Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 64

Search results for: Saima Memon

64 Mulberry Leave: An Efficient and Economical Adsorbent for Remediation of Arsenic (V) and Arsenic (III) Contaminated Water

Authors: Saima Q. Memon, Mazhar I. Khaskheli

Abstract:

The aim of present study was to investigate the efficiency of mulberry leaves for the removal of both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) from aqueous medium. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimize various parameters such as pH of metal ion solution, volume of sorbate, sorbent doze, and agitation speed and agitation time. Maximum sorption efficiency of mulberry leaves for As (III) and As (V) at optimum conditions were 2818 μg.g-1 and 4930 μg.g-1, respectively. The experimental data was a good fit to Freundlich and D-R adsorption isotherm. Energy of adsorption was found to be in the range of 3-6 KJ/mole suggesting the physical nature of process. Kinetic data followed the first order rate, Morris-Weber equations. Developed method was applied to remove arsenic from real water samples.

Keywords: arsenic removal, mulberry, adsorption isotherms, kinetics of adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
63 Extraction of Polystyrene from Styrofoam Waste: Synthesis of Novel Chelating Resin for the Enrichment and Speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(vi) Ions in Industrial Effluents

Authors: Ali N. Siyal, Saima Q. Memon, Latif Elçi, Aydan Elçi

Abstract:

Polystyrene (PS) was extracted from Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene foam) waste, so called white pollutant. The PS was functionalized with N, N- Bis(2-aminobenzylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine (ABA) ligand through an azo spacer. The resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The PS-N=N-ABA resin was used for the enrichment and speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and total Cr determination in aqueous samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The separation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions was achieved at pH 2. The recovery of Cr(VI) ions was achieved ≥ 95.0% at optimum parameters: pH 2; resin amount 300 mg; flow rates 2.0 mL min-1 of solution and 2.0 mL min-1 of eluent (2.0 mol L-1 HNO3). Total Cr was determined by oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) ions using H2O2. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of Cr(VI) were found to be 0.40 and 1.20 μg L-1, respectively with preconcentration factor of 250. Total saturation and breakthrough capacitates of the resin for Cr(IV) ions were found to be 0.181 and 0.531 mmol g-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration/speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and determination of total Cr in industrial effluents.

Keywords: styrofoam waste, polymeric resin, preconcentration, speciation, Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions, FAAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
62 Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Nasreen Memon, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada, Saima Pathan

Abstract:

Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.

Keywords: prevelance, green peach aphid, Jacobabad, Sindh Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
61 Amphibians and Water Quality: An Assessment of Diversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Habitats for Amphibians in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Kalsoom Shaikh, Saima Memon, Riffat Sultana

Abstract:

Water pollution affects amphibians because they are intimately water dependent. The permeable skin makes amphibians very sensitive to the physico-chemical parameters of their aquatic environment. They spawn in water bodies where quality of water can affect the growth, development, and survival of their eggs which may die even before hatching into larvae or developing into adults due to water contamination. Considering the importance of amphibians in agriculture, food web, ecosystem and pharmaceutics as well as adverse impact of environmental degradation on them, present study was proposed to comprehensively determine the status of their diversity and habitats in Sindh province of Pakistan so as to execute monitoring for their conservation in future. Physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC (electric conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), T-Hard (total hardness), T-Alk (total alkalinity), Cl (chloride), CO₂ (carbon dioxide), SO₄ (sulphate), PO₄ (phosphate), NO₂ (nitrite) and NO₃ (nitrate) were analyzed from amphibian habitats using instruments and methodology of analytical grade. The results of present study after being compared with scientific data provided by different researchers and EPA (environmental protection agency), it was concluded that amphibian habitats consisted of high values of analyzed parameters except pH and CO₂. Entire study area required an urgent implementation of conservation actions for saving amphibians.

Keywords: amphibians, diversity, habitats, physico-chemical parameters, water quality, Pakistan, Sindh Province

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
60 Economical Analysis of Optimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Duct

Authors: D. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. G. Memon, R. A. Memon, K. Harijan

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is usually lost due to compression of insulation in Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct. In this paper, the economic impact of compression of insulation is estimated. Relevant mathematical models were used to estimate the optimal thickness at the points of compression. Furthermore, the payback period is calculated for the optimal thickness at the critical parts of supply air duct (SAD) and return air duct (RAD) considering natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels for chillier operation. The mathematical model is developed using preliminary data obtained for an HVAC system of a pharmaceutical company. The higher heat gain and cooling loss, due to compression of thermal insulation, is estimated using relevant heat transfer equations. The results reveal that maximum energy savings (ES) in SAD is 34.5 and 40%, while in RAD is 22.9% and 29% for NG and LPG, respectively. Moreover, the minimum payback period (PP) for SAD is 2 and 1.6years, while in RAD is 4.3 and 2.7years for NG and LPG, respectively. The optimum insulation thickness (OIT) corresponding to maximum ES and minimum PP is estimated to be 35 and 42mm for SAD, while 30 and 38mm for RAD in case of NG and LPG, respectively.

Keywords: optimum insulation thickness, life cycle cost analysis, payback period, HVAC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
59 Osteometry of the Long Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii): A Remarkable Example of Sexual Dimorphism

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan

Abstract:

The objective of this study was 1) to measure osteometric parameters of the long bones of the adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data 2) to study sexual dimorphism in the adult Chinkara through osteometry and 3) to estimate body weight from the measurements of greatest length and shaft of the long bones. For this purpose, after taking body measurements of adult Chinkara after mortality, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age were buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Various osteometric parameters of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia and metatarsal were measured through the digital calliper. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), differences in some of the osteometrical parameters between male and female adult Chinkara were observed. Sexual dimorphism exit between the long bones of male and female adult Chinkara. In both male and female Chinkara value obtained for the estimated body weight from humeral, metacarpal and metatarsal measurements were near to the actual body weight of the adult Chinkara. In conclusion, the present study estimates preliminary data on long bones osteometrics and suggests that the morphometric details of the male and female adult Chinkara have differed morphometrically from each other.

Keywords: body mass measurements, Chinkara, long bones, morphometric, sexual dimorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
58 Analyzing the Ecosystem for Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of Rural Areas of Jamshoro, Pakistan

Authors: Aisha M. Memon, Arabella Bhutto, Zahid A. Memon, Adnan Pitafi

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the existing and non-existing elements in the entrepreneurial ecosystem which include finance, institutions, laws and regulations, human capital, culture, and markets, to measure the level of effectiveness of existing elements and to develop recommendations for improving the ecosystem to facilitate the women entrepreneurs in Jamshoro, Pakistan. The nature of this study is qualitative. Data were drawn from 25 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion with women entrepreneurs in rural Jamshoro, Pakistan. The findings show the lack of awareness and knowledge among women entrepreneurs about available financial resources, lack of knowledge about laws, an absence of familial and societal support for women in accessing the entrepreneurial ecosystem, the absence of business and innovation enablers in rural areas, communication gaps, and unskilled human capital. The study found that institutions like non-for-profit organizations are playing an active role in the growth of women entrepreneurs. The existing entrepreneurial ecosystem in Jamshoro can be improved through culturally sensitive coordinated approach, interventions aimed at increasing awareness about the resources, promoting an understanding about the laws and regulations, making business enablers more effective, establishing public-private partnerships, and providing the women entrepreneurs easy access to market and financial resources.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship ecosystem, Pakistan, women entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
57 Assessment of Amphibian Diversity and Status of Their Habitats through Physico-Chemical Parameters in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Kalsoom Shaikh, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Saima Memon

Abstract:

Our study aimed to assess diversity and habitats of amphibian fauna in Sindh province as amphibians are among most vulnerable animals and the risk of their extinction is increasing in many parts of world mainly due to habitat degradation. Present study consisted of field surveys and laboratory analytical work; field surveys were carried out to confirm amphibian diversity and collection of water samples from their habitats, whereas laboratory work was conducted for identification of species and analysis of water quality of habitats through physico-chemical parameters. For identification of amphibian species, morphology was thoroughly examined using taxonomic key, whereas water quality was assessed via physico-chemical parameters including pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (T. Hard), total alkalinity (T. Alk), chloride (Cl), carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfate (SO₄), phosphate (PO₄), nitrite (NO₂) and nitrate (NO₃) using material and methods of analytical grade. pH value was analyzed using pH meter, whereas levels of EC and TDS were recorded using conductivity meter and TDS meter, respectively. Other parameters with exception of non-metallic parameters (SO₄, PO₄, NO₂, and NO₃) were analyzed through distinct titration methods. Concentration of non-metallic parameters was evaluated using ultra-violet spectrophotometer. This study revealed existence of four amphibian species including Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Allopa hazarensis belonging to Family Ranidae and Bufo stomaticus (Family Bufonidae) randomly distributed in district Ghotki, Jamshoro, Kashmor, Larkana, Matiari and Shikarpur in Sindh. Assessment of aquatic habitats in different areas found value of parameters as followed: Habitats in district Ghoki (pH: 7.8 ± 0.3, EC: 2165.3 ± 712.6, TDS: 1507.0 ± 413.1, T-Hard: 416.4 ± 67.5, T. Alk: 393.4 ± 78.4, Cl: 362.4 ± 70.1, CO₂: 21.1 ± 3.5, SO₄: 429.3 ± 100.1, PO₄: 487.5 ± 122.5, NO₂: 13.7 ± 1.0, NO₃: 14.7 ± 2.5), district Jamshoro habitats (pH: 8.1 ± 0.4, EC: 2403.8 ± 55.4, TDS: 1697.2 ± 77.0, T. Hard: 548.7 ± 43.2, T. Alk: 294.4 ± 29.0, Cl: 454.7 ± 50.8 CO₂: 16.9 ± 2.4, SO₄: 713.0 ± 49.3, PO₄: 826.2 ± 53.0, NO₂: 15.2 ± 3.4, NO₃: 21.6 ± 3.7), habitats in Kashmor district (pH: 8.0 ± 0.5, EC: 2450.3 ± 610.9, TDS: 1745.3 ± 440.9, T. Hard: 624.6 ± 305.8, T. Alk: 445.7 ± 120.5, Cl: 448.9 ± 128.8, CO₂: 18.9 ± 4.5, SO₄: 619.8 ± 205.8, PO₄: 474.1 ± 94.2, NO₂: 15.2 ± 3.1, NO₃ 14.3 ± 2.6), district Larkana habitats (pH: 8.4 ± 0.4, EC: 2555.8 ± 70.3, TDS: 1784.4 ± 36.9, T. Hard: 623.0 ± 42.5, T. Alk: 329.6 ± 36.7, Cl: 614.3 ± 89.5, CO₂: 17.6 ± 1.2, SO₄: 845.1 ± 67.6, PO₄: 895.0 ± 61.4, NO₂: 13.6 ± 3.8, NO₃: 23.1 ± 2.8), district Matiari habitats (pH: 8.0 ± 0.4 EC: 2492.3 ± 928.1, TDS: 430.0 ± 161.3, T. Hard: 396.7 ± 183.3, T. Alk: 388.1 ± 97.4, Cl: 551.6 ± 73.4, CO₂: 15.8 ± 2.9, SO₄: 576.5 ± 200.0, PO₄: 434.7 ± 100.6, NO₂: 15.8 ± 2.9, NO₃: 15.2 ± 3.0) and habitats in Shikarpur district (pH: 8.1 ± 0.6, EC: 2191.7 ± 765.1, TDS: 1764.9 ± 409.2, T. Hard: 431.9 ± 68.4,T. Alk: 350.3 ± 44.3, Cl: 381.5 ± 29.5, CO₂: 18.0 ± 4.0, SO₄: 518.8 ± 97.9, PO₄: 493.6 ± 64.6, NO₂: 14.0 ± 0.8, NO₃: 16.1 ± 2.8). Values of physico-chemical parameters were found higher than permissible level of Environmental Protectiona Agency (EPA). Monthly variation in concentration of physico-chemical parameters was also prominently recorded at all the study locals. This study discovered poor diversity of amphibian fauna and condition of their habitats was also observed as pitiable. This study established base line information that may be used in execution of an effective management plan and future monitoring of amphibian diversity and their habitats in Sindh.

Keywords: amphibians, diversity, habitats, Pakistan, Sindh

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
56 Reduction of Defects Using Seven Quality Control Tools for Productivity Improvement at Automobile Company

Authors: Abdul Sattar Jamali, Imdad Ali Memon, Maqsood Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Quality of production near to zero defects is an objective of every manufacturing and service organization. In order to maintain and improve the quality by reduction in defects, Statistical tools are being used by any organizations. There are many statistical tools are available to assess the quality. Keeping in view the importance of many statistical tools, traditional 7QC tools has been used in any manufacturing and automobile Industry. Therefore, the 7QC tools have been successfully applied at one of the Automobile Company Pakistan. Preliminary survey has been done for the implementation of 7QC tool in the assembly line of Automobile Industry. During preliminary survey two inspection points were decided to collect the data, which are Chassis line and trim line. The data for defects at Chassis line and trim line were collected for reduction in defects which ultimately improve productivity. Every 7QC tools has its benefits observed from the results. The flow charts developed for better understanding about inspection point for data collection. The check sheets developed for helps for defects data collection. Histogram represents the severity level of defects. Pareto charts show the cumulative effect of defects. The Cause and Effect diagrams developed for finding the root causes of each defects. Scatter diagram developed the relation of defects increasing or decreasing. The P-Control charts developed for showing out of control points beyond the limits for corrective actions. The successful implementation of 7QC tools at the inspection points at Automobile Industry concluded that the considerable amount of reduction on defects level, as in Chassis line from 132 defects to 13 defects. The total 90% defects were reduced in Chassis Line. In Trim line defects were reduced from 157 defects to 28 defects. The total 82% defects were reduced in Trim Line. As the Automobile Company exercised only few of the 7 QC tools, not fully getting the fruits by the application of 7 QC tools. Therefore, it is suggested the company may need to manage a mechanism for the application of 7 QC tools at every section.

Keywords: check sheet, cause and effect diagram, control chart, histogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
55 Effect of Soil Corrosion in Failures of Buried Gas Pipelines

Authors: Saima Ali, Pathamanathan Rajeev, Imteaz A. Monzur

Abstract:

In this paper, a brief review of the corrosion mechanism in buried pipe and modes of failure is provided together with the available corrosion models. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis is performed to understand the influence of corrosion model parameters on the remaining life estimation. Further, the probabilistic analysis is performed to propagate the uncertainty in the corrosion model on the estimation of the renaming life of the pipe. Finally, the comparison among the corrosion models on the basis of the remaining life estimation will be provided to improve the renewal plan.

Keywords: corrosion, pit depth, sensitivity analysis, exposure period

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
54 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
53 Input Energy Requirements and Performance of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Yield of Maize Crop

Authors: Shafique Qadir Memon, Muhammad Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal, Nadeem Amjad

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in maize production, to evaluate the inputs energy consumption and outputs energy gained for maize production in Islamabad, Pakistan for spring 2013. Results showed that grain yield was maximum under deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input/output were maximum in deep tillage as compared to conventional tillage while lowest in zero tillage, net energy gain were found maximum under deep tillage.

Keywords: tillage, energy, grain yield, net energy gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
52 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah

Abstract:

The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Chinkara, skull, morphology, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
51 Reversible and Adaptive Watermarking for MRI Medical Images

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

A new medical image watermarking scheme delivering high embedding capacity is presented in this paper. Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Companding technique and adaptive thresholding are used in this scheme. The proposed scheme implants, recovers the hidden information and restores the input image to its pristine state at the receiving end. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images are used for experimental purposes. The scheme first segment the MRI medical image into non-overlapping blocks and then inserts watermark into wavelet coefficients having a high frequency of each block. The scheme uses block-based watermarking adopting iterative optimization of threshold for companding in order to avoid the histogram pre and post processing. Results show that proposed scheme performs better than other reversible medical image watermarking schemes available in literature for MRI medical images.

Keywords: adaptive thresholding, companding technique, data authentication, reversible watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
50 Banks' Financial Performance in Pakistan from 2012-2015

Authors: Saima Akbar

Abstract:

The global financial crisis severely and adversely impacted the Pakistanis’ financial setups with far-reaching consequences for its victims. This study aimed to analyze the various determinants of the banks’ financial performance in Pakistan. The stepwise multiple regression analysis and pre-post analysis were carried out in this regard by using SPSS ver 22. The study found that the assets quality is the most influential determinant of return over assets followed by bank size and solvency. Advances, liquidity, investments, and size have positive while poor assets quality and deposits have a negative impact on the return over assets. The comparison of the pre-crisis and post-crisis coefficient values of the independent variables revealed that the global financial crisis had exerted a significant impact on the relative ability of the financial performance determinants to explain variations in return over assets.

Keywords: pre-crisis, post-crisis, coefficient values, determinants

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
49 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen

Abstract:

The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
48 Biodiversity of Aphid Species (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Hyderabad District, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Mahpara Pirzada, Mansoor Ali Shah, Saima Pthan, Kamal Khan, Faiza

Abstract:

Present study based on biodiversity of aphid in different crops of Hyderabad district and its, surrounding area to observe the biodiversity of aphids, host plant range of the aphids in Hyderabad and their population also infestation and yield loss aphid on different crops. We have surveyed different fields of Hyderabad, Jamshoro, and collected the aphids from various parts of plants, grasses, and herb with the help of camel brush. They have been brought to the laboratory into plastic jars and preserved in Glycerin (Glycerol). As a result, 383 individuals belonging to 3 species were identified. These identified species were Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae, and Brevicoryne brassicae. Out of the 3 habitats the maximum richness, evenness, and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops followed by flowering vegetables and minimum in fodder crops. The most abundant specie is Myzus persicae.

Keywords: aphid species, biodiversity, Homoptera:Aphididae, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
47 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
46 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
45 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat

Abstract:

Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
44 Data Analysis to Uncover Terrorist Attacks Using Data Mining Techniques

Authors: Saima Nazir, Mustansar Ali Ghazanfar, Sanay Muhammad Umar Saeed, Muhammad Awais Azam, Saad Ali Alahmari

Abstract:

Terrorism is an important and challenging concern. The entire world is threatened by only few sophisticated terrorist groups and especially in Gulf Region and Pakistan, it has become extremely destructive phenomena in recent years. Predicting the pattern of attack type, attack group and target type is an intricate task. This study offers new insight on terrorist group’s attack type and its chosen target. This research paper proposes a framework for prediction of terrorist attacks using the historical data and making an association between terrorist group, their attack type and target. Analysis shows that the number of attacks per year will keep on increasing, and Al-Harmayan in Saudi Arabia, Al-Qai’da in Gulf Region and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan will remain responsible for many future terrorist attacks. Top main targets of each group will be private citizen & property, police, government and military sector under constant circumstances.

Keywords: data mining, counter terrorism, machine learning, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
43 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon

Abstract:

Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

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42 Role of Senior Management in Implementing Lean Manufacturing Practices: A Study of Manufacturing Companies of Pakistan

Authors: Saima Yaqoob

Abstract:

Due to advancement in technologies and cutting cost competition, especially in manufacturing business, organizations are now becoming more focused toward achieving exceptional quality standards with low manufacturing cost. In this concern, many process improvement strategies are becoming popular in the way of increasing productivity and output. Lean manufacturing principles are among one of them, increasingly used for improving productivity by reducing wastages. Many success factors are involved in lean implementation. But, the role of senior management is most important in developing the lean culture in an organization. Purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of executive level management related to the successful implementation of lean practices and its comparison with the existing practices in the organization. In order to collect data, survey questionnaire comprised of eight statements rendering the critical success factors were sent to the top management of fifty (50) automotive manufacturing companies of Karachi. After analyzing their feedbacks, the trend of lean manufacturing principles and the commitment of senior management toward its implementation was identified in the manufacturing industries of Karachi, Pakistan.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, process improvement, senior management, perception, involvement, waste reduction

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41 Effect of Measured and Calculated Static Torque on Instantaneous Torque Profile of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

The simulation modeling of switched reluctance (SR) machine often relies and uses the three data tables identified as static torque characteristics that include flux linkage characteristics, co energy characteristics and static torque characteristics separately. It has been noticed from the literature that the data of static torque used in the simulation model is often calculated so far the literature is concerned. This paper presents the simulation model that include the data of measured and calculated static torque separately to see its effect on instantaneous torque profile of the machine. This is probably for the first time so far the literature review is concerned that static torque from co energy information, and measured static torque directly from experiments are separately used in the model. This research is helpful for accurate modeling of switched reluctance drive.

Keywords: static characteristics, current chopping, flux linkage characteristics, switched reluctance motor

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40 An Improved Modular Multilevel Converter Voltage Balancing Approach for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Safia Bashir, Zulfiqar Memon

Abstract:

During the last decade, renewable energy sources in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) has gained increased attention. Therefore, various PV converters topologies have emerged. Among this topology, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered as one of the most promising topologies for the grid-connected PV system due to its modularity and transformerless features. When it comes to the safe operation of MMC, the balancing of the Submodules Voltages (SMs) plays a critical role. This paper proposes a balancing approach based on space vector PWM (SVPWM). Unlike the existing techniques, this method generates the switching vectors for the MMC by using only one SVPWM for the upper arm. The lower arm switching vectors are obtained by finding the complement of the upper arm switching vectors. The use of one SVPWM not only simplifies the calculation but also helped in reducing the circulating current in the MMC. The proposed method is varied through simulation using Matlab/Simulink and compared with other available modulation methods. The results validate the ability of the suggested method in balancing the SMs capacitors voltages and reducing the circulating current which will help in reducing the power loss of the PV system.

Keywords: capacitor voltage balancing, circulating current, modular multilevel converter, PV system

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39 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Iram Batool, Aamer Saeed, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom

Abstract:

Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antibacterial, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

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38 Optimization of SWL Algorithms Using Alternative Adder Module in FPGA

Authors: Tayab D. Memon, Shahji Farooque, Marvi Deshi, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, B. S. Chowdhry

Abstract:

Recently single-bit ternary FIR-like filter (SBTFF) hardware synthesize in FPGA is reported and compared with multi-bit FIR filter on similar spectral characteristics. Results shows that SBTFF dominates upon multi-bit filter overall. In this paper, an optimized adder module for ternary quantized sigma-delta modulated signal is presented. The adder is simulated using ModelSim for functional verification the area-performance of the proposed adder were obtained through synthesis in Xilinx and compared to conventional adder trees. The synthesis results show that the proposed adder tree achieves higher clock rates and lower chip area at higher inputs to the adder block; whereas conventional adder tree achieves better performance and lower chip area at lower number of inputs to the same adder block. These results enhance the usefulness of existing short word length DSP algorithms for fast and efficient mobile communication.

Keywords: short word length (SWL), DSP algorithms, FPGA, SBTFF, VHDL

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
37 Effect of Crude Flowers Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco Flowers on Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Usman Mir Khan, Ishtiaque Ahmad, Saima Inayat, H. M. Arslan Amin, Muhammad Ayaz, Nisar Ahmad

Abstract:

Citrus reticulata Blanco crude flowers extract (CFE) at four different concentration (1, 2, 3 and 4%, v/v) were used as natural milk coagulant instead of rennet to apply for Cheddar cheese making from buffalo milk. The physicochemical properties and nutrition composition of Cheddar cheeses were compared with cheese made with 0.002% (v/v) rennet (control cheese). Physico-chemical of Cheddar cheese showed that cheese made with 1% and 2% of CFE had a crumbly and slightly softer texture of cheese. While, cheeses containing 3 and 4% CFE had semi-hard textural properties of curd similar to rennet added cheese. The CFE made cheese had moisture 37 %, fat 45 % on dry basis similar to rennet made Cheddar cheese. Protein analysis shows that CFE made cheese had significant higher protein content than control. The Cheddar cheese with 3% and 1% CFE were preferred by consumers instead of 2% and 4% CFE for their taste, texture/appearance and overall acceptability. Conclusively, CFE coagulated Cheddar cheese fulfills the nutritional requirement with acceptable organoleptic characteristics and at the same time provides nutritional health benefits.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Citrus reticulata Blanco, buffalo milk, milk coagulant

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36 Vitamin A Status and Its Correlation with the Dietary Intake of Young Females of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sarah Fatima, Ahmad A. Malik, Saima Sadaf

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary record and vitamin A status of young females of Lahore. A total sample of 376 consisted of 16 – 20 years of unmarried college going females. Three main tools were adopted: questionnaire, 3-day food diary and serum retinol test. The anthropometric measurements showed that a total of 32.6% of the sample was underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 54.5% had a healthy weight (BMI 18.5 – 22.9). The average Vitamin A intake of the sample was 257.95 µg/day while the RDA for the selected age group was 700 µg/day. The mean energy intake of the adolescents was 1153.64 kcal/ day, whereas the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for this age group was 2368 kcal/day. The mean serum Vitamin A level was 24.81µg/dL. 69.6% of the sample was deficient in serum Vitamin A i.e. serum retinol < 24 µg/dL. 30.4% had serum retinol in normal limit (24 – 84 µg/dL) from which 25.3% lied in lower limit (24 – 44 µg/dL) and only 5.1% had serum retinol in 44 – 64 µg/dL range. A slightly negative correlation (r = - 0.21, 95% confidence interval) was found between dietary intake of Vitamin A and serum Vitamin A It was concluded that the dietary intake of major nutrients and vitamin A is not adequate in the selected group. This is also confirmed by the lower serum retinol levels. Hence, vitamin An intake and status are generally inadequate, and vitamin deficiency is prevalent in the unmarried young females of Lahore.

Keywords: vitamin A, young Females, vitamin deficiency, Lahore

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35 Project Time Prediction Model: A Case Study of Construction Projects in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Tauha Hussain Ali, Shabir Hussain Khahro, Nafees Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of project time for planning and bid preparation stage should contain realistic dates. Constructors use their experience to estimate the project duration for the new projects, which is based on intuitions. It has been a constant concern to both researchers and constructors to analyze the accurate prediction of project duration for bid preparation stage. In Pakistan, such study for time cost relationship has been lacked to predict duration performance for the construction projects. This study is an attempt to explore the time cost relationship that would conclude with a mathematical model to predict the time for the drainage rehabilitation projects in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data has been collected from National Engineering Services (NESPAK), Pakistan and regression analysis has been carried out for the analysis of results. Significant relationship has been found between time and cost of the construction projects in Sindh and the generated mathematical model can be used by the constructors to predict the project duration for the upcoming projects of same nature. This study also provides the professionals with a requisite knowledge to make decisions regarding project duration, which is significantly important to win the projects at the bid stage.

Keywords: BTC Model, project time, relationship of time cost, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 293