama is serious, and several of them are irregular migrants. On the other hand, there are no border control posts with the Republic of Colombia, because it is a jungle area and migrants are exposed to arms and drug trafficking, and unfortunately, also to prostitution. Government entities such as the border police service have provided humanitarian support to migrants on the border with Colombia, although it is not their administrative function, and various entities discuss who should address this crisis. However, few economic resources are allocated by the government to solve this problem, especially with the recent mass migration of Venezuelans who have fled their country. The establishment of a migratory normative code is necessary to establish uniformity in the recognition and application of migratory rights. In this way, dependence on the changing migration policies of the different Panamanian governments would be eliminated, and the rights of migrants and nationals would be guaranteed.

Keywords: executive branch, irregular migration, migration code, Republic of Panama

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977 Effects of Irregular Migration from Different Aspects of Security

Authors: Muzaffer Topgul, Hasan Atac

Abstract:

In case of explaining the migration concept, although it is not a new phenomenon, it is easy to understand that communities have migrated for variety of reasons such as natural disasters, famine, wars, economic problems, and several theories have been put forth to define and find solution for migration within its changing nature. Examining of migration theories denotes that the circumstances under which they appear reflect political, social, and economic conditions of the age they appear. In this day and time, security is considered not only from military perspective but also from economic, political, sociological dimensions. Based on the changing security environment new impacts of migration has occurred; the migration is proceed to be conferred as a type of war, qualified as a transnational crime because of its outcomes and interpreted in a different dimension owing to its effects on the health and education areas. Social security dimension in the context of expanding concept of security; when dealing with the safety of people and social groups with the assumption that national unity and identity are threatened, it sees immigrants as a source of threat. The human security assesses the safety of individuals in terms of survival and quality of life. Changes in the standard of living under the influence of immigrants and possible terrorist acts can be seen as a threat source in this type of security. Economic security of the individuals and the regional changes at the micro level created by the immigrants are covered issues of economic security. Due to the factors such as terrorism and civil war, the increasing numbers of displaced people who have taken refugee status affect the countries, whether it is near or far to the crisis areas, in the new and different dimensions of security day by day. In this study, the term of immigration through the eyes of national and international law will be evaluated, the place of the irregular and illegal immigration in the changing security sphere will be revealed and the effects of the irregular migration to short-term, mid-term and long-term security issues will be assessed through human and social security aspects. In order to analyze the threats for the human security; the parameters such as living conditions of the immigrants, the ratio of the genders, birth rate occasions, the education circumstances of the immigrant children and the effects of the illegal passing on the public order will be evaluated. The outcomes of the problem areas for the human security and the demographic alteration resulting from the human flow of displaced people will be discussed thorough social security extent. The fizzling economic diversity, which has shown up by irregular migration, will be presented within the scope of economic dimension of security.

Keywords: irregular migration, the changing dimensions of security, human security, social security

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976 Practical Survival Strategies among Undocumented and Documented Brazilian Immigrants in Europe: A Comparative Study in Milan and London

Authors: Edmar Jose da Rocha

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This paper is a study on Brazilian irregular migrants living and working in two global cities in Europe, Milan and London. The aim of the journal is to show out why Brazilian choose irregular migration to Milan and London as a strategy. Few studies in Europe have focused on groups coming from the same place of origin and residing in different cities in comparative studies. It is this international comparison that makes this research original. Both in London and Milan there is an economic migration. The reasons showed to migrate to Milan were marriage, citizenship and work. The reasons indicated to migrate to London were work, studies and a better life. In London marriage is a channel for regularisation and citizenship. In both countries, fake documents is a channel for undocumented people to get a job and health care.

Keywords: border, immigration, integration, survival strategies, undocumented, regularisation

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975 The Nexus between Migration and Human Security: The Case of Ethiopian Female Migration to Sudan

Authors: Anwar Hassen Tsega

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International labor migration is an integral part of the modern globalized world. However, the phenomenon has its roots in some earlier periods in human history. This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of female migration in Africa. In the past, African women migrants were only spouses or dependent family members. But as modernity swept most African societies, with rising unemployment rates, there is evidence everywhere in Africa that women labor migration is a growing phenomenon that deserves to be understood in the context of human security research. This work explores these issues further, focusing on the experience of Ethiopian women labor migrants to Sudan. The migration of Ethiopian people to Sudan is historical; nevertheless, labor migration mainly started since the discovery and subsequent exploration of oil in the Sudan. While the paper is concerned with the human security aspect of the migrant workers, we need to be certain that the migration process will provide with a decent wage, good working conditions, the necessary social security coverage, and labor protection as a whole. However, migration to Sudan is not always safe and female migrants become subject to violence at the hands of brokers, employers and migration officials. For this matter, the paper argued that identifying the vulnerable stages and major problem facing female migrant workers at various stages of migration is a prerequisite to combat the problem and secure the lives of the migrant workers. The major problems female migrants face include extra degrees of gender-based violence, underpayment, various forms of abuse like verbal, physical and sexual and other forms of torture which include beating and slaps. This peculiar situation could be attributed to the fact that most of these women are irregular migrants and fall under the category of unskilled and/or illiterate migrants.

Keywords: Ethiopia, human security, labor migration, Sudan

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974 Review of the World Migration Report 2020, with a Focus on Migration Due to Climate Change

Authors: Sincy Wilson

Abstract:

This article focuses on the data scattered throughout the 2020 Report on migration for a variety of reasons. Despite the fact that climate migrants are no longer recognized on an international or national level, their situation remains unchanged, and many countries have already encountered the problem of people entering their country without permission. With the information presented in the paper, researchers are focusing on climate-induced displacement rather than conflict-related migration. The author finishes by stating that there is no time to waste in recognizing climate migrants.

Keywords: climate refugees, climatological factors, migration, slow-onset migration

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973 The Effects of Irregular Immigration Originating from Syria on Turkey's Security Issues

Authors: Muzaffer Topgul, Hasan Atac

Abstract:

After the September 11 attacks, fight against terrorism has risen to higher levels in security concepts of the countries. The following reactions of some nation states have led to the formation of unstable areas in different parts of the World. Especially, in Iraq and Syria, the influences of radical groups have risen with the weakening of the central governments. Turkey (with the geographical proximity to the current crisis) has become a stop on the movement of people who were displaced because of terrorism. In the process, the policies of the Syrian regime resulted in a civil war which is still going on since 2011, and remain as an unresolved crisis. With the extension of the problem, changes occurred in foreign policies of the World Powers; moreover, the ongoing effects of the riots, conflicts of interests of foreign powers, conflicts in the region because of the activities of radical groups increased instability within the country. This case continues to affect the security of Turkey, particularly illegal immigration. It has exceeded the number of two million Syrians who took refuge in Turkey due to the civil war, while continuing uncertainty about the legal status of asylum seekers, besides the security problems of asylum-seekers themselves, there are problems in education, health and communication (language) as well. In this study, we will evaluate the term of immigration through the eyes of national and international law, place the disorganized and illegal immigration in security sphere, and define the elements/components of irregular migration within the changing security concept. Ultimately, this article will assess the effects of the Syrian refuges to Turkey’s short-term, mid-term, and long-term security in the light of the national and international data flows and solutions will be presented to the ongoing problem. While explaining the security problems the data and the donnees obtained from the nation and international corporations will be examined thorough the human security dimensions such as living conditions of the immigrants, the ratio of the genders, especially birth rate occasions, the education circumstances of the immigrant children, the effects of the illegal passing on the public order. In addition, the demographic change caused by the immigrants will be analyzed, the changing economical conditions where the immigrants mostly accumulate, and their participation in public life will be worked on and the economical obstacles sourcing due to irregular immigration will be clarified. By the entire datum gathered from the educational, cultural, social, economic, demographical extents, the regional factors affecting the migration and the role of irregular migration in Turkey’s future security will be revealed by implication to current knowledge sources.

Keywords: displaced people, human security, irregular migration, refugees

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972 Immigration without Settlement: Causes and Consequences of Exclusionary Migration Regime in East Asia

Authors: Yen-Fen Tseng

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Studying migration regimes enables one to identify clusters of countries with policy features in common. A few researchers have pointed out the origin of hardship experienced by foreign workers in Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea, stems from their exclusionary migration regime. This paper aims to understand the causes and consequences of the East Asia migration regime, exploring the common exclusionary policies features of Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea, focusing on the foreign labor policy. It will then present explanations as to factors shaping migration regime; the perspective of factors within political system is adopted, as opposed to political economy and pluralist society approach. In the minds of political elites across East Asia, there exists a powerful belief in mono-ethnicity, namely, the benefits of mono-ethnicity and the social ill of “minority problems”. Guest workers policies of various alterations become the compromise between the want for foreign labor and the desire to maintain mono-ethnicity. The paper discusses the absence of immigrant settlement and formation of ethnic communities as a result of the reluctant hosts. Migrant workers in these societies commonly suffer from irregular working conditions as well as unprotected rights out of their denied legality. The case of Taiwan will be presented with greater details, drawing on data from both first-hand and secondary sources.

Keywords: migration regime, guest worker policies, East Asia, society

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971 The Socio-Economic Consequences of Educational Migration for Georgia

Authors: Eteri Kharaishvili, Marina Chavleishvili, Manana Lobzhanidze, Nino Grigolia

Abstract:

The article analyzes Georgia's involvement in global migration processes, assessing migration research and policy regulatory documents. The socio-economic situation of young people has been studied in the paper, their employment and unemployment levels are analyzed, reasons for migration of youth are revealed, the impact of migration on the socio-economic development of the country is substantiated. Youth demand on education is also assessed, problems in the education sector are identified, educational migration indicators are analyzed according to the internationalization process of this sector. Based on the analysis of the motivations of young people in Georgia, orientation of values and the aspects conditioning life strategies the factors affecting educational migration are determined and the results of the positive and negative impact of educational migration on the socio-economic development of the country are substantiated. The importance of efficient management of educational migration for Georgia in getting closer to the EU and achieving inclusive economic grow this substantiated. Recommendations for efficient management of the process of Georgian citizens’ learning and acquiring experience, as well as the internationalization of education sector and educational migration, are drawn.

Keywords: educational migration, migration management, migration of youth, socio-economic results of educational migration, youth employment

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970 The Return Migration as One of the Possibilities of Migrant Mobility after the Financial Crisis

Authors: Sabrina Mortet

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The economic crisis, which struck the world economy in mid-2008, had an impact on migration in Europe, especially the employment situation of migrant workers. That’s why migrants tended to be the first to lose their jobs during the crisis, victims of the rule "last–in, first-out”. In the same context, the economic recession which affected the migration flows, immigration level has slowed while emigration has increased in some European countries. Since people go where jobs are, we will try to speak about the mobility of migrants after the crisis by focusing on return migration to see if migrants in the period of recession prefer going home or staying in the host country; and we will take Spain as a case of study, because it had attracted an extraordinarily high inflows of migration and it is one of the EU country which was hardly affected by the financial crisis.

Keywords: economic crisis, international migration, mobility, return migration, employement

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969 Circular Labour Migration and Its Consequences in Georgia

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze

Abstract:

Introduction: The paper will argue that labor migration is the most important problem Georgia faces today. The structure of labor migration by age and gender of Georgia is analyzed. The main driving factors of circular labor migration during the last ten years are identified. While studying migration, it is necessary to discuss the interconnection of economic, social, and demographic features, also taking into consideration the policy of state regulations in terms of education and professional training. Methodology: Different research methods are applied in the presented paper: statistical, such as selection, grouping, observation, trend, and qualitative research methods, namely; analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison ones. Main Findings: Labour migrants are filling the labor market as a low salary worker. The main positive feedback of migration from developing countries is poverty eradication, but this process is accompanied by problems, such as 'Brain Drain'. The country loses an important part of its intellectual potential, and it is invested by households or state itself. Conclusions: Labor migration is characterized to be temporary, but socio-economic problems of the country often push the labor migration in the direction of longterm and illegal migration. Countries with developed economies try to stricter migration policy and fight illegal migration with different methods; circular migration helps solve this problem. Conclusions and recommendations are included about circular labor migration consequences in Georgia and its influence on the reduction of unemployment level.

Keywords: migration, circular labor migration, labor migration employment, unemployment

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968 Vulnerability Assessment of Vertically Irregular Structures during Earthquake

Authors: Pranab Kumar Das

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Vulnerability assessment of buildings with irregularity in the vertical direction has been carried out in this study. The constructions of vertically irregular buildings are increasing in the context of fast urbanization in the developing countries including India. During two reconnaissance based survey performed after Nepal earthquake 2015 and Imphal (India) earthquake 2016, it has been observed that so many structures are damaged due to the vertically irregular configuration. These irregular buildings are necessary to perform safely during seismic excitation. Therefore, it is very urgent demand to point out the actual vulnerability of the irregular structure. So that remedial measures can be taken for protecting those structures during natural hazard as like earthquake. This assessment will be very helpful for India and as well as for the other developing countries. A sufficient number of research has been contributed to the vulnerability of plan asymmetric buildings. In the field of vertically irregular buildings, the effort has not been forwarded much to find out their vulnerability during an earthquake. Irregularity in vertical direction may be caused due to irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and geometrically irregular configuration. Detailed analysis of such structures, particularly non-linear/ push over analysis for performance based design seems to be challenging one. The present paper considered a number of models of irregular structures. Building models made of both reinforced concrete and brick masonry are considered for the sake of generality. The analyses are performed with both help of finite element method and computational method.The study, as a whole, may help to arrive at a reasonably good estimate, insight for fundamental and other natural periods of such vertically irregular structures. The ductility demand, storey drift, and seismic response study help to identify the location of critical stress concentration. Summarily, this paper is a humble step for understanding the vulnerability and framing up the guidelines for vertically irregular structures.

Keywords: ductility, stress concentration, vertically irregular structure, vulnerability

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967 Investigating the Rate of Migration of Plasticizers from PET Bottles into Salad Oil during Storage

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Amir H. Soruri, Ali Moghimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, salad oils are used in many countries around the world. Therefore, it is of great importance to ensure the safety of these food products which are usually packaged in Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and come on the market. This study investigated the effects of storage time and temperature on the migration rate of phthalate compounds from PET bottle to salad oil. In more detail, migration rate of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from bottles to salad oil samples was measured in 1st, the 30th, and the 60th days of storage at a temperature of either 20 or 40 °C. At both storage temperatures, an increase in the storage time led to a statistically significant increase in the migration rate of phthalate compounds (p<.01). Regarding this, the highest migration rate occurred after 60 days of storage in to the samples. Furthermore, it was revealed bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate had a higher migration rate at 40 °C than at 20 °C which showed that an increase in the storage temperature would lead to an increase in the migration rate. The highest migration rate occurred in relation to salad oil stored at 40 °C and after 60 days of storage.

Keywords: salad oil, migration rate, polyethylene terephthalate, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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966 Biopolitical Border Imagery during the European Migrant Crisis: A Comparative Discourse Analysis between Mediterranean Europe and the Balkans

Authors: Mira Kaneva

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The ongoing migration crisis polemic opens up the debate to the ambivalent essence of borders due to both the legality and legitimacy of the displacement of vast masses of people across the European continent. In neoliberal terms, migration is seen as an economic opportunity, or, on the opposite, as a social disparity; in realist terms, it is regarded as a security threat that calls for mobilization; from a critical standpoint, it is a matter of discourse on democratic governance. This paper sets the objective of analyzing borders through the Foucauldian prism of biopolitics. It aims at defining the specifics of the management of the human body by producing both the irregular migrant as a subject (but prevalently as an object in the discourse) and the political subjectivity by exercising state power in repressive practices, including hate speech. The study relies on the conceptual framework of Bigo, Agamben, Huysmans, among others, and applies the methodology of qualitative comparative analysis between the cases of borders (fences, enclaves, camps and other forms of abnormal spatiality) in Italy, Spain, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria. The paper thus tries to throw light on these cross- and intra-regional contexts that share certain similarities and differences. It tries to argue that the governmentality of the masses of refugees and economic immigrants through the speech acts of their exclusion leads to a temporary populist backlash; a tentative finding is that the status-quo in terms of social and economic measures remains relatively balanced, whereas, values such as freedom, openness, and tolerance are consecutively marginalized.

Keywords: Balkans, biopolitical borders, cross- and intra-regional discourse analysis, irregular migration, Mediterranean Europe, securitization vs. humanitarianism

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965 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

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The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security

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964 DAG Design and Tradeoff for Full Live Virtual Machine Migration over XIA Network

Authors: Dalu Zhang, Xiang Jin, Dejiang Zhou, Jianpeng Wang, Haiying Jiang

Abstract:

Traditional TCP/IP network is showing lots of shortages and research for future networks is becoming a hotspot. FIA (Future Internet Architecture) and FIA-NP (Next Phase) are supported by US NSF for future Internet designing. Moreover, virtual machine migration is a significant technique in cloud computing. As a network application, it should also be supported in XIA (expressive Internet Architecture), which is in both FIA and FIA-NP projects. This paper is an experimental study aims at verifying the feasibility of VM migration over XIA. We present three ways to maintain VM connectivity and communication states concerning DAG design and routing table modification. VM migration experiments are conducted intra-AD and inter-AD with KVM instances. The procedure is achieved by a migration control protocol which is suitable for the characters of XIA. Evaluation results show that our solutions can well supports full live VM migration over XIA network respectively, keeping services seamless.

Keywords: DAG, downtime, virtual machine migration, XIA

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963 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

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Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: migration, middle east, Sri Lanka, social sciences

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962 Migration as a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy: A Conceptual Equation for Analysis

Authors: Elisha Kyirem

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Undoubtedly, climate change is a major global challenge that could threaten the very foundation upon which life on earth is anchored, with its impacts on human mobility attracting the attention of policy makers and researchers. There is an increasing body of literature and case studies suggesting that migration could be a way through which the vulnerable move away from areas exposed to climate extreme events to improve their lives and that of their families. This presents migration as a way through which people voluntarily move to seek opportunities that could help reduce their exposure and avoid danger from climate events. Thus, migration is seen as a proactive adaptation strategy aimed at building resilience and improving livelihoods to enable people to adapt to future changing events. However, there has not been any mathematical equation linking migration and climate change adaptation. Drawing from literature in development studies, this paper develops an equation that seeks to link the relationship between migration and climate change adaptation. The mathematical equation establishes the linkages between migration, resilience, poverty reduction and vulnerability, and these the paper maintains, are the key variables for conceptualizing the migration-climate change adaptation nexus. The paper then tests the validity of the equation using the sustainable livelihood framework and publicly available data on migration and tourism in Ghana.

Keywords: migration, adaptation, climate change, adaptation, poverty reduction

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961 Comparison of the Seismic Response of Planar Regular and Irregular Steel Frames

Authors: Robespierre Chavez, Eden Bojorquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar

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This study compares the seismic response of regular and vertically irregular steel frames determined by nonlinear time history analysis and by using several sets of earthquake records, which are divided in two categories: The first category having 20 stiff-soil ground motion records obtained from the NGA database, and the second category having 30 soft-soil ground motions recorded in the Lake Zone of Mexico City and exhibiting a dominant period (Ts) of two seconds. The steel frames in both format regular and irregular were designed according to the Mexico City Seismic Design Provisions (MCSDP). The effects of irregularity throught the height on the maximum interstory drifts are estimated.

Keywords: irregular steel frames, maximum interstory drifts, seismic response, seismic records

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960 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

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We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: internal migration, potential outcomes approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia

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959 Study the Dynamic Behavior of Irregular Buildings by the Analysis Method Accelerogram

Authors: Beciri Mohamed Walid

Abstract:

Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: structure, irregular, code, seismic, method, force, period

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958 Ultra High Performance Concrete Using Special Aggregates for Irregular Structures (the New Concrete Technology)

Authors: Arjun, A. D. Singh

Abstract:

Concrete the basic material using in construction across the global these days. The purpose of this special concrete is to provide extra strength and stability for irregular structure where the center of gravity is disturbed. In this paper an effort has been made to use different type of material aggregates has been discussed. We named As "STAR Aggregates" which has qualities to resist Shear, tension and compression forces. We have been divided into coarse aggregates and fine aggregates according to their sizes. Star Aggregates has interlocking behavior and cutting edge technology. Star aggregates had been draft and deign in Auto CAD and then analysis in ANSYS software. by using special aggregates we deign concrete grade of M40 for mega structures and irregular structure. This special concrete with STAR aggregates use in construction for irregular structure like Bridges, Skyscrapers or in deigned buildings.

Keywords: star aggregates, high performance concrete, material aggregates, interlocking

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957 Geographic Aspects of Egyptian Illegal Migration to Europe

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Aly Hassanien

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This study examines the geographic aspects of Egyptian illegal migration to Europe. It used files of Egyptian government bodies and data obtained from a field study carried out in 2015 on the areas of origin. The study revealed that the phenomenon has passed historically through four phases. Areas of origin are classified geographically into three areas: coastal, river, and interior. The study developed a map for routes of migration which identified the main and secondary routes. The main routes included the Libyan, the Mediterranean and the Arab-Turkish routes. Recently, The Mediterranean route has been the largest and the most dangerous.

Keywords: areas of destination, areas of origin, illegal migration, routes of migration

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956 Security Practices of the European Union on Migration: An Analysis of the Frontex Within the Framework of Biopolitics

Authors: Gizem Ertürk, Nursena Dinç

Abstract:

The Aegean area has always been an important transit point for migration; however, the establishment of the European Union gave further impetus to the migration phenomenon and increased the significance of the area within this context. The migration waves have been more visible in the area in recent decades, and particularly after the “2015 Migration Crisis,” this issue has been subject to further securitization in the EU. In this conjuncture, the Frontex, which is an agency set up by the EU in 2005 for the purpose of managing and coordinating the border control efforts, has become more functional in the relevant area, but at the same time, have some questionable actions within the context of human rights. This paper problematizes the rationality behind the existence and practices of such a structure and attempts to make a political and legal analysis of the security practices of the European Union against migration within a framework based on the biopolitics approaches of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben. The dataset of this paper, which focuses on the agency in question by taking it as a case, is formed by making use of the existing literature on the EU’s security policies, the relevant official texts of the Union and Frontex reports on migration practices in and around the Aegean Sea.

Keywords: migration, biopolitics, Frontex, security, European union, securitization

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955 Migration and Displacement: A Study on the Impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali Migration to North-Eastern India

Authors: Sri Mahan Borah

Abstract:

The issue of migration and displacement is considered so sensitive that states have often linked it with their sovereignty, independence and even existence. Therefor, even in the era of globalisation no nation-state is ready to compromise with its territorial boundaries. The problem of migration and displacement has generated a range of socio-political, economic, ethnic, and communal tensions in India in general and northeastern States in particular. In such situation it becomes unpreventable to look over the issue so that a viable elucidation may emerge. The present paper is an attempt to understand the impact of Bangladeshi and Nepali migration to North-Eastern states of India through historical and analytical methods. In this course it will look into the emergence of the migration and displacement problem, its causes, impacts on security and other issues of national interest especially when the migration is illegal and poses multi-layered challenges to the Indian state. The nature of migration from these countries to India has been dissimilar. This is because of their different historical backgrounds, geographical variants, ethno-religious affinities, political systems and bilateral arrangements with India. It concludes inter alia that, India’s borders with Bangladesh and Nepal must be regulated and that resident migrants need to be strategically dealt with, keeping in mind age-old relationships with these countries and, more importantly, the nature and construct of our geography.

Keywords: migration, displacement, North-East, India

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954 Effect of National Sovereignty of Non-Citizens Human Rights Standards: Mediterranean Irregular Immigrants Case

Authors: Azin Karami, Bahareh Heydari

Abstract:

There is a difference between national sovereignty ( national security guarantee) and human rights standards (human security guarantee). Under the pretext of providing security for the majority, Governments violate human rights standards and lead to populism. This paper illustrates despite the human rights standards of non-citizens, they mostly confront different practical and social realities. (a large gap between the reality and the truth). This paper has focused on one of vulnerable irregular non-citizens immigrants from Mediterranean . In addition, it has considered challenges of the basic and primary human rights standards of this group. It shows how government policies affect the flow of irregular immigration. This paper is based upon UN data about Mediterranean immigrants and polls answered by 68 people who intended to migrate from Mediterranean (28 female and 40 male people, the average age of 30 to 40). The model is supposed to be a convenient one to present objective, real evidence of irregular immigrants and discusses the challenges that this group of immigrants confront them .This paper shows clear concept of immigrants.

Keywords: human rights, human security, national sovereignty, irregular immigrants

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953 Investigation of Changes of Physical Properties of the Poplar Wood in Radial and Longitudinal Axis at Chaaloos Zone

Authors: Afshin Veisi

Abstract:

In this study, the physical properties of wood in poplar wood (Populous sp.) were analyzed in longitudinal and radial directions of the stem. Three Populous Alba tree were cut in chaloos zone and from each tree, 3 discs were selected at 130cm, half of tree and under of crown. The test samples from pith to bark (heartwood to sapwood) were prepared from these discs for measuring the involved properties such as, wet, dry and critical specific gravity, porosity, volume shrinkage and swelling based on the ASTM standard, and data in two radial and longitudinal directions in the trank were statistically analyzed. Such as, variations of wet, dry and critical specific gravity had in radial direction respectively: irregular increase, increase and increase, and in longitudinal direction respectively: irregular decrease, irregular increase and increase. Results of variations to moisture content and porosity show that in radial direction respectively: irregular increasing and decreasing, and in longitudinal direction from down to up respectively: irregular decreasing and stability. Volume shrinkage and swelling variations show in radial direction irregular and in longitudinal axial regular decreasing.

Keywords: poplar wood, physical properties, shrinkage, swelling, critical specific gravity, wet specific gravity, dry specific gravity

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952 Household Level Determinants of Rural-Urban Migration in Bangladesh

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Siegfried Bauer

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the migration process of the rural population of Bangladesh. Heckman Probit model with sample selection was applied in this paper to explore the determinants of migration and intensity of migration at farm household level. The farm survey was conducted in the central part of Bangladesh on 160 farm households with migrant and on 154 farm households without migrant including a total of 316 farm households. The results from the applied model revealed that main determinants of migration at farm household level are household age, economically active males and females, number of young and old dependent members in the household and agricultural land holding. On the other hand, the main determinants of intensity of migration are availability of economically adult male in the household, number of young dependents and agricultural land holding.

Keywords: determinants, Heckman Probit model, migration, rural-urban

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