Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 94

Search results for: semantics

94 Contextual Senses of Ambiguous Words Based on Cognitive Semantics

Authors: Madhavi


All linguistic units are context-dependent. They occur in particular settings, from which they derive much of their import, and are recognized by speakers as distinct entities only through a process of abstraction. Most of the words have several concepts associated with them and convey a number of meanings in different contexts in any language. For instance, there are different uses of the word good as an adjective from English. The adjective good expresses many senses like (1) ‘high quality of someone or something’ (2) ‘efficient’ (3) ‘virtuous’ (4) ‘reliable’ etc. These senses will be analyzed by using cognitive semantics framework. The context has the power to insulate one meaning from all the other meanings in communication. This paper will provide a cognitive semantic analysis. The basic tenet of cognitive semantics is the sense of a word is the way we conceptualize it. Our conceptualization is based on the physical experience we go through. Cognitive semantics tries to capture this conceptualization in terms of some categories like schema, frame, and domain. Cognitive semantics is a subfield of cognitive linguistics. Cognitive linguistics studies the language creation, learning, and usage by the reference to human cognition. The semantic structure is conceptual structure which is related to the concepts which are the elements of reason and constitute the meanings of words and linguistic expressions. Cognitive semantics studies how our mind works for the meaning of any word and how it perceives meaning from the environment through senses and works to map with the knowledge which already exists in our mind through experience. In the present paper, the senses are further classified into some categories.

Keywords: cognitive, contexts, semantics, senses

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
93 Searching Linguistic Synonyms through Parts of Speech Tagging

Authors: Faiza Hussain, Usman Qamar


Synonym-based searching is recognized to be a complicated problem as text mining from unstructured data of web is challenging. Finding useful information which matches user need from bulk of web pages is a cumbersome task. In this paper, a novel and practical synonym retrieval technique is proposed for addressing this problem. For replacement of semantics, user intent is taken into consideration to realize the technique. Parts-of-Speech tagging is applied for pattern generation of the query and a thesaurus for this experiment was formed and used. Comparison with Non-Context Based Searching, Context Based searching proved to be a more efficient approach while dealing with linguistic semantics. This approach is very beneficial in doing intent based searching. Finally, results and future dimensions are presented.

Keywords: natural language processing, text mining, information retrieval, parts-of-speech tagging, grammar, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
92 Contextual Distribution for Textual Alignment

Authors: Yuri Bizzoni, Marianne Reboul


Our program compares French and Italian translations of Homer’s Odyssey, from the XVIth to the XXth century. We focus on the third point, showing how distributional semantics systems can be used both to improve alignment between different French translations as well as between the Greek text and a French translation. Although we focus on French examples, the techniques we display are completely language independent.

Keywords: classical receptions, computational linguistics, distributional semantics, Homeric poems, machine translation, translation studies, text alignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
91 Aspects of Semantics of Standard British English and Nigerian English: A Contrastive Study

Authors: Chris Adetuyi, Adeola Adeniran


The concept of meaning is a complex one in language study when cultural features are added. This is mandatory because language cannot be completely separated from the culture in which case language and culture complement each other. When there are two varieties of a language in a society, i.e. two varieties functioning side by side in a speech community, there is a tendency to view one of the varieties with each other. There is, therefore, the need to make a linguistic comparative study of varieties of such languages. In this paper, a semantic contrastive study is made between Standard British English (SBE) and Nigerian English (NB). The semantic study is limited to aspects of semantics: semantic extension (Kinship terms, metaphors), semantic shift (lexical items considered are ‘drop’ ‘befriend’ ‘dowry’ and escort) acronyms (NEPA, JAMB, NTA) linguistic borrowing or loan words (Seriki, Agbada, Eba, Dodo, Iroko) coinages (long leg, bush meat; bottom power and juju). In the study of these aspects of semantics of SBE and NE lexical terms, conservative statements are made, problems areas and hierarchy of difficulties are highlighted with a view to bringing out areas of differences are highlighted in this paper are concerned. The study will also serve as a guide in further contrastive studies in some other area of languages.

Keywords: aspect, British, English, Nigeria, semantics

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90 Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity Resolution in L2: the Role of Semantics

Authors: Hamideh Marefat, Eskandar Samadi


This study examined the effect of semantics on processing ambiguous sentences containing Relative Clauses (RCs) preceded by a complex Determiner Phrase (DP) by Persian-speaking learners of L2 English with different proficiency and Working Memory Capacities (WMCs). The semantic relationship studied was one between the subject of the main clause and one of the DPs in the complex DP to see if, as predicted by Spreading Activation Model, priming one of the DPs through this semantic manipulation affects the L2ers’ preference. The results of a task using Rapid Serial Visual Processing (time-controlled paradigm) showed that manipulation of the relationship between the subject of the main clause and one of the DPs in the complex DP preceding RC has no effect on the choice of the antecedent; rather, the L2ers' processing is guided by the phrase structure information. Moreover, while proficiency did not have any effect on the participants’ preferences, WMC brought about a difference in their preferences, with a DP1 preference by those with a low WMC. This finding supports the chunking hypothesis and the predicate proximity principle, which is the strategy also used by monolingual Persian speakers.

Keywords: semantics, relative clause processing, ambiguity resolution, proficiency, working memory capacity

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89 Semantic Data Schema Recognition

Authors: Aïcha Ben Salem, Faouzi Boufares, Sebastiao Correia


The subject covered in this paper aims at assisting the user in its quality approach. The goal is to better extract, mix, interpret and reuse data. It deals with the semantic schema recognition of a data source. This enables the extraction of data semantics from all the available information, inculding the data and the metadata. Firstly, it consists of categorizing the data by assigning it to a category and possibly a sub-category, and secondly, of establishing relations between columns and possibly discovering the semantics of the manipulated data source. These links detected between columns offer a better understanding of the source and the alternatives for correcting data. This approach allows automatic detection of a large number of syntactic and semantic anomalies.

Keywords: schema recognition, semantic data profiling, meta-categorisation, semantic dependencies inter columns

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88 On the Semantics and Pragmatics of 'Be Able To': Modality and Actualisation

Authors: Benoît Leclercq, Ilse Depraetere


The goal of this presentation is to shed new light on the semantics and pragmatics of be able to. It presents the results of a corpus analysis based on data from the BNC (British National Corpus), and discusses these results in light of a specific stance on the semantics-pragmatics interface taking into account recent developments. Be able to is often discussed in relation to can and could, all of which can be used to express ability. Such an onomasiological approach often results in the identification of usage constraints for each expression. In the case of be able to, it is the formal properties of the modal expression (unlike can and could, be able to has non-finite forms) that are in the foreground, and the modal expression is described as the verb that conveys future ability. Be able to is also argued to expressed actualised ability in the past (I was able/could to open the door). This presentation aims to provide a more accurate pragmatic-semantic profile of be able to, based on extensive data analysis and one that is embedded in a very explicit view on the semantics-pragmatics interface. A random sample of 3000 examples (1000 for each modal verb) extracted from the BNC was analysed to account for the following issues. First, the challenge is to identify the exact semantic range of be able to. The results show that, contrary to general assumption, be able to does not only express ability but it shares most of the root meanings usually associated with the possibility modals can and could. The data reveal that what is called opportunity is, in fact, the most frequent meaning of be able to. Second, attention will be given to the notion of actualisation. It is commonly argued that be able to is the preferred form when the residue actualises: (1) The only reason he was able to do that was because of the restriction (BNC, spoken) (2) It is only through my imaginative shuffling of the aces that we are able to stay ahead of the pack. (BNC, written) Although this notion has been studied in detail within formal semantic approaches, empirical data is crucially lacking and it is unclear whether actualisation constitutes a conventional (and distinguishing) property of be able to. The empirical analysis provides solid evidence that actualisation is indeed a conventional feature of the modal. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that be able to expresses actualised 'opportunities' and not actualised 'abilities'. In the final part of this paper, attention will be given to the theoretical implications of the empirical findings, and in particular to the following paradox: how can the same expression encode both modal meaning (non-factual) and actualisation (factual)? It will be argued that this largely depends on one's conception of the semantics-pragmatics interface, and that this need not be an issue when actualisation (unlike modality) is analysed as a generalised conversational implicature and thus is considered part of the conventional pragmatic layer of be able to.

Keywords: Actualisation, Modality, Pragmatics, Semantics

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87 Formulating Rough Approximations in Information Tables with Possibilistic Information

Authors: Michinori Nakata, Hiroshi Sakai


A rough set, which consists of lower and upper approximations, is formulated in information tables containing possibilistic information. First, lower and upper approximations on the basis of possible world semantics in the same way as Lipski did in the field of incomplete databases are shown in order to clarify fundamentals of rough sets under possibilistic information. Possibility and necessity measures are used, as is done in possibilistic databases. As a result, each object has certain and possible membership degrees to lower and upper approximations, which degrees are the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, the degree that the object belongs to lower and upper approximations is expressed by an interval value. And the complementary property linked with the lower and upper approximations holds, as is valid under complete information. Second, the approach based on indiscernibility relations, which is proposed by Dubois and Prade, are extended in three cases. The first case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects are characterized by possibilistic information. The second case is that objects used to approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information are characterized by complete information. The third case is that objects that are characterized by possibilistic information approximate a set of objects with possibilistic information. The extended approach create the same results as the approach based on possible world semantics. This justifies our extension.

Keywords: rough sets, possibilistic information, possible world semantics, indiscernibility relations, lower approximations, upper approximations

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
86 An Approach to Specify Software Requirements in Semantic Form

Authors: Deepa Vijay, Chellammal Surianarayanan, Gopinath Ganapathy


Requirements of a software project serve as a guideline for the entire project team which enable the team towards producing the right outcome. As requirements are the key in deciding the success of the project, it should be specified in an unambiguous manner. Also, the requirements should be complete and consistent. It should be interpreted in the same way by the entire software project team as the customer interprets. Specifying requirements in textual manner is common in software development. This leads to poor understanding of the requirements which results in more errors and degraded quality. There are some literatures which focus on semantic way of specifying functional requirement which ensure the consistency and completeness of requirements. Alternately in the work, a method is proposed to map the syntactic requirements with corresponding semantics in the form of ontologies. This improves the understanding of requirements, prevents errors and improves quality.

Keywords: functional requirement, ontology, requirements management, semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
85 Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Speech and Communication Skills of Children with Autism

Authors: Aristi Alopoudi, Sofia Beloka, Vassiliki Pliogou


Autism is a complex neuro-developmental disorder with a variety of difficulties in many aspects such as social interaction, communication skills and verbal communication (speech). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of therapeutic horseback riding in improving the verbal and communication skills of children diagnosed with autism during 16 sessions. The researcher examined whether the expression of speech, the use of vocabulary, semantics, pragmatics, echolalia and communication skills were influenced by the therapeutic horseback riding when we increase the frequency of the sessions. The researcher observed two subjects of primary-school aged, in a two case observation design, with autism during 16 therapeutic horseback riding sessions (one riding session per week). Compared to baseline, at the end of the 16th therapeutic session, therapeutic horseback riding increased both verbal skills such as vocabulary, semantics, pragmatics, formation of sentences and communication skills such as eye contact, greeting, participation in dialogue and spontaneous speech. It was noticeable that echolalia remained stable. Increased frequency of therapeutic horseback riding was beneficial for significant improvement in verbal and communication skills. More specifically, from the first to the last riding session there was a great increase of vocabulary, semantics, and formation of sentences. Pragmatics reached a lower level than semantics but the same as the right usage of the first person (for example, I make a hug) and echolalia used for that. A great increase of spontaneous speech was noticed. The eye contact was presented in a lower level, and there was a slow but important raise at the greeting as well as the participation in dialogue. Last but not least; this is a first study conducted in therapeutic horseback riding studying the verbal communication and communication skills in autistic children. According to the references, therapeutic horseback riding is a therapy with a variety of benefits, thus; this research made clear that in the benefits of this therapy there should be included the improvement of verbal speech and communication.

Keywords: Autism, communication skills, speech, therapeutic horseback riding

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84 The Role of Paraphrase in Interpreting Students’ Writing

Authors: Maya Lisa Aryanti, S. S. M. Hum


To improve students’ skill, writing is the most challenging skill to be developed. The reason is that besides helping the students to develop their skill, this activity also helps them to express themselves. This paper depicts how paraphrasing is very helpful to interpret students’ writing. Syntactic units, used tenses and meanings will indeed change once the writings were paraphrased. The objectives of this research are to reveal the inappropriate structure of syntactic units, to show what types of sentences the students often make, and to show how paraphrasing can help to infer the message. The methodology of this research is descriptive qualitative research. In addition, theories of linguistics are also included. This includes theory of Syntax to describe syntactic units and tenses and theory of Semantics to describe theories of meaning and how paraphrasing works. The theories of general linguistics, grammar and writing are also provided to support the theories of Syntax and Semantics. The results of this research are concerned with how the message is received in the end. The message written in the students’ essay is not clear because of the improper structure of syntactic units and use of incorrect of tenses. The students tend to use simple sentences, compound sentences and complex sentences with a few mistakes in their writing. In addition, they tend to create unnecessary phrases. The last point is that this research shows how paraphrase works to attain complete meaning of a sentence.

Keywords: meanings, syntactic units, tenses, syntax and semantics

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
83 Radical Web Text Classification Using a Composite-Based Approach

Authors: Kolade Olawande Owoeye, George R. S. Weir


The widespread of terrorism and extremism activities on the internet has become a major threat to the government and national securities due to their potential dangers which have necessitated the need for intelligence gathering via web and real-time monitoring of potential websites for extremist activities. However, the manual classification for such contents is practically difficult or time-consuming. In response to this challenge, an automated classification system called composite technique was developed. This is a computational framework that explores the combination of both semantics and syntactic features of textual contents of a web. We implemented the framework on a set of extremist webpages dataset that has been subjected to the manual classification process. Therein, we developed a classification model on the data using J48 decision algorithm, this is to generate a measure of how well each page can be classified into their appropriate classes. The classification result obtained from our method when compared with other states of arts, indicated a 96% success rate in classifying overall webpages when matched against the manual classification.

Keywords: extremist, web pages, classification, semantics, posit

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82 Service Interactions Coordination Using a Declarative Approach: Focuses on Deontic Rule from Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules Models

Authors: Nurulhuda A. Manaf, Nor Najihah Zainal Abidin, Nur Amalina Jamaludin


Coordinating service interactions are a vital part of developing distributed applications that are built up as networks of autonomous participants, e.g., software components, web services, online resources, involve a collaboration between a diverse number of participant services on different providers. The complexity in coordinating service interactions reflects how important the techniques and approaches require for designing and coordinating the interaction between participant services to ensure the overall goal of a collaboration between participant services is achieved. The objective of this research is to develop capability of steering a complex service interaction towards a desired outcome. Therefore, an efficient technique for modelling, generating, and verifying the coordination of service interactions is developed. The developed model describes service interactions using service choreographies approach and focusing on a declarative approach, advocating an Object Management Group (OMG) standard, Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules (SBVR). This model, namely, SBVR model for service choreographies focuses on a declarative deontic rule expressing both obligation and prohibition, which can be more useful in working with coordinating service interactions. The generated SBVR model is then be formulated and be transformed into Alloy model using Alloy Analyzer for verifying the generated SBVR model. The transformation of SBVR into Alloy allows to automatically generate the corresponding coordination of service interactions (service choreography), hence producing an immediate instance of execution that satisfies the constraints of the specification and verifies whether a specific request can be realised in the given choreography in the generated choreography.

Keywords: service choreography, service coordination, behavioural modelling, complex interactions, declarative specification, verification, model transformation, semantics of business vocabulary and rules, SBVR

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81 Improved Performance in Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Machine Learning Approach

Authors: B. Ramesh Naik, T. Venugopal


This paper presents a novel approach which improves the high-level semantics of images based on machine learning approach. The contemporary approaches for image retrieval and object recognition includes Fourier transforms, Wavelets, SIFT and HoG. Though these descriptors helpful in a wide range of applications, they exploit zero order statistics, and this lacks high descriptiveness of image features. These descriptors usually take benefit of primitive visual features such as shape, color, texture and spatial locations to describe images. These features do not adequate to describe high-level semantics of the images. This leads to a gap in semantic content caused to unacceptable performance in image retrieval system. A novel method has been proposed referred as discriminative learning which is derived from machine learning approach that efficiently discriminates image features. The analysis and results of proposed approach were validated thoroughly on WANG and Caltech-101 Databases. The results proved that this approach is very competitive in content-based image retrieval.

Keywords: CBIR, discriminative learning, region weight learning, scale invariant feature transforms

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80 A Corpus-Based Diachronic Study on Indefinite Pronominal Anaphora in English

Authors: Qiong Hu


From old English to modern English, the gender category has changed from grammatical gender system to natural gender system. The word classes that reflected gender has changed from pronouns, adjectives, and numerals in old English to only pronouns in modern English. In present-day English, the third person singular pronouns are the only paradigm that keeps an intact gender. 'He' and 'they' used as epicene pronouns are one of the two commonest phenomena of gender disagreement (the other being those against the natural gender). Considering the convenience of corpus concordance, epicene pronoun usage is selected in this study in which the anaphors are restricted to possessives (eg. his, their), and the antecedents are restricted to compound indefinite pronouns (eg. someone, somebody). Factors like writing form (eg. someone vs. some one), the semantics of the prefixes (eg. some- vs. any-), and suffixes (eg. -one vs. -body), as well as frequency, are taken into consideration. Statistics indicate that 'their' is increasingly used as the epicene pronoun compared with the decline of 'his' (when both writing forms are considered). This is influenced by social factors such as feminist movement, as well as the semantics and frequency of antecedents. Their (plural) used in anaphoric reference to various indefinite pronouns (singular in form) can also be treated as number variation in third person pronouns, and the trend that 'their' in place of his can also be treated as a change in number category. Among different candidates for the gender-neutral function, 'their' is proven to be the most promising one based on the diachronic data. This does not reject any new competitors in the future which still remains to be seen.

Keywords: language variation and change, epicene pronouns, gender, number

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
79 An Adaptive Conversational AI Approach for Self-Learning

Authors: Airy Huang, Fuji Foo, Aries Prasetya Wibowo


In recent years, the focus of Natural Language Processing (NLP) development has been gradually shifting from the semantics-based approach to deep learning one, which performs faster with fewer resources. Although it performs well in many applications, the deep learning approach, due to the lack of semantics understanding, has difficulties in noticing and expressing a novel business case with a pre-defined scope. In order to meet the requirements of specific robotic services, deep learning approach is very labor-intensive and time consuming. It is very difficult to improve the capabilities of conversational AI in a short time, and it is even more difficult to self-learn from experiences to deliver the same service in a better way. In this paper, we present an adaptive conversational AI algorithm that combines both semantic knowledge and deep learning to address this issue by learning new business cases through conversations. After self-learning from experience, the robot adapts to the business cases originally out of scope. The idea is to build new or extended robotic services in a systematic and fast-training manner with self-configured programs and constructed dialog flows. For every cycle in which a chat bot (conversational AI) delivers a given set of business cases, it is trapped to self-measure its performance and rethink every unknown dialog flows to improve the service by retraining with those new business cases. If the training process reaches a bottleneck and incurs some difficulties, human personnel will be informed of further instructions. He or she may retrain the chat bot with newly configured programs, or new dialog flows for new services. One approach employs semantics analysis to learn the dialogues for new business cases and then establish the necessary ontology for the new service. With the newly learned programs, it completes the understanding of the reaction behavior and finally uses dialog flows to connect all the understanding results and programs, achieving the goal of self-learning process. We have developed a chat bot service mounted on a kiosk, with a camera for facial recognition and a directional microphone array for voice capture. The chat bot serves as a concierge with polite conversation for visitors. As a proof of concept. We have demonstrated to complete 90% of reception services with limited self-learning capability.

Keywords: conversational AI, chatbot, dialog management, semantic analysis

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78 The Priming Effect of Morphology, Phonology, Semantics, and Orthography in Mandarin Chinese: A Prime Paradigm Study

Authors: Bingqing Xu, Wenxing Shuai


This study investigates the priming effects of different Chinese compound words by native Mandarin speakers. There are lots of homonym, polysemy, and synonym in Chinese. However, it is unclear which kind of words have the biggest priming effect. Native Mandarin speakers were tested in a visual-word lexical decision experiment. The stimuli, which are all two-character compound words, consisted of two parts: primes and targets. Five types of relationships were used in all stimuli: morphologically related condition, in which the prime and the target contain the same morpheme; orthographically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same form; phonologically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same phonology; semantically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with similar meanings; totally unrelated condition. The time since participants saw the target to respond was recorded. Analyses on reaction time showed that the average reaction time of morphologically related targets was much shorter than others, suggesting the morphological priming effect is the biggest. However, the reaction time of the phonologically related conditions was the longest, even longer than unrelated conditions. According to scatter plots analyses, 86.7% of participants had priming effects in morphologically related conditions, only 20% of participants had priming effects in phonologically related conditions. These results suggested that morphologically related conditions had the biggest priming effect. The orthographically and semantically related conditions also had priming effects, whereas the phonologically related conditions had few priming effects.

Keywords: priming effect, morphology, phonology, semantics, orthography

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
77 Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing: Machines Reflect Misogyny in Society

Authors: Irene Yi


Machine learning, natural language processing, and neural network models of language are becoming more and more prevalent in the fields of technology and linguistics today. Training data for machines are at best, large corpora of human literature and at worst, a reflection of the ugliness in society. Machines have been trained on millions of human books, only to find that in the course of human history, derogatory and sexist adjectives are used significantly more frequently when describing females in history and literature than when describing males. This is extremely problematic, both as training data, and as the outcome of natural language processing. As machines start to handle more responsibilities, it is crucial to ensure that they do not take with them historical sexist and misogynistic notions. This paper gathers data and algorithms from neural network models of language having to deal with syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, and text classification. Results are significant in showing the existing intentional and unintentional misogynistic notions used to train machines, as well as in developing better technologies that take into account the semantics and syntax of text to be more mindful and reflect gender equality. Further, this paper deals with the idea of non-binary gender pronouns and how machines can process these pronouns correctly, given its semantic and syntactic context. This paper also delves into the implications of gendered grammar and its effect, cross-linguistically, on natural language processing. Languages such as French or Spanish not only have rigid gendered grammar rules, but also historically patriarchal societies. The progression of society comes hand in hand with not only its language, but how machines process those natural languages. These ideas are all extremely vital to the development of natural language models in technology, and they must be taken into account immediately.

Keywords: gendered grammar, misogynistic language, natural language processing, neural networks

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76 Linguistic Analysis of the Concept ‘Relation’ in Russian and English Languages

Authors: Nadezhda Obvintceva


The article gives the analysis of the concept ‘relation’ from the point of view of its realization in Russian and English languages on the basis of dictionaries articles. The analysis reveals the main difference of representation of this concept in both languages. It is the number of lexemes that express its general meanings. At the end of the article the author gives an explanation of possible causes of the difference and touches upon the issue about analytical phenomena in the vocabulary.

Keywords: concept, comparison, lexeme, meaning, relation, semantics

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75 Terrorism in German and Italian Press Headlines: A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis of Conceptual Metaphors

Authors: Silvia Sommella


Islamic terrorism has gained a lot of media attention in the last years also because of the striking increase of terror attacks since 2014. The main aim of this paper is to illustrate the phenomenon of Islamic terrorism by applying frame semantics and metaphor analysis to German and Italian press headlines of the two online weekly publications Der Spiegel and L’Espresso between 2014 and 2019. This study focuses on how media discourse – through the use of conceptual metaphors – let arise in people a particular reception of the phenomenon of Islamic terrorism and accept governmental strategies and policies, perceiving terrorists as evildoers, as the members of an uncivilised group ‘other’ opposed to the civilised group ‘we’: two groups that are perceived as opposed. The press headlines are analyzed on the basis of the cognitive linguistics, namely Lakoff and Johnson’s conceptualization of metaphor to distinguish between abstract conceptual metaphors and specific metaphorical expressions. The study focuses on the contexts, frames, and metaphors. The method adopted in this study is Konerding’s frame semantics (1993). Konerding carried out on the basis of dictionaries – in particular of the Duden Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (Duden Universal German Dictionary) – in a pilot study of a lexicological work hyperonym reduction of substantives, working exclusively with nouns because hyperonyms usually occur in the dictionary meaning explanations as for the main elements of nominal phrases. The results of Konerding’s hyperonym type reduction is a small set of German nouns and they correspond to the highest hyperonyms, the so-called categories, matrix frames: ‘object’, ‘organism’, ‘person/actant’, ‘event’, ‘action/interaction/communication’, ‘institution/social group’, ‘surroundings’, ‘part/piece’, ‘totality/whole’, ‘state/property’. The second step of Konerding’s pilot study consists in determining the potential reference points of each category so that conventionally expectable routinized predications arise as predictors. Konerding found out which predicators the ascertained noun types can be linked to. For the purpose of this study, metaphorical expressions will be listed and categorized in conceptual metaphors and under the matrix frames that correspond to the particular conceptual metaphor. All of the corpus analyses are carried out using Ant Conc corpus software. The research will verify some previously analyzed metaphors such as TERRORISM AS WAR, A CRIME, A NATURAL EVENT, A DISEASE and will identify new conceptualizations and metaphors about Islamic terrorism, especially in the Italian language like TERRORISM AS A GAME, WARES, A DRAMATIC PLAY. Through the identification of particular frames and their construction, the research seeks to understand the public reception and the way to handle the discourse about Islamic terrorism in the above mentioned online weekly publications under a contrastive analysis in the German and in the Italian language.

Keywords: cognitive linguistics, frame semantics, Islamic terrorism, media

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
74 Study of Syntactic Errors for Deep Parsing at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam, Shahid Alam


Syntactic parsing is vital for semantic treatment by many applications related to natural language processing (NLP), because form and content coincide in many cases. However, it has not yet reached the levels of reliable performance. By manually examining and analyzing individual machine translation output errors that involve syntax as well as semantics, this study attempts to discover what is required for improving syntactic and semantic parsing.

Keywords: syntactic parsing, error analysis, machine translation, deep parsing

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
73 Computational Linguistic Implications of Gender Bias: Machines Reflect Misogyny in Society

Authors: Irene Yi


Machine learning, natural language processing, and neural network models of language are becoming more and more prevalent in the fields of technology and linguistics today. Training data for machines are at best, large corpora of human literature and at worst, a reflection of the ugliness in society. Computational linguistics is a growing field dealing with such issues of data collection for technological development. Machines have been trained on millions of human books, only to find that in the course of human history, derogatory and sexist adjectives are used significantly more frequently when describing females in history and literature than when describing males. This is extremely problematic, both as training data, and as the outcome of natural language processing. As machines start to handle more responsibilities, it is crucial to ensure that they do not take with them historical sexist and misogynistic notions. This paper gathers data and algorithms from neural network models of language having to deal with syntax, semantics, sociolinguistics, and text classification. Computational analysis on such linguistic data is used to find patterns of misogyny. Results are significant in showing the existing intentional and unintentional misogynistic notions used to train machines, as well as in developing better technologies that take into account the semantics and syntax of text to be more mindful and reflect gender equality. Further, this paper deals with the idea of non-binary gender pronouns and how machines can process these pronouns correctly, given its semantic and syntactic context. This paper also delves into the implications of gendered grammar and its effect, cross-linguistically, on natural language processing. Languages such as French or Spanish not only have rigid gendered grammar rules, but also historically patriarchal societies. The progression of society comes hand in hand with not only its language, but how machines process those natural languages. These ideas are all extremely vital to the development of natural language models in technology, and they must be taken into account immediately.

Keywords: computational analysis, gendered grammar, misogynistic language, neural networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
72 Ontology-Based Approach for Temporal Semantic Modeling of Social Networks

Authors: Souâad Boudebza, Omar Nouali, Faiçal Azouaou


Social networks have recently gained a growing interest on the web. Traditional formalisms for representing social networks are static and suffer from the lack of semantics. In this paper, we will show how semantic web technologies can be used to model social data. The SemTemp ontology aligns and extends existing ontologies such as FOAF, SIOC, SKOS and OWL-Time to provide a temporal and semantically rich description of social data. We also present a modeling scenario to illustrate how our ontology can be used to model social networks.

Keywords: ontology, semantic web, social network, temporal modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
71 A Comparison between Bèi Passives and Yóu Passives in Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Rui-heng Ray Huang


This study compares the syntax and semantics of two kinds of passives in Mandarin Chinese: bèi passives and yóu passives. To express a Chinese equivalent for ‘The thief was taken away by the police,’ either bèi or yóu can be used, as in Xiǎotōu bèi/yóu jǐngchá dàizǒu le. It is shown in this study that bèi passives and yóu passives differ semantically and syntactically. The semantic observations are based on the theta theory, dealing with thematic roles. On the other hand, the syntactic analysis draws heavily upon the generative grammar, looking into thematic structures. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the core semantics of bèi passives is centered on the Patient NP in the subject position. This Patient NP is essentially an Affectee, undergoing the outcome or consequence brought up by the action represented by the predicate. This may explain why in the sentence Wǒde huà bèi/*yóu tā niǔqū le ‘My words have been twisted by him/her,’ only bèi is allowed. This is because the subject NP wǒde huà ‘my words’ suffers a negative consequence. Yóu passives, in contrast, place the semantic focus on the post-yóu NP, which is not an Affectee though. Instead, it plays a role which has to take certain responsibility without being affected in a way like an Affectee. For example, in the sentence Zhèbù diànyǐng yóu/*bèi tā dānrèn dǎoyǎn ‘This film is directed by him/her,’ only the use of yóu is possible because the post-yóu NP tā ‘s/he’ refers to someone in charge, who is not an Affectee, nor is the sentence-initial NP zhèbù diànyǐng ‘this film’. When it comes to the second finding, the syntactic structures of bèi passives and yóu passives differ in that the former involve a two-place predicate while the latter a three-place predicate. The passive morpheme bèi in a case like Xiǎotōu bèi jǐngchá dàizǒu le ‘The thief was taken away by the police’ has been argued by some Chinese syntacticians to be a two-place predicate which selects an Experiencer subject and an Event complement. Under this analysis, the initial NP xiǎotōu ‘the thief’ in the above example is a base-generated subject. This study, however, proposes that yóu passives fall into a three-place unergative structure. In the sentence Xiǎotōu yóu jǐngchá dàizǒu le ‘The thief was taken away by the police,’ the initial NP xiǎotōu ‘the thief’ is a topic which serves as a Patient taken by the verb dàizǒu ‘take away.’ The subject of the sentence is assumed to be an Agent, which is in a null form and may find its reference from the discourse or world knowledge. Regarding the post-yóu NP jǐngchá ‘the police,’ its status is dual. On the one hand, it is a Patient introduced by the light verb yóu; on the other, it is an Agent assigned by the verb dàizǒu ‘take away.’ It is concluded that the findings in this study contribute to better understanding of what makes the distinction between the two kinds of Chinese passives.

Keywords: affectee, passive, patient, unergative

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70 Event Monitoring Based On Web Services for Heterogeneous Event Sources

Authors: Arne Koschel


This article discusses event monitoring options for heterogeneous event sources as they are given in nowadays heterogeneous distributed information systems. It follows the central assumption, that a fully generic event monitoring solution cannot provide complete support for event monitoring; instead, event source specific semantics such as certain event types or support for certain event monitoring techniques have to be taken into account. Following from this, the core result of the work presented here is the extension of a configurable event monitoring (Web) service for a variety of event sources. A service approach allows us to trade genericity for the exploitation of source specific characteristics. It thus delivers results for the areas of SOA, Web services, CEP and EDA.

Keywords: event monitoring, ECA, CEP, SOA, web services

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69 Replication of Meaningful Gesture Study for N400 Detection Using a Commercial Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout


In an effort to test the ability of a commercial grade EEG headset to effectively measure the N400 ERP, a replication study was conducted to see if similar results could be produced as that which used a medical grade EEG. Pictures of meaningful and meaningless hand postures were borrowed from the original author and subjects were required to perform a semantic discrimination task. The N400 was detected indicating semantic processing of the meaningfulness of the hand postures. The results corroborate those of the original author and support the use of some commercial grade EEG headsets for non-critical research applications.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, N400, semantics, congruency, gestures, emotiv

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68 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak


An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image

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67 Concepts of Creation and Destruction as Cognitive Instruments in World View Study

Authors: Perizat Balkhimbekova


Evolutionary changes in cognitive world view taking place in the last decades are followed by changes in perception of the key concepts which are related to the certain lingua-cultural sphere. Also, such concepts reflect the person’s attitude to essential processes in the sphere of concepts, e.g. the opposite operations like creation and destruction. These changes in people’s life and thinking are displayed in a language world view. In order to open the maintenance of mental structures and concepts we should use language means as observable results of people’s cognitive activity. Semantics of words, free phrases and idioms should be considered as an authoritative source of information concerning concepts. The regularized set of concepts in people consciousness forms the sphere of concepts. Cognitive linguistics widely discusses the sphere of concepts as its crucial category defining it as the field of knowledge which is made of concepts. It is considered that a sphere of concepts comprises the various types of association and forms conceptual fields. As a material for the given research, the data from Russian National Corpus and British National Corpus were used. In is necessary to point out that data provided by computational studies, are intrinsic and verifiable; so that we have used them in order to get the reliable results. The procedure of study was based on such techniques as extracting of the context containing concepts of creation|destruction from the Russian National Corpus (RNC), and British National Corpus (BNC); analyzing and interpreting of those context on the basis of cognitive approach; finding of correspondence between the given concepts in the Russian and English world view. The key problem of our study is to find the correspondence between the elements of world view represented by opposite concepts such as creation and destruction. Findings: The concept of "destruction" indicates a process which leads to full or partial destruction of an object. In other words, it is a loss of the object primary essence: structures, properties, distinctive signs and its initial integrity. The concept of "creation", on the contrary, comprises positive characteristics, represents the activity aimed at improvement of the certain object, at the creation of ideal models of the world. On the other hand, destruction is represented much more widely in RNC than creation (1254 cases of the first concept by comparison to 192 cases for the second one). Our hypothesis consists in the antinomy represented by the aforementioned concepts. Being opposite both in respect of semantics and pragmatics, and from the point of view of axiology, they are at the same time complementary and interrelated concepts.

Keywords: creation, destruction, concept, world view

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66 A Three Tier Secure KQML Interface with Novel Performatives

Authors: Dimple Juneja, Aarti Singh, Renu Hooda


Knowledge Query Manipulation Language (KQML) and FIPA ACL are two prime communication languages existing in multi agent systems (MAS). Both languages are more or less similar in terms of semantics (based on speech act theory) and offer cutting edge competition while establishing agent communication across Internet. In contrast to the fact that software agents operating on the internet are required to be more safeguarded from their counter-peer, both protocols lack security performatives. The paper proposes a three tier security interface with few novel security related performatives enhancing the basic architecture of KQML. The three levels are attestation, certification and trust establishment which enforces a tight security and hence reduces the security breeches.

Keywords: multiagent systems, KQML, FIPA ACL, performatives

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65 Language Activation Theory: Unlocking Bilingual Language Processing

Authors: Leorisyl D. Siarot


It is conventional to see and hear Filipinos, in general, speak two or more languages. This phenomenon brings us to a closer look on how our minds process the input and produce an output with a specific chosen language. This study aimed to generate a theoretical model which explained the interaction of the first and the second languages in the human mind. After a careful analysis of the gathered data, a theoretical prototype called Language Activation Model was generated. For every string, there are three specialized banks: lexico-semantics, morphono-syntax, and pragmatics. These banks are interrelated to other banks of other language strings. As the bilingual learns more languages, a new string is replicated and is filled up with the information of the new language learned. The principles of the first and second languages' interaction are drawn; these are expressed in laws, namely: law of dominance, law of availability, law of usuality and law of preference. Furthermore, difficulties encountered in the learning of second languages were also determined.

Keywords: bilingualism, psycholinguistics, second language learning, languages

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