Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5024

Search results for: urban land expansion

5024 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

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5023 Evaluating Urban Land Expansion Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

With massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, urban land has increasingly expanded and formed high informal development territory in Kabul city. This paper investigates integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the present city using GIS and remote sensing. This study explores the spatial and temporal difference of urban land expansion and land use categories among different time intervals, 1964-1978 and 1978-2008 from 1964 to 2008 in Kabul city. Furthermore, the goal of this paper is to understand the extent of urban land expansion and the factors driving urban land expansion in Kabul city. Many factors like population expansion, the return of refugees from neighboring countries and significant economic growth of the city affected urban land expansion. Across all the study area urban land expansion rate, population expansion rate and economic growth rate have been compared to analyze the relationship of driving forces with urban land expansion. Based on urban land change data detected by interpreting land use maps, it was found that in the entire study area the urban territory has been expanded by 14 times between 1964 and 2008.

Keywords: GIS, Kabul city, land use, urban land expansion, urbanization

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5022 Sustainable Land Use Policy and Monitoring Urban Land Expansion in Kabul: A Case Study of Rapid Urbanization

Authors: Osama Hidayat, Yoshitaka Kajiat

Abstract:

Kabul is a city that is highly representative of Afghanistan’s rapid urbanization process. As the city rapidly expands, there are enormous challenges to the sustainable use of land resources. This paper evaluates land use change and urban spatial expansion, from 1950 to 2016, in Kabul the capital of Afghanistan, using satellite images, field observation, and socio-economic data. The discussion covers the reduction in rural-to-urban land conversion, the delineation of urban growth boundaries, arable land reclamation and the establishment of farmland protection areas, urban upgrading, and the investigation and prosecution of illegal construction. This paper considers the aspects of urbanization and land management systems in Afghanistan. Efficient frames are outlined in Kabul for the following elements: governmental self-restraint and policy modification. The paper concludes that Kabul’s sustainable land use practices can provide a reference for other cities in Afghanistan.

Keywords: urban land expansion, urbanization, land use policy, sustainable development

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5021 From De Soto’s Solution to Urban Disaster: The Effects of Land Titling Policies on the Development of Cities of the Global South in the Case of Lima Peru

Authors: Jitka Molnarova

Abstract:

Based on De Soto’s idea that a formal land title can provide a secure home and access to credit to poor urban families, a large number of developing countries accepted the formalization of informal settlements as the ultimate solution for their housing crises and struggles with poverty. After two decades of implementation, very little is known about the effects this policy has on the quality of the neighborhoods it produces and on the development of cities in general. Using the capital of Peru -where the solution originated- as a case study, this paper illustrates the negative outcomes this policy has on urban development arguing that land titling encourages 1) expansion of the city often to areas of high physical risk, 2) production of precarious housing on unserviced land, and 3) practices of illegal land trafficking. The evidence is based on interviews with community leaders and officials working at the Cooperation for Formalization of Informal Property (COFOPRI), comparison of satellite images documenting the expansion of Lima in the past twenty years, and a technical evaluation of dozens of houses that have been or are in the process of being granted a land title.

Keywords: COFOPRI, De Soto, housing policies, land titling, land trafficking, Lima, Peru, precarious housing, urban expansion

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5020 Evaluation of Urban Land Development Direction in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul, the capital and largest city in Afghanistan has been experiencing a massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, in which urban land has increasingly expanded and formed a high informal development territory in the city. This paper investigates the urban land development direction based on the integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the last and the fastest ever urban land growth period (1999-2008), which is parallel with the establishment of the new government in Afghanistan. Considering the existing challenges in terms of informal settlements, squatter settlements, the population expansion of the city, and fast economic development, as well as the huge influx of returning refugees from neighboring countries, and the sprawl direction of urbanization of the Kabul city urban fringes, this research focuses on the possible urban land development direction and trends for the city. The paper studies the feasible future land development direction of Kabul city in the northern part called Shamali basin, in which district 17 is the gateway for future development. The area has much developable area including eight districts of Kabul province, and the vast area of Parwan and Kapisa provinces. The northern area of the Kabul city generally has favorable conditions for further urbanization from the city. It is a large and relatively flat area of area in the northern part of Kabul city, with ample water resources available from the Panjshir basin as a base principle of land development direction in the area.

Keywords: Kabul city, land development trends, urban land development, urbanization

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5019 Driving Mechanism of Urban Sprawl in Chinese Context from the Perspective of Domestic and Overseas Comparison

Authors: Tingke Wu, Yaping Huang

Abstract:

Many cities in China have been experiencing serious urban sprawl since the 1980s, which pose great challenges to a country with scare cultivated land and huge population. Because of different social and economic context and development stage, driving forces of urban sprawl in China are quite different from developed countries. Therefore, it is of great importance to probe into urban sprawl driving mechanism in Chinese context. By a comparison study of the background and features of urban sprawl between China and developed countries, this research establishes an analytical framework for sprawl dynamic mechanism in China. By literature review and analyzing data from national statistical yearbook, it then probes into the driving mechanism and the primary cause of urban sprawl. The results suggest that population increase, economic growth, traffic and information technology development lead to rapid expansion of urban space; defects of land institution and lack of effective guidance give rise to low efficiency of urban land use. Moreover, urban sprawl is ultimately attributed to imperfections of policy and institution. On this basis, this research puts forward several sprawl control strategies in Chinese context.

Keywords: China, driving forces, driving mechanism, land institution, urban expansion, urban sprawl

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5018 Using Geographic Information Systems Techniques and Multi-Source Earth Observation Data to Study the Trends of Urban Expansion in Welayat Barka Sultanate of Oman during the Period from 2002 to 2019

Authors: Eyad H. R. Fadda, Jawaher K. Al Rashdieah, Aysha H. Al Rashdieh

Abstract:

Urban Sprawl is a phenomenon that many regions in the Sultanate of Oman suffer from in general and in Welayat Barka in particular. It is considered a human phenomenon that causes many negative effects as it has increased in the last time clearly, and this study aims to diagnose the current status of urban growth taking place in Walayat Barka. The objective of this study is to monitor and follow up on the most prominent changes and developments taking place in Barka in the period from 2002 to 2019 and provide suggestions to the decision-makers to reduce the negative effects of the phenomenon. The study methodology depends on the descriptive and analytical approach to describe the phenomenon and its analysis and knowledge of the factors that helped in urban expansion in the Barka, using a number of studies and interviews with the specialists, both in governmental and private institutions, as well as with individuals who own land, real estate, and others. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (ERDAS software) have been used to analyze the satellite images that helped in obtaining results that reflect the changes Barka, in addition to knowing the natural and human determinants that stand on Urban Sprawl Expansion. The study concluded that the geographical location of Barka has a significant role in its urban expansion, as it is the closest state to the capital Muscat, as this expansion continues toward the southern and south-western directions, as this expansion has significant negative effects represented in the low number of agricultural lands due to the continuous change in land use. In addition, it was found that there are two types of natural determinants of urban expansion in Barka, which are consumed land from the Sea of Oman and from the western sands.

Keywords: GIS applications, remote sensing, urbanization, urban sprawl expansion trends

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5017 The Urban Expansion Characterization of the Bir El Djir Municipality using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Fatima Achouri, Zakaria Smahi

Abstract:

Bir El Djir is an important coastal township in Oran department, located at 450 Km far away from Algiers on northwest of Algeria. In this coastal area, the urban sprawl is one of the main problems that reduce the limited highly fertile land. So, using the remote sensing and GIS technologies have shown their great capabilities to solve many earth resources issues. The aim of this study is to produce land use and cover map for the studied area at varied periods to monitor possible changes that may occurred, particularly in the urban areas and subsequently predict likely changes. For this, two spatial images SPOT and Landsat satellites from 1987 and 2014 respectively were used to assess the changes of urban expansion and encroachment during this period with photo-interpretation and GIS approach. The results revealed that the town of Bir El Djir has shown a highest growth rate in the period 1987-2014 which is 521.1 hectares in terms of area. These expansions largely concern the new real estate constructions falling within the social and promotional housing programs launched by the government. Indeed, during the last census period (1998 -2008), the population of this town has almost doubled from 73 029 to 152 151 inhabitants with an average annual growth of 5.2%. This also significant population growth is causing an accelerated urban expansion of the periphery which causing its conurbation with the towns of Oran in the West side. The most urban expansion is characterized by the new construction in the form of spontaneous or peripheral precarious habitat, but also unstructured slums settled especially in the southeastern part of town.

Keywords: urban expansion, remote sensing, photo-interpretation, spatial dynamics

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5016 Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Urban Growth and Land Use Change in Islamabad Using Object-Based Classification Method

Authors: Rabia Shabbir, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Amna Butt

Abstract:

Rapid land use changes have taken place in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, over the past decades due to accelerated urbanization and industrialization. In this study, land use changes in the metropolitan area of Islamabad was observed by the combined use of GIS and satellite remote sensing for a time period of 15 years. High-resolution Google Earth images were downloaded from 2000-2015, and object-based classification method was used for accurate classification using eCognition software. The information regarding urban settlements, industrial area, barren land, agricultural area, vegetation, water, and transportation infrastructure was extracted. The results showed that the city experienced a spatial expansion, rapid urban growth, land use change and expanding transportation infrastructure. The study concluded the integration of GIS and remote sensing as an effective approach for analyzing the spatial pattern of urban growth and land use change.

Keywords: land use change, urban growth, Islamabad, object-based classification, Google Earth, remote sensing, GIS

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5015 Assesing Spatio-Temporal Growth of Kochi City Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Navya Saira George, Patroba Achola Odera

Abstract:

This study aims to determine spatio-temporal expansion of Kochi City, situated on the west coast of Kerala State in India. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to determine land use/cover and urban expansion of the City. Classification of Landsat images of the years 1973, 1988, 2002 and 2018 have been used to reproduce a visual story of the growth of the City over a period of 45 years. Accuracy range of 0.79 ~ 0.86 is achieved with kappa coefficient range of 0.69 ~ 0.80. Results show that the areas covered by vegetation and water bodies decreased progressively from 53.0 ~ 30.1% and 34.1 ~ 26.2% respectively, while built-up areas increased steadily from 12.5 to 42.2% over the entire study period (1973 ~ 2018). The shift in land use from agriculture to non-agriculture may be attributed to the land reforms since 1980s.

Keywords: Geographical Information Systems, Kochi City, Land use/cover, Remote Sensing, Urban Sprawl

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5014 Evaluating the Impact of Expansion on Urban Thermal Surroundings: A Case Study of Lahore Metropolitan City, Pakistan

Authors: Usman Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

Urbanization directly affects the existing infrastructure, landscape modification, environmental contamination, and traffic pollution, especially if there is a lack of urban planning. Recently, the rapid urban sprawl has resulted in less developed green areas and has devastating environmental consequences. This study was aimed to study the past urban expansion rates and measure LST from satellite data. The land use land cover (LULC) maps of years 1996, 2010, 2013, and 2017 were generated using landsat satellite images. Four main classes, i.e., water, urban, bare land, and vegetation, were identified using unsupervised classification with iterative self-organizing data analysis (isodata) technique. The LST from satellite thermal data can be derived from different procedures: atmospheric, radiometric calibrations and surface emissivity corrections, classification of spatial changeability in land-cover. Different methods and formulas were used in the algorithm that successfully retrieves the land surface temperature to help us study the thermal environment of the ground surface. To verify the algorithm, the land surface temperature and the near-air temperature were compared. The results showed that, From 1996-2017, urban areas increased to about a considerable increase of about 48%. Few areas of the city also shown in a reduction in LST from the year 1996-2017 that actually began their transitional phase from rural to urban LULC. The mean temperature of the city increased averagely about 1ºC each year in the month of October. The green and vegetative areas witnessed a decrease in the area while a higher number of pixels increased in urban class.

Keywords: LST, LULC, isodata, urbanization

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5013 Analyzing of the Urban Landscape Configurations and Expansion of Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia Using Satellite Data and Landscape Metrics Approaches

Authors: Berhanu Keno Terfa

Abstract:

To realize the consequences of urbanization, accurate, and up-to-date representation of the urban landscape patterns is critical for urban planners and policymakers. Thus, the study quantitatively characterized the spatiotemporal composition and configuration of the urban landscape and urban expansion process in Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia, form the year 2006 to 2018. The integrated approaches of various sensors satellite data, Spot (2006) and Sentinel 2 (2018) combined with landscape metrics analysis was employed to explore the pattern, process, and overall growth status in the city. The result showed that the built-up area had increased by 62% between 2006 and 2018, at an average annual increment of 3.6%, while the other land covers were lost significantly due to urban expansion. The highest urban expansion has occurred in the northwest direction, whereas the most fragmented landscape pattern was recorded in the west direction. Overall, the analysis showed that Dire Dawa City experienced accelerated urban expansion with a fragmented and complicated spatiotemporal urban landscape patterns, suggesting a strong tendency towards sprawl over the past 12 years. The findings in the study could help planners and policy developers to insight the historical dynamics of the urban region for sustainable development.

Keywords: zonal metrics, multi-temporal, multi-resolution, urban growth, remote sensing data

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5012 Analysis of Changes in Land Uses Planning for Bangalore City as per Master Plans

Authors: Minakshi Goswami, M. V. Khire

Abstract:

The urban land use is an outcome of geographical and socio economic factors over the decades. Hence, spatial information on land use and possibilities of alternate use is essential for the selection, planning and implementation to meet the increasing demands of human needs and welfare of the urban area. This information assists in monitoring the land use resulting out of charging demands of increasing urban population over the decades. So in this paper, a detailed work on urban land use pattern, with a special reference to build up land in Bangalore city is analyzed in view of the various master plans from 1975to 2011. An attempt has been made to study the status of urban land use of Bangalore city during this period to detect the changes on land utilization rate that has taken place in each master plan period, particularly in the built-up land. The set of measures taken by the city corporation to contain the problems regarding the extremely bothering existing land use in Bangalore city is analyzed.

Keywords: built up land, land use changes, master plan, population

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5011 Photogrammetry and Topographic Information for Urban Growth and Change in Amman

Authors: Mahmoud M. S. Albattah

Abstract:

Urbanization results in the expansion of administrative boundaries, mainly at the periphery, ultimately leading to changes in landcover. Agricultural land, naturally vegetated land, and other land types are converted into residential areas with a high density of constructs, such as transportation systems and housing. In urban regions of rapid growth and change, urban planners need regular information on up to date ground change. Amman (the capital of Jordan) is growing at unprecedented rates, creating extensive urban landscapes. Planners interact with these changes without having a global view of their impact. The use of aerial photographs and satellite images data combined with topographic information and field survey could provide effective information to develop urban change and growth inventory which could be explored towards producing a very important signature for the built-up area changes.

Keywords: highway design, satellite technologies, remote sensing, GIS, image segmentation, classification

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5010 Challenges of Peri-Urban Agriculture in Cities of Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nairobi City Peri-Urban Area

Authors: Aggrey Daniel Maina Thuo

Abstract:

Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, and also for various other urban uses. This land is not available within cities but in peri-urban areas. The expansion of the cities into the peri-urban areas is creating direct and indirect impacts with those living there facing new challenges and opportunities in meeting their life needs and accommodating the by-products of urbanization. Although urbanization of these areas provides opportunities for employment, better housing, education, knowledge and technology transfer, and ready markets for the agricultural products, increase in population places enormous stress on natural resources and existing social services and infrastructure, therefore causing environmental degradation. This environmental degradation is affecting agriculture for those still holding onto their farms for agricultural purposes. This paper, using a multiple theoretical framework and qualitative research approach, attempts to describe the positive and adverse effects of urbanization on peri-urban agriculture, using the Town Council of Karuri within Nairobi peri-urban areas as a case study.

Keywords: peri-urban agriculture, urbanization, land use, environmental degradation, planning

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5009 The Effects of Urbanization on Peri-Urban Livelihood in Ghana: A Case of Kumasi Peri-Urban Communities

Authors: Charles Kwaku Oppong

Abstract:

The research linked urban expansion resulting from urbanization with changing morphology processes happening in peri-urban communities. Two villages of Kumasi City peri-urban were used as a case study. Appropriate analytical framework and methodology (literature review and empirical evidence) were employed to ensure that all pertinent issues of peri-urban interface are brought to light. It was discovered from the study that since peri-urban livelihood is linked with assets base; it has been found that stock of asset, as well as transformation processes, were major factors in the shaping of livelihoods strategies. For that reason, success or failure of household livelihoods was seen to relate to the kind of livelihood strategy employed. With efforts to mitigate for livelihoods failure due to peri-urban development, households' recourse to remittances, land disposal, and other means as an alternative livelihood approach. The study calls for local government policy interventions in regulating peri-urban transformation process and providing safety nets for the vulnerable.

Keywords: urban expansion, peri-urban interface, livelihoods, asset

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5008 Land Use Changes in Two Mediterranean Coastal Regions: Do Urban Areas Matter?

Authors: L. Salvati, D. Smiraglia, S. Bajocco, M. Munafò

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LULCC) occurred in the urban coastal regions of the Mediterranean basin in the last thirty years. LULCC were assessed diachronically (1975-2006) in two urban areas, Rome (Italy) and Athens (Greece), by using CORINE land cover maps. In strictly coastal territories a persistent growth of built-up areas at the expenses of both agricultural and forest land uses was found. On the contrary, a different pattern was observed in the surrounding inland areas, where a high conversion rate of the agricultural land uses to both urban and forest land uses was recorded. The impact of city growth on the complex pattern of coastal LULCC is finally discussed.

Keywords: land use changes, coastal region, Rome prefecture, Attica, southern Europe

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5007 Analyzing Land use change and its impacts on the Urban Environment in a Fast Growing Metropolitan City of Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi

Abstract:

In a rapidly growing developing country cities are becoming more urbanized leading to modifications in urban climate. Rapid urbanization, especially unplanned urban land expansion, together with climate change has a profound impact on the urban settlement and urban thermal environment. Cities, particularly Pakistan are facing remarkably environmental issues and uneven development, and thus it is important to strengthen the investigation of urban environmental pressure brought by land-use changes and urbanization. The present study investigated the long term modification of the urban environment by urbanization utilizing Spatio-temporal dynamics of land-use change, urban population data, urban heat islands, monthly maximum, and minimum temperature of thirty years, multi remote sensing imageries, and spectral indices such as Normalized Difference Built-up Index and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The results indicate rapid growth in an urban built-up area and a reduction in vegetation cover in the last three decades (1990-2020). A positive correlation between urban heat islands and Normalized Difference Built-up Index, whereas a negative correlation between urban heat islands and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index clearly shows how urbanization is affecting the local environment. The increase in air and land surface temperature temperatures is dangerous to human comfort. Practical approaches, such as increasing the urban green spaces and proper planning of the cities, have been suggested to help prevent further modification of the urban thermal environment by urbanization. The findings of this work are thus important for multi-sectorial use in the cities of Pakistan. By taking into consideration these results, the urban planners, decision-makers, and local government can make different policies to mitigate the urban land use impacts on the urban thermal environment in Pakistan.

Keywords: land use, urban environment, local climate, Lahore

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5006 Economic Expansion and Land Use Change in Thailand: An Environmental Impact Analysis Using Computable General Equilibrium Model

Authors: Supakij Saisopon

Abstract:

The process of economic development incurs spatial transformation. This spatial alternation also causes environmental impacts, leading to higher pollution. In the case of Thailand, there is still a lack of price-endogenous quantitative analysis incorporating relationships among economic growth, land-use change, and environmental impact. Therefore, this paper aimed at developing the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with the capability of stimulating such mutual effects. The developed CGE model has also incorporated the nested constant elasticity of transformation (CET) structure that describes the spatial redistribution mechanism between agricultural land and urban area. The simulation results showed that the 1% decrease in the availability of agricultural land lowers the value-added of agricultural by 0.036%. Similarly, the 1% reduction of availability of urban areas can decrease the value-added of manufacturing and service sectors by 0.05% and 0.047%, respectively. Moreover, the outcomes indicate that the increasing farming and urban areas induce higher volumes of solid waste, wastewater, and air pollution. Specifically, the 1% increase in the urban area can increase pollution as follows: (1) the solid waste increase by 0.049%, (2) water pollution ̶ indicated by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value ̶ increase by 0.051% and (3) air pollution ̶ indicated by the volumes of CO₂, N₂O, NOₓ, CH₄, and SO₂ ̶ increase within the range of 0.045%–0.051%. With the simulation for exploring the sustainable development path, a 1% increase in agricultural land use efficiency leads to the shrinking demand for agricultural land. But this is not happening in urban, a 1% scale increase in urban utilization results in still increasing demand for land. Therefore, advanced clean production technology is necessary to align the increasing land-use efficiency with the lowered pollution density.

Keywords: CGE model, CET structure, environmental impact, land use

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5005 The Relations between Spatial Structure and Land Price

Authors: Jung-Hun Cho, Tae-Heon Moon, Jin-Hak Lee

Abstract:

Land price contains the comprehensive characteristics of urban space, representing the social and economic features of the city. Accordingly, land price can be utilized as an indicator, which can identify the changes of spatial structure and socioeconomic variations caused by urban development. This study attempted to explore the changes in land price by a new road construction. Methodologically, it adopted Space Syntax, which can interpret urban spatial structure comprehensively, to identify the relationship between the forms of road networks and land price. The result of the regression analysis showed the ‘integration index’ of Space Syntax is statistically significant and has a strong correlation with land price. If the integration value is high, land price increases proportionally. Subsequently, using regression equation, it tried to predict the land price changes of each of the lots surrounding the roads that are newly opened. The research methods or study results have the advantage of predicting the changes in land price in an easy way. In addition, it will contribute to planners and project managers to establish relevant polices and smoothing urban regeneration projects through enhancing residents’ understanding by providing possible results and advantages in their land price before the execution of urban regeneration and development projects.

Keywords: space syntax, urban regeneration, spatial structure, official land price

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5004 An Integrated Approach to Assessing Urban Nature as an Indicator to Mitigate Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasar-u-Minallah, Dagmar Haase, Salman Qureshi

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization significantly change land use, urban nature, land surface vegetation cover, and heat distribution, leading to the formation of urban heat island (UHI) effect and affecting the healthy growth of cities and the comfort of human living style. Past information and present changes in Land Surface Temperature (LST) and urban landscapes could be useful to geographers, environmentalists, and urban planners in an attempt to shape the urban development process and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands (UHI). This study aims at using Satellite Remote Sensing (SRS) and GIS techniques to develop an approach for assessing the urban nature and UHI effects in Lahore, Pakistan. The study employed the Radiative Transfer Method (RTM) in estimating LST to assess the SUHI effect during the interval of 20 years (2000-2020). The assessment was performed by the available Landsat 7/ETM+ and Landsat 8/OIL_TIRs data for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020 respectively. Pearson’s correlation and normalized mutual information were applied to investigate the relationship between green space characteristics and LST. The result of this work revealed that the influence of urban heat island is not always at the city centers but sometimes in the outskirt where a lot of development activities were going on towards the direction of expansion of Lahore, Pakistan. The present study explores the usage of image processing and spatial analysis in the drive towards achieving urban greening of Lahore and a sustainable urban environment in terms of urban planning, policy, and decision making and promoting the healthy and sustainable urban environment of the city.

Keywords: urban nature, urban heat islands, urban green space, land use, Lahore

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5003 Horizontal Development of Built-up Area and Its Impacts on the Agricultural Land of Peshawar City District (1991-2014)

Authors: Pukhtoon Yar

Abstract:

Peshawar City is experiencing a rapid spatial urban growth primarily as a result of high rate of urbanization along with economic development. This paper was designed to understand the impacts of urbanization on agriculture land use change by particularly focusing on land use change trajectories from the past (1991-2014). We used Landsat imageries (30 meters) for1991along with Spot images (2.5 meters) for year 2014. . The ground truthing of the satellite data was performed by collecting information from Peshawar Development Authority, revenue department, real estate agents and interviews with the officials of city administration. The temporal satellite images were processed by applying supervised maximum likelihood classification technique in ArcGIS 9.3. The procedure resulted into five main classes of land use i.e. built-up area, farmland, barren land, cultivable-wasteland and water bodies. The analysis revealed that, in Peshawar City the built-up environment has been doubled from 8.1 percent in 1991 to over 18.2 percent in 2014 by predominantly encroaching land producing food. Furthermore, the CA-Markov Model predicted that the area under impervious surfaces would continue to flourish during the next three decades. This rapid increase in built-up area is accredited to the lack of proper land use planning and management, which has caused chaotic urban sprawl with detrimental social and environmental consequences.

Keywords: Urban Expansion, Land use, GIS, Remote Sensing, Markov Model, Peshawar City

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5002 The Impact of Karst Structures on the Urban Environment in Semi-Arid Area

Authors: Benhammadi Hocine, Chaffai Hicham

Abstract:

Urban development is often dependent on adequate land for expansion, except that sometimes these areas have vulnerability. This is the case of karst regions characterized by carbonate geological formations marked by the presence of cavities and cracks. The impact of climate variability in Cheria area marked by a growing shortage of rainfall, the impact resulted in the development of the vulnerability of these structures. This vulnerability has led to the appearance of collapse phenomena as well in both agricultural and urban areas. Two phenomena have emerged to explain the collapses, the first is assigned a filling process in the cavities, and the second is due to a weakening of the resistance that collapses limestone slab shear phenomenon. In urban areas, the weight of the buildings has increased the load on the limestone slab and accelerated the collapse. The analysis of the environmental process is in the context of our modest work, after which we indicate the appropriate methods for management policy of urban expansion. This management more preventive (upstream), much less expensive than remedial solutions (downstream) needed after the event and sometimes ineffective.

Keywords: Cheria, urban, climate variability, vulnerability karst collapse, extension, management

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5001 Multi-Temporal Urban Land Cover Mapping Using Spectral Indices

Authors: Mst Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu

Abstract:

Multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is of paramount importance for monitoring urban sprawl and managing the ecological environment. For diversified urban activities, it is challenging to map land covers in a complex urban environment. Spectral indices have proved to be effective for mapping urban land covers. To improve multi-temporal urban land cover classification and mapping, we evaluate the performance of three spectral indices, e.g. modified normalized difference bare-land index (MNDBI), tasseled cap water and vegetation index (TCWVI) and shadow index (ShDI). The MNDBI is developed to evaluate its performance of enhancing urban impervious areas by separating bare lands. A tasseled cap index, TCWVI is developed to evaluate its competence to detect vegetation and water simultaneously. The ShDI is developed to maximize the spectral difference between shadows of skyscrapers and water and enhance water detection. First, this paper presents a comparative analysis of three spectral indices using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Second, optimized thresholds of the spectral indices are imputed to classify land covers, and finally, their performance of enhancing multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is assessed. The results indicate that the spectral indices are competent to enhance multi-temporal urban land cover mapping and achieves an overall classification accuracy of 93-96%.

Keywords: land cover, mapping, multi-temporal, spectral indices

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5000 Urban Land Use Type Analysis Based on Land Subsidence Areas Using X-Band Satellite Image of Jakarta Metropolitan City, Indonesia

Authors: Ratih Fitria Putri, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Hiroaki Kuze

Abstract:

Jakarta Metropolitan City is located on the northwest coast of West Java province with geographical location between 106º33’ 00”-107º00’00”E longitude and 5º48’30”-6º24’00”S latitude. Jakarta urban area has been suffered from land subsidence in several land use type as trading, industry and settlement area. Land subsidence hazard is one of the consequences of urban development in Jakarta. This hazard is caused by intensive human activities in groundwater extraction and land use mismanagement. Geologically, the Jakarta urban area is mostly dominated by alluvium fan sediment. The objectives of this research are to make an analysis of Jakarta urban land use type on land subsidence zone areas. The process of producing safer land use and settlements of the land subsidence areas are very important. Spatial distributions of land subsidence detection are necessary tool for land use management planning. For this purpose, Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) method is used. The DInSAR is complementary to ground-based methods such as leveling and global positioning system (GPS) measurements, yielding information in a wide coverage area even when the area is inaccessible. The data were fine tuned by using X-Band image satellite data from 2010 to 2013 and land use mapping data. Our analysis of land use type that land subsidence movement occurred on the northern part Jakarta Metropolitan City varying from 7.5 to 17.5 cm/year as industry and settlement land use type areas.

Keywords: land use analysis, land subsidence mapping, urban area, X-band satellite image

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4999 Analysis of Enhanced Built-up and Bare Land Index in the Urban Area of Yangon, Myanmar

Authors: Su Nandar Tin, Wutjanun Muttitanon

Abstract:

The availability of free global and historical satellite imagery provides a valuable opportunity for mapping and monitoring the year by year for the built-up area, constantly and effectively. Land distribution guidelines and identification of changes are important in preparing and reviewing changes in the ground overview data. This study utilizes Landsat images for thirty years of information to acquire significant, and land spread data that are extremely valuable for urban arranging. This paper is mainly introducing to focus the basic of extracting built-up area for the city development area from the satellite images of LANDSAT 5,7,8 and Sentinel 2A from USGS in every five years. The purpose analyses the changing of the urban built-up area according to the year by year and to get the accuracy of mapping built-up and bare land areas in studying the trend of urban built-up changes the periods from 1990 to 2020. The GIS tools such as raster calculator and built-up area modelling are using in this study and then calculating the indices, which include enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI), Normalized difference Built-up index (NDBI), Urban index (UI), Built-up index (BUI) and Normalized difference bareness index (NDBAI) are used to get the high accuracy urban built-up area. Therefore, this study will point out a variable approach to automatically mapping typical enhanced built-up and bare land changes (EBBI) with simple indices and according to the outputs of indexes. Therefore, the percentage of the outputs of enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI) of the sentinel-2A can be realized with 48.4% of accuracy than the other index of Landsat images which are 15.6% in 1990 where there is increasing urban expansion area from 43.6% in 1990 to 92.5% in 2020 on the study area for last thirty years.

Keywords: built-up area, EBBI, NDBI, NDBAI, urban index

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4998 Effect of Urbanization on Basic Environmental Components

Authors: Sehba Saleem

Abstract:

A country with a spread of only 2.4 percent of the total land surface area of the world, India is home to 17.5 percent of the world population. This fact is sufficient enough to delineate as well as simultaneously bringing to fore the paradox which exists between land and human population. It is evident that the relation which exists between both is an unequal one where the latter has the ability to multiply self, but the former remains constant. This unequal relation that exists has very significantly contributed to the depletion in the quality of land. This is because construction of every kind and nature has been forced on the land to assimilate the ever increasing population which has altered the not only the land but the environment which existed on the land. To get behind this alteration, it becomes imperative to delve into concepts like urbanization, ecology and their amalgam viz. urban ecology. The concept of urban ecology does not only involve study of buildings, flora, and fauna which exists in a given land space. It goes further into establishing a relation between construction on land and the consequent harm, which the same is causing to the environmental resources like air, water etc. This paper shall try cerebrating concepts of urbanization, ecology and urban ecology in the light of relation which exists between man and nature.

Keywords: asymmetrical growth, environment, urbanisation, urban space

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4997 Spatial Patterns of Urban Expansion in Kuwait City between 1989 and 2001

Authors: Saad Algharib, Jay Lee

Abstract:

Urbanization is a complex phenomenon that occurs during the city’s development from one form to another. In other words, it is the process when the activities in the land use/land cover change from rural to urban. Since the oil exploration, Kuwait City has been growing rapidly due to its urbanization and population growth by both natural growth and inward immigration. The main objective of this study is to detect changes in urban land use/land cover and to examine the changing spatial patterns of urban growth in and around Kuwait City between 1989 and 2001. In addition, this study also evaluates the spatial patterns of the changes detected and how they can be related to the spatial configuration of the city. Recently, the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems became very useful and important tools in urban studies because of the integration of them can allow and provide the analysts and planners to detect, monitor and analyze the urban growth in a region effectively. Moreover, both planners and users can predict the trends of the growth in urban areas in the future with remotely sensed and GIS data because they can be effectively updated with required precision levels. In order to identify the new urban areas between 1989 and 2001, the study uses satellite images of the study area and remote sensing technology for classifying these images. Unsupervised classification method was applied to classify images to land use and land cover data layers. After finishing the unsupervised classification method, GIS overlay function was applied to the classified images for detecting the locations and patterns of the new urban areas that developed during the study period. GIS was also utilized to evaluate the distribution of the spatial patterns. For example, Moran’s index was applied for all data inputs to examine the urban growth distribution. Furthermore, this study assesses if the spatial patterns and process of these changes take place in a random fashion or with certain identifiable trends. During the study period, the result of this study indicates that the urban growth has occurred and expanded 10% from 32.4% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2001. Also, the results revealed that the largest increase of the urban area occurred between the major highways after the forth ring road from the center of Kuwait City. Moreover, the spatial distribution of urban growth occurred in cluster manners.

Keywords: geographic information systems, remote sensing, urbanization, urban growth

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4996 Urban Heat Island Intensity Assessment through Comparative Study on Land Surface Temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index: A Case Study of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Tausif A. Ishtiaque, Zarrin T. Tasin, Kazi S. Akter

Abstract:

Current trend of urban expansion, especially in the developing countries has caused significant changes in land cover, which is generating great concern due to its widespread environmental degradation. Energy consumption of the cities is also increasing with the aggravated heat island effect. Distribution of land surface temperature (LST) is one of the most significant climatic parameters affected by urban land cover change. Recent increasing trend of LST is causing elevated temperature profile of the built up area with less vegetative cover. Gradual change in land cover, especially decrease in vegetative cover is enhancing the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the developing cities around the world. Increase in the amount of urban vegetation cover can be a useful solution for the reduction of UHI intensity. LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) have widely been accepted as reliable indicators of UHI and vegetation abundance respectively. Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh, has been a growth center due to rapid urbanization over the last several decades. This study assesses the intensity of UHI in Chittagong city by analyzing the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of land use/land cover (LULC) in the study area applying an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and regression analysis. Land cover map is prepared through an interactive supervised classification using remotely sensed data from Landsat ETM+ image along with NDVI differencing using ArcGIS. LST and NDVI values are extracted from the same image. The regression analysis between LST and NDVI indicates that within the study area, UHI is directly correlated with LST while negatively correlated with NDVI. It interprets that surface temperature reduces with increase in vegetation cover along with reduction in UHI intensity. Moreover, there are noticeable differences in the relationship between LST and NDVI based on the type of LULC. In other words, depending on the type of land usage, increase in vegetation cover has a varying impact on the UHI intensity. This analysis will contribute to the formulation of sustainable urban land use planning decisions as well as suggesting suitable actions for mitigation of UHI intensity within the study area.

Keywords: land cover change, land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, urban heat island

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4995 A Coupling Study of Public Service Facilities and Land Price Based on Big Data Perspective in Wuxi City

Authors: Sisi Xia, Dezhuan Tao, Junyan Yang, Weiting Xiong

Abstract:

Under the background of Chinese urbanization changing from incremental development to stock development, the completion of urban public service facilities is essential to urban spatial quality. As public services facilities is a huge and complicated system, clarifying the various types of internal rules associated with the land market price is key to optimizing spatial layout. This paper takes Wuxi City as a representative sample location and establishes the digital analysis platform using urban price and several high-precision big data acquisition methods. On this basis, it analyzes the coupling relationship between different public service categories and land price, summarizing the coupling patterns of urban public facilities distribution and urban land price fluctuations. Finally, the internal mechanism within each of the two elements is explored, providing the reference of the optimum layout of urban planning and public service facilities.

Keywords: public service facilities, land price, urban spatial morphology, big data

Procedia PDF Downloads 117