Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2608

Search results for: aphid species

2608 Biodiversity of Aphid Species (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Hyderabad District, Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Mahpara Pirzada, Mansoor Ali Shah, Saima Pthan, Kamal Khan, Faiza

Abstract:

Present study based on biodiversity of aphid in different crops of Hyderabad district and its, surrounding area to observe the biodiversity of aphids, host plant range of the aphids in Hyderabad and their population also infestation and yield loss aphid on different crops. We have surveyed different fields of Hyderabad, Jamshoro, and collected the aphids from various parts of plants, grasses, and herb with the help of camel brush. They have been brought to the laboratory into plastic jars and preserved in Glycerin (Glycerol). As a result, 383 individuals belonging to 3 species were identified. These identified species were Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae, and Brevicoryne brassicae. Out of the 3 habitats the maximum richness, evenness, and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops followed by flowering vegetables and minimum in fodder crops. The most abundant specie is Myzus persicae.

Keywords: aphid species, biodiversity, Homoptera:Aphididae, Pakistan

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2607 Spatial Distribution of Virus-Transmitting Aphids of Plants in Al Bahah Province, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Sabir Hussain, Muhammad Naeem, Yousif Aldryhim, Susan E. Halbert, Qingjun Wu

Abstract:

Plant viruses annually cause severe economic losses in crop production and globally, different aphid species are responsible for the transmission of such viruses. Additionally, aphids are also serious pests of trees, and agricultural crops. Al Bahah Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a high native and introduced plant species with a temperate climate that provides ample habitats for aphids. In this study, we surveyed virus-transmitting aphids from the Province to highlight their spatial distributions and hot spot areas for their target control strategies. During our fifteen month's survey in Al Bahah Province, three hundred and seventy samples of aphids were collected using both beating sheets and yellow water pan traps. Consequently, fifty-four aphid species representing 30 genera belonging to four families were recorded from Al Bahah Province. Alarmingly, 35 aphid species from our records are virus transmitting species. The most common virus transmitting aphid species based on number of collecting samples, were Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878), Brachycaudus rumexicolens (Patch, 1917), Uroleucon sonchi (Linnaeus, 1767), Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach, 1843), and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776). The numbers of samples for the forementioned species were 66, 24, 23, 22, and 20, respectively. The widest range of plant hosts were found for M. euphorbiae (39 plant species), B. helichrysi (12 plant species), M. persicae (12 plant species), B. rumexicolens (10 plant species), and U. sonchi (9 plant species). The hottest spot areas were found in Al-Baha, Al Mekhwah and Biljarashi cities of the province on the basis of their abundance. This study indicated that Al Bahah Province has relatively rich aphid diversity due to the relatively high plant diversity in a favorable climatic condition. ArcGIS tools can be helpful for biologists to implement the target control strategies against these pests in the integrated pest management, and ultimately to save money and time.

Keywords: Al Bahah province, aphid-virus interaction, biodiversity, global information system

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2606 Predatory Potential of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus on Different Prey Species

Authors: Adnan A. E. Darwish

Abstract:

The predatory potential and preference of both larvae and adult of seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and the eleven-spot ladybird, Coccinella undecimpunctata Linnaeus to the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman were investigated under laboratory conditions at varying prey densities at faculty of Agriculture, Damanhour university, Egypt. There were significant differences between the consumed numbers of the four different species by the two different lady beetle species. The most consumed prey by C. septempunctata was the A. gossypii followed by R. padi then M. persicae and finally T. tabaci and these results were repeated in case of C. undecimpunctata. As the grubs of C. septempunctata and C. undecimpunctata developed from 1st to 4th larval instars, the consumption rate from aphid species and thrips increased. The consumption rate of M. persicae, A. gossypii, R. padi and T. tabaci significantly increased with the advancement in the larval stage of the predator. The forth larval instar of C. septempunctata and C. undecimpunctata exhibited the highest predatory potential comparing to the first, second and third larval instars. The number of prey eaten by adult stage or different instars of larvae of the two predators increased significantly with prey density, reaching the maximum value when 150 preys were provided compared with 50 and 100 preys.

Keywords: predatory potential, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella undecimpunctata, Thrips tabaci, Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, Rhopalosiphum padi

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2605 Comparative Demography of Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with Respect to Different Aphid Species

Authors: Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad R. Shahid, M. Shakeel, A. Iftikhar, M. Sagheer, Riaz A. Kainth

Abstract:

Comparative demography of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied with respect to four host aphid species viz; Rhopalosiphum padi, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Sitobion avenae, and Shizaphis graminum under laboratory conditions using Two-sex Age-stage life table instead of traditional age specific life table which considers only female. Results revealed that developmental period from egg to adult of C. septempunctata were shorter on R. padi (16.49 days) whereas longer on R. maidis (22.83 days). Net reproductive rate varied from 110.01 offspring on R. maidis to 288.78 offspring on R. padi. Mean generation time (T) ranged from 29.02 d on R. padi to 39.788 d on R. maidis. Highest to lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were recorded on R. padi, S. graminum, S. avenae, and R. maidis (0.194, 0.143, 0.140 and 0.117 d⁻¹, respectively). Highest finite rate of increase was observed on R. padi (1.214 d⁻¹) followed by S. graminum (1.154 d⁻¹) whereas lowest values were obtained on R. maidis and S. avenae (1.124 and 1.150 d⁻¹, respectively). In this study, the data on the life table of both predator and prey provide useful information in the mass rearing and practical application of a natural agent to biological control systems.

Keywords: C. septempunctata, two-sex age-stage life table, population parameters, aphid species

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2604 Potential of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum)

Authors: Nomakholwa F. Stokwe, Antoinette P. Malan

Abstract:

Woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum, is an important pest of apples worldwide. The aphid feeds above ground on buds and leaf axils and the roots of apple trees. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the two families, Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, and their symbiotic bacteria have generated extensive interest as inundative applied biological control agents of insects. With the development of the resistance of WAA to chemicals, export restrictions, and the inability of parasitoids to control the aphid successfully early in the season, considering EPNs as an alternative biocontrol agent is important. Seven EPN species were tested for their pathogenicity against WAA. Laboratory bioassays identified S. yirgalemense and H. zealandica as being the most virulent against the subterranean stage of the WAA, with a mortality rate of 48% and 38%, respectively. Studies on the effect of WAA size showed that the last instar is most susceptible to infection, whereas smaller instars appear to be too small for nematode penetration and infection. Neither increasing the exposure period of the aphids nor increasing the nematode concentration affected the infection rate positively. The haemolymph of WAA showed an inhibitory effect on the development of the symbiotic bacteria, preventing the completion of the nematode’s life cycle.

Keywords: apples, biocontrol, entomopathogenic nematodes, woolly apple aphid

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2603 Ecological Effect on Aphid Population in Safflower Crop

Authors: Jan M. Mari

Abstract:

Safflower is a renowned drought tolerant oil seed crop. Previously its flowers were used for cooking and herbal medicines in China and it was cultivated by small growers for his personal needs of oil. A field study was conducted at experimental field, faculty of crop protection, Sindh Agricultural University Tandojam, during winter, 2012-13, to observe ecological effect on aphid population in safflower crop. Aphid population gradually increased with the growth of safflower. It developed with maximum aphid per leaf on 3rd week of February and it decreased in March as crop matured. A non-significant interaction was found with temperature of aphid, zigzag and hoverfly, respectively and a highly significant interaction with temperature was found with 7-spotted, lacewing, 9-spotted, and Brumus, respectively. The data revealed the overall mean population of zigzag was highest, followed by 9-spotted, 7-spotted, lace wing, hover fly and Brumus, respectively. In initial time the predator and prey ratio indicated that there was not a big difference between predator and prey ratio. After January 1st, the population of aphid increased suddenly until 18th February and it established a significant difference between predator prey ratios. After that aphid population started decreasing and it affected ratio between pest and predators. It is concluded that biotic factors, 7-spotted, zigzag, 9-spotted Brumus and lacewing exhibited a strong and positive correlation with aphid population. It is suggested that aphid pest should be monitored regularly and before reaching economic threshold level augmentation of natural enemies may be managed.

Keywords: aphid, ecology, population, safflower

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2602 Infestation of Aphid on Wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) and Its Possible Management with Naturally Existing Beneficial Fauna

Authors: Ghulam Abbas, Ikramul Haq, Ghulam Ghouse

Abstract:

Bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) is the major source of the staple food for a number of countries of the world including Pakistan. Since it is the staple food of the country, it has been desired, and efforts have been made, that it does not undergo application of pesticides to ensure the food safety. Luckily, wheat does not face a serious threat of insect pests, in ecological conditions of Pakistan, except aphids and armyworm which infest the wheat prior to maturity. It has been observed that almost 5 species of aphid have been reported to attack wheat ie. Ropalosiphum maidi, R. Padi, Schizaphis graminum, Diuraphis noxia, and Sitibion miscanthi but due to natural rise in temperature in terminal season of wheat, the population of aphid gradually decreases and wheat has a safe escape from its infestation. In case, mild temperatures 15ºC to 30ºC prolong, the infestation of aphids also prolongs and it can severely damage wheat in patches, and it has potential to substantially reduce the yield of wheat in infested patch. In years 2013, 2014, and 2015 the studies were undertaken to determine the potential of damage caused by aphid complex in 10 fields in infested patches. The damage caused by aphid complex was calculated on the basis of 1000 grain weight of wheat grains taken from the infested patch and were compared with 1000 grain weight of the healthy plants of the same fields. It was observed that there was 26 to 42% decrease in the weight of grain in infested patches. This patch also escaped from general harvesting by combine harvester and enhanced the loss 13 to 46%. The quality of the wheat straw was also reduced and its acceptance to the animals was also affected up to 50 to 100%. Moreover, the population of naturally existing beneficial fauna was recorded and factors promoting establishment and manipulation of beneficial fauna were studied and analysed.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, wheat, Pakistan, beneficial fauna, aphid complex

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2601 Predicting the Potential Geographical Distribution of the Banana Aphid (Pentalonia nigronervosa) as Vector of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Using Diva-GIS

Authors: Marilyn Painagan

Abstract:

This study was conducted to predict the potential geographical distribution of the banana aphid (Pentalonia negronervosa) in North Cotabato through climate envelope approach of DIVA-GIS, a software for analyzing the distribution of organisms to elucidate geographic and ecological patterns. A WorldClim database that was based on weather conditions recorded last 1950 to 2000 with a spatial resolution of approximately 1x1 km. was used in the bioclimatic modelling, this database includes temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and bioclimatic variables which was measured at many different locations, a bioclimatic modelling was done in the study. The study revealed that the western part of Magpet and Arakan and the municipality of Antipas are at high potential risk of occurrence of banana aphid while it is not likely to occur in the municipalities of Aleosan, Midsayap, Pikit, M’lang and Tulunan. The result of this study can help developed strategies for monitoring and managing this serious pest of banana and to prepare a mitigation measures on those areas that are potential for future infestation.

Keywords: banana aphid, bioclimatic model, bunchy top, climatic envelope approach

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2600 Releasing Two Insect Predators to Control of Aphids Under Open-field Conditions

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Gesraha, Amany Ramadan Ebeid

Abstract:

Aphids are noxious and serious persistent pests in the open fields worldwide. Many authors studied the possibility of aphid control by applying Ladybirds and Lacewings at different releasing rates under open-field conditions. Results clarify that releasing 3rd instar larvae of Coccinella undecimpunctata at the rate of 1 larva:50 aphid was more effective than 1:100 or 1:200 rates for controlling Aphis gossypii population in Okra field; reflecting more than 90% reduction in the aphid population within 15 days. When Chrysoperla carnea 2nd larval instar were releasing at 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20 (predator: aphid), it was noticed that the former rate was the most effective one, inducing 98.93% reduction in aphid population; while the two other rates reflecting less reduction. Additionally, in the case of double releases, the reduction percentage at the 1:5 rate was 99.63%, emphasize that this rate was the most effective one; the other rates induced 97.05 and 95.64% reduction. Generally, a double release was more effective in all tested rates than the single one because of the cumulative existence of the predators in large numbers at the same period of the experiment. It could be concluded that utilizing insect predators (Coccinella undecimpunctata or Chrysoperla carnea) at an early larval stag were faire enough to reduce the aphids’ populations under open fields conditions.

Keywords: releasing predators, lacewings, ladybird, open fields

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2599 Impact of ‎Foliar ‎Formulations of Macro and Micro Nutrients on ‎the ‎Tritrophic Association of Wheat Aphid ‎and Entomophagous Insects

Authors: Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad J. Arif, Muhammad Arshad, Usman Shoukat

Abstract:

In Pakistan, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is seriously attacked by the wheat ‎aphid. Naturally, bio control agents play an important role in managing wheat aphid. However, association ‎among pest, natural enemies and host plant is highly affected by food resource ‎concentration and predator/parasitoid factor of any ecosystem. The present ‎study was conducted to estimate the effect of different dose levels of macro ‎and micronutrients on the aphid population and its entomophagous insect ‎on wheat and their tri-trophic association. The experiment was laid out in ‎RCBD with six different combinations of macro and micronutrients and a control treatment. The data was initiated from the second week of ‎the February till the maturity of the crop. Data regarding aphid population and ‎coccinellids counts were collected on weekly basis and subjected to analysis of ‎variance and mean comparison. The data revealed that aphid ‎population was at peak in the last week of March. Coccinellids population ‎increased side by side with aphid population and declined after second week of ‎April. Aphid parasitism was maximum 25% on recommended dose of Double and ‎Flasher and minimum 8.67% on control treatment. Maximum aphid population was observed on first April with 687.2 specimens. However, this maximum population was shown against the application of Double + Flasher treatment. The minimum aphid population was recorded after the application of HiK Gold + Flasher recommended dose on 15th April. The coccinellids population was at peak level at on 8th April and against the treatment double recommended dose of HiK gold + Flasher. Amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium percentage dry leaves ‎components was maximum (2.33, 0.18 and 2.62 % dry leaves. respectively) in ‎plots treated with recommended double dose mixture of Double + Flasher and ‎Hi-K Gold + Flasher while it was minimum (1.43, 0.12 and 1.77 dry leaves ‎respectively) in plots where no nutrients applied. The result revealed that maximum parasitism was at recommended level of micro and macro nutrients application.‎ Maximum micro nutrients zinc, copper, manganese, iron and boron found with values 46.67 ppm, 21.81 ppm, 62.35 ppm, 152.69 ppm and 36.78 respectively. The result also showed that Over application of macro and micro nutrients should be avoided because it do not help in pest control, conversely it may cause stress on plant. The treatment Double and Flasher recommended dose ratio is almost comparable with recommended dose and present studies confirm its usefulness on wheat.

Keywords: entomophagous insects, macro and micro nutrients, tri-trophic, wheat aphid

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2598 Major Sucking Pests of Rose and Their Seasonal Abundance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md Ruhul Amin

Abstract:

This study was conducted in the experimental field of the Department of Entomology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh during November 2017 to May 2018 with a view to understanding the seasonal abundance of the major sucking pests namely thrips, aphid and red spider mite on rose. The findings showed that the thrips started to build up their population from the middle of January with abundance 1.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (2.6 leaf⁻¹) in the middle of February and then declined. Aphid started to build up their population from the second week of November with abundance 6.0 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.4 leaf⁻¹) in the last week of December and then declined. Mite started to build up their population from the first week of December with abundance 0.8 leaf⁻¹, increased continuously, reached to the peak level (8.2 leaf⁻¹) in the second week of March and then declined. Thrips and mite prevailed until the last week of April, and aphid showed their abundance till last week of May. The daily mean temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with thrips and significant negative correlation with aphid abundance. The daily mean temperature had significant positive, relative humidity had an insignificant positive, and rainfall had an insignificant negative correlation with mite abundance. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the weather parameters together contributed 38.1, 41.0 and 8.9% abundance on thrips, aphid and mite on rose, respectively and the equations were insignificant.

Keywords: aphid, mite, thrips, weather factors

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2597 Maintenance of Non-Crop Plants Reduces Insect Pest Population in Tropical Chili Pepper Agroecosystems

Authors: Madelaine Venzon, Dany S. S. L. Amaral, André L. Perez, Natália S. Diaz, Juliana A. Martinez Chiguachi, Maira C. M. Fonseca, James D. Harwood, Angelo Pallini

Abstract:

Integrating strategies of sustainable crop production and promoting the provisioning of ecological services on farms and within rural landscapes is a challenge for today’s agriculture. Habitat management, through increasing vegetational diversity, enhances heterogeneity in agroecosystems and has the potential to improve the recruitment of natural enemies of pests, which promotes biological control services. In tropical agroecosystems, however, there is a paucity of information pertaining to the resources provided by associated plants and their interactions with natural enemies. The maintenance of non-crop plants integrated into and/or surrounding crop fields provides the farmer with a low-investment option to enhance biological control. We carried out field experiments in chili pepper agroecosystems with small stakeholders located in the Zona da Mata, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015 where we assessed: (a) whether non-crop plants within and around chili pepper fields affect the diversity and abundance of aphidophagous species; (b) whether there are direct interactions between non-crop plants and aphidophagous arthropods; and (c) the importance of non-crop plant resources for survival of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae species. Aphidophagous arthropods were dominated by Coccinellidae, Neuroptera, Syrphidae, Anthocoridae and Araneae. These natural enemies were readily observed preying on aphids, feeding on flowers or extrafloral nectaries and using plant structures for oviposition and/or protection. Aphid populations were lower on chili pepper fields associated with non-crop plants that on chili pepper monocultures. Survival of larvae and adults of different species of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae on non-crop resources varied according to the plant species. This research provides evidence that non-crop plants in chili pepper agroecosystems can affect aphid abundance and their natural enemy abundance and survival. It is also highlighting the need for further research to fully characterize the structure and function of plant resources in these and other tropical agroecosystems. Financial support: CNPq, FAPEMIG and CAPES (Brazil).

Keywords: Conservation biological control, aphididae, Coccinellidae, Chrysopidae, plant diversification

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2596 Biotic Potential of Different Densities of Aphid Parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) Feeding on Brevicoryne brassicae

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Muhammad Jaffar Hussain, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza

Abstract:

Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) attack most of the aphid species. However, it is specialized in feeding on crucifer aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. Biological potential of parasitoid is its density-dependency due to sharing of limited resources in few cases. The present study was carried out to check the biotic potential of D. rapae at its different densities (1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 pairs) on fixed number of B. brassicae (100 in number) as a host. The present study was performed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 2 ºC temperature and 65-70 % R.H.). Different biological parameters for parasitoid (e.g. percent parasitism, adult emergence, adult longevity and per pair parasitism) were evaluated to check its biotic potential. The present findings showed that maximum parasitism (43.09 % ± 0.63) was observed in highest density (10 pairs) and minimum parasitism (16.59 % ± 1.28) in lowest density (1 pair) of the parasitoid. Maximum adult emergence (80.31 % ± 1.33) was observed in highest density (10 pairs) and minimum parasitism (45.99 % ± 1.27) in lowest density (1 pair) of the parasitoid. In the case of adult longevity, highest (8.2 days ± 0.38) and lowest (6 days ± 0.32) longevity were observed in lowest (1 pair) and highest (10 pairs) densities of parasitoids respectively. However, per pair parasitism rate decreased with the increase in parasitoid densities due to intra-specific competition, developed between the parasitoids for parasitism. The positive but close relationship was observed between percent parasitism and adult emergence. The increase in parasitoid densities increased the percent parasitism and adult emergence of the parasitoid. So, we conclude that an inter-specific competition negatively affected the efficacy of parasitoids and may reduce the fitness of the emerging parasitoid.

Keywords: Diaeretiella rapae, Parasitoid densities, Percent parasitism, adult emergence

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2595 Varietal Screening of Advance Wheat Genotypes against Wheat Aphids

Authors: Zunnu Raen Akhtar, Haseeb Jan, Muhammad Latif, Ali Aziz, Ali Akash, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Naveed Akhtar

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivium) is main staple food crop of Pakistan. This crop is highly infested with aphids which cause the loss of yield. A study was carried out at Entomological Research Institute of Ayub Agriculture Research Institute Faisalabad during 2015-16. Eleven wheat genotypes (FSD- 08, v-11098, NIBGE gandum-3, shafaq 2006, v-13372, Punjab-2011, v-12304, 11C023, v-13005, v-13016, v-12120) were sown using the Randomized Complete Block Design in the research area of Entomological Research Institute Faisalabad during the year 2015-16. The aphid infestation per tiller on each genotype was observed from the first week of January till the third week of March maximum. The results reveal that shafaq 2006 and V-12120 were found more susceptible with 10.22 and 9.90 aphids per tiller and minimum infestation was observed on the Punjab-2011 and 11C023 i.e., 5.72 and 5.99 aphid per tiller respectively. When the peak season observations were analyzed, slight changes occur in the peak population of aphid among all wheat genotypes. The most susceptible genotypes were Shafaq 2006 and V-12304 with 18.63 and 18.23 aphids per tiller while the wheat genotypes 11C023 and Punjab 2011 received minimum aphid population which was 9.99 and 10.47 aphids per tiller and they considered more tolerant.

Keywords: Triticum aestivium, Schizaphis graminum, population, resistance

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2594 Microbiological Analysis of Soil from Onu-Ebonyi Contaminated with Inorganic Fertilizer

Authors: M. N. Alo, U. C. C. Egbule, J. O. Orji, C. J. Aneke

Abstract:

Microbiological analysis of soil from Onu-Ebonyi Izzi local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria contaminated with inorganic fertilizer was carried out with a view to determine the effect of the fertilizer on the microbial flora of the soil. soil samples were analyzed for microbial burden. the result showed that the following organisms were isolated with their frequency of their occurrence as follows:pseudomonas species (33.3%) and aspergillus species (54.4%) had the highest frequncy of occurence in the whole sample of batches, while streptococcus species had 6.0% and Geotrichum species (5.3%) had the least and other predominant microorganism isolated: bacillus species,staphylococcus species and vibrio species, Escherichia species, rhzizopus species, mucor species and fusaruim species. From the result, it could be concluded that the soil was contaminated and this could affect adversely the fertility of the soil .

Keywords: soil, bacteria, fungi, inorganic fertilizer, Onu- Ebonyi

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2593 Biology and Life Fertility of the Cabbage Aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L) on Cauliflower Cultivars

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, K. C. Sharma, P. L. Sharma, R. S. Chandel

Abstract:

Cauliflower is an important vegetable crop grown throughout the world and is attacked by a large number of insect pests at various stages of the crop growth. Amongst them, the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important insect pest. Continued feeding by both nymphs and adults of this aphid causes yellowing, wilting and stunting of plants. Amongst various management practices, the use of resistant cultivars is important and can be an effective method of reducing the population of this aphid. So it is imperative to know the complete record on various biological parameters and life table on specific cultivars. The biology and life fertility of the cabbage aphid were studied on five cauliflower cultivars viz. Megha, Shweta, K-1, PSB-1 and PSBK-25 under controlled temperature conditions of 20 ± 2°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity and 16:8 h (Light: Dark) photoperiods. For studying biology; apterous viviparous adults were picked up from the laboratory culture of all five cauliflower cultivars after rearing them at least for two generations and placed individually on the desired plants of cauliflower cultivars grown in pots with ten replicates of each. Daily record on the duration of nymphal period, adult longevity, mortality in each stage and the total number of progeny produced per female was made. This biological data were further used to construct life fertility table on each cultivar. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference ( P  < 0.05) between the different growth stages and the mean number of laid nymphs. The maximum and minimum growth periods were observed on Shweta and Megha (at par with K-1) cultivars, respectively. The maximum number of nymphs were laid on Shweta cultivar (26.40 nymphs per female) and minimum on Megha (at par with K-1) cultivar (15.20 nymphs per female). The true intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was found to be maximum on Shweta (0.233 nymphs/female/day) followed by PSB K-25 (0.207 nymphs/female/day), PSB-1 (0.203 nymphs/female/day), Megha (0.166 nymphs/female/day) and K-1 (0.153 nymphs/female/day). The finite rate of natural increase (λ) was also found to be in the order: K-1 < Megha < PSB-1 < PSBK-25 < Shweta whereas the doubling time (DT) was in the order of K-1 >Megha> PSB-1 >PSBk-25> Shweta. The aphids reared on the K-1 cultivar had the lowest values of rm & λ and the highest value of DT whereas on Shweta cultivar the values of rm & λ were the highest and the lowest value of DT. So on the basis of these studies, K-1 cultivar was found to be the least suitable and the Shweta cultivar was the most suitable for the cabbage aphid population growth. Although the cauliflower cultivars used in different parts of the world may be different yet the results of the present studies indicated that the application of cultivars affecting multiplication rate and reproductive parameters could be a good solution for the management of the cabbage aphid.

Keywords: biology, cauliflower, cultivars, fertility

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2592 A Predator-Prey Model with Competitive Interaction amongst the Preys

Authors: Titus G. Kassem, Izang A. Nyam

Abstract:

A mathematical model is constructed to study the effect of predation on two competing species in which one of the competing species is a prey to the predator whilst the other species are not under predation. Conditions for the existence and stability of equilibrium solutions were determined. Numerical simulation results indicate the possibility of a stable coexistence of the three interacting species in form of stable oscillations under certain parameter values. We also noticed that under some certain parameter values, species under predation go into extinction.

Keywords: competition, predator-prey, species, ecology

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2591 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu

Abstract:

Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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2590 Computing the Similarity and the Diversity in the Species Based on Cronobacter Genome

Authors: E. Al Daoud

Abstract:

The purpose of computing the similarity and the diversity in the species is to trace the process of evolution and to find the relationship between the species and discover the unique, the special, the common and the universal proteins. The proteins of the whole genome of 40 species are compared with the cronobacter genome which is used as reference genome. More than 3 billion pairwise alignments are performed using blastp. Several findings are introduced in this study, for example, we found 172 proteins in cronobacter genome which have insignificant hits in other species, 116 significant proteins in the all tested species with very high score value and 129 common proteins in the plants but have insignificant hits in mammals, birds, fishes, and insects.

Keywords: genome, species, blastp, conserved genes, Cronobacter

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2589 Subtidal Crabs of Oman Sea: New Collections and Biogeographic Considerations

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin, Seied Mohammad Reza Fatemi, Tooraj Valinassab

Abstract:

The samplings were carried out at 8 stations (Govatr, Pasabandar, Beriss, Ramin, Chabahar, Pozm, Gordim, and Meidani) in subtidal zones of Oman Sea during the year 2009-2010. The specimens were collected by trawl net and preserved in 70% alcohol. A total of 23 species belonged to 9 families and 15 genera were caught. The results of the present study revealed that families Portunidae had the highest species enriched with 9 species. Most of the species had high distribution in the west Indian Ocean (69.56%) and 8.69% of species were endemic. Almost species were similar to those found in the Persian Gulf.

Keywords: Brachyura, biogeography, subtidal, Oman Sea

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2588 Biological Control of Woolly Apple Aphid, Eriosoma Lanigerum (Hausmann) in the Nursery Production of Spruce

Authors: Snezana Rajkovic, Miroslava Markovic, Ljubinko Rakonjac, Aleksandar Lucic, Radoslav Rajkovic

Abstract:

Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) is a widely distributed pest of apple trees, especially where its parasites have been killed by insecticides. It can also be found on pear, hawthorn, mountain ash, and elm trees. Relatively small to medium-sized aphids, characterized by a reddish-brown body, a blood-red stain when crushed and a fluffy, flocculent wax covering. Specialized dermal glands produce the characteristic fluffy or powdery wax, which gives E. lanigerum its characteristic 'woolly' appearance. Also, woolly apple aphid is a problemm in nursery production of spure.The experiments were carried out in the nursery “Nevade” in Gornji Milanovac, "Srbijasume" on the spruce seedlings, aged 2 years. In this study, organic insecticide King Bo, aqueous solution (a. i. oxymatrine 0.2% + psoralen 0.4%), manufacturer Beijing Kingbo Biotech Co. Ltd., Beijing, China. extracted from plants and used as pesticides in nursery production were investigated. King Bo, bioinsecticide is manufactured from refined natural herbal extract several wild medicinal plants, such as Sophora flavescens Ait, Veratrum nigrum L, A. Carmichael, etc. Oxymatrine 2.4 SL is a stomach poison that has antifeeding and repellent action. This substance stimulates development and growth in a host plant and also controls the appearance of downy mildew.The trials were set according to instructions of methods-monitoring of changes in the number of larvae and adults compared to before treatment. The treatment plan was made according to fully randomized block design. The experiment was conducted in four repetitions. The basic plot had the area of 25 m2. Phytotoxicity was estimated by PP methods 1/135 (2), the intensity of infection according to Towsend-Heuberger, the efficiency by Abbott, the analysis of variance with Ducan test and PP/181 (2).

Keywords: bioinsecticide, efficacy, nurssery production, woolly apple aphid

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2587 Palyno-Morphological Characteristics of Gymnosperm Flora of Pakistan and Its Taxonomic Implications with Light Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy Methods

Authors: Raees Khan, Sheikh Z. Ul Abidin, Abdul S. Mumtaz, Jie Liu

Abstract:

The present study is intended to assess gymnosperms pollen flora of Pakistan using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for its taxonomic significance in identification of gymnosperms. Pollens of 35 gymnosperm species (12 genera and five families) were collected from its various distributional sites of gymnosperms in Pakistan. LM and SEM were used to investigate different palyno-morphological characteristics. Five pollen types (i.e., Inaperturate, Monolete, Monoporate, Vesiculate-bisaccate, and Polyplicate) were observed. In equatorial view seven types of pollens were observed, in which ten species were sub-angular, nine species were triangular, six species were perprolate, three species were rhomboidal, three species were semi-angular, two species were rectangular and two species were prolate. While five types of pollen were observed in polar view, in which ten species were spheroidal, nine species were angular, eight were interlobate, six species were circular, and two species were elliptic. Eighteen species have rugulate and 17 species has faveolate ornamentation. Eighteen species have verrucate and 17 have gemmate type sculpturing. The data was analysed through cluster analysis. The study showed that these palyno-morphological features have significance value in classification and identification of gymnosperms. Based on these different palyno-morphological features, a taxonomic key was proposed for the accurate and fast identifications of gymnosperms from Pakistan.

Keywords: gymnosperms, palynology, Pakistan, taxonomy

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2586 Devising a Paradigm for the Assessment of Guilt across Species

Authors: Trisha S. Malhotra

Abstract:

While there exist frameworks to study the induction, manifestation, duration and general nature of emotions like shame, guilt, embarrassment and pride in humans, the same cannot be said for other species. This is because such 'complex' emotions have situational inductions and manifestations that supposedly vary due to differences between and within different species' ethology. This paper looks at the socio-adaptive functions of guilt to posit why this emotion might be observed across varying species. Primarily, the experimental paradigm of guilt-assessment in domesticated dogs is critiqued for lack of ethological consideration in its measurement and analysis. It is argued that a paradigm for guilt-assessment should measure the species-specific prosocial approach behavior instead of the immediate feedback of the 'guilty'. Finally, it is asserted that the origin of guilt is subjective and if it must be studied across a plethora of species, its definition must be tailored to fit accordingly.

Keywords: guilt, assessment, dogs, prosocial approach behavior, empathy, species, ethology

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2585 Diversity of Bird Species and Conservation of Two Lacustrine Wetlands of the Upper Benue Basin, Adamawa, Nigeria

Authors: D. l. David, J. A. Wahedi, U. Buba, R. Zakariya

Abstract:

Between January, 2004 to December, 2005, studies were carried out on the bird species diversity and relative abundance of two lakes, Kiri and Gyawana near Numan using the “Timed Species Count (TSC)” method. 163 species in 53 bird families and 160 species in 55 bird families were recorded at Kiri and Gyawana lakes respectively. There was no significant difference in species diversity within bird families between the two lakes (p > 0.05), whereas in Gyawana Lake, one of the sites qualified as Ramsar site, none strongly qualified as an Important Bird Area (IBA). The significance of these findingsare also discussed.

Keywords: conservation, diversity, lacustrine, wetlands

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2584 Impact of Mixed Prey Population on Predation Potential and Food Preference of a Predaceous Ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata

Authors: Ahmad Pervez

Abstract:

We investigated predation potential and food preference of different life stages of a predaceous ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleptera: Coccinellidae) using a nutritive food (mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi) and a toxic food (cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae). We gave monotypic prey, L. erysimi, then B. brassicae to all life stages and found that second, third and fourth instars and adult female C. septempunctata daily consumed greater number of former prey. However, the first instar and the adult male equally consumed both the prey. In choice condition, each larva, adult male and female consumed mixed aphid diet separately in three proportions (i.e. low: high, equal: equal and high: low densities of L. erysimi: B. brassicae). We hypothesized that life stages of C. septempunctata will prefer L. erysimi regardless of its proportions. Laboratory experiment supported this hypothesis only at the adult level showing high values of β and C preference indices. However, it rejects this hypothesis at the larval level, as larvae preferred B. brassicae in certain combinations and showed no preference in a few combinations. We infer that mixing of nutritive diet in a toxic diet may possibly overcome the probable nutritive deficiency and/or reduces the toxicity of toxic diet, especially to the larvae of C. septempunctata. Consumption of high proportion of B. brassicae mixed with fewer L. erysimi suggests that mixed diet could be better for the development of immature stages of C. septempunctata.

Keywords: Coccinella septempunctata, predatory potential, prey preference, Lipaphis erysimi, Brevicoryne brassicae

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2583 Artemisia Species from Iran as Valuable Resources for Medicinal Uses

Authors: Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Hossein Ghafoori

Abstract:

Artemisia species, which are medically beneficial, are widespread in temperate regions of both Northern and Southern hemispheres among which Iran is located. About 35 species of Artemisia are indigenous in Iran among them some are widespread in all or most provinces, yet some are restricted to some specific regions. In this review paper, initially, GC-Mass results of some experiments done in different provinces of Iran are mentioned among them some compounds are common among species, some others are mostly restricted to other species; after that, medical advantages based on some researches on species of this genus are reviewed; different qualities such as anti-leishmania, anti-bacteria, antiviral as well as anti-proliferative could be mentioned.

Keywords: artemisia, GC-Mass analysis, medical advantage, antiviral

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2582 Species Composition of Alticinae Newman, 1834 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae): Distribution and Host Plants in Eastern Upper Plains (Setif, Algeria)

Authors: M. Bounechada, M. Fenni, S. Bouharati, S. E. Doumandji

Abstract:

The study was taken in Setif region (36° 11' 29 N and 5° 24' 34 E) located at the north-eastern of Algeria. This paper recorded and discusses zoogeography and host plant relationships of Setifian species Alticinae subfamily. A total of 50 species belonging to Alticinae subfamily of Chrysomelidae which is the economically important familty, were recorded from differentes localities of Setif region. They are included in 10 genera. Genera Longitarsus Berthold, 1827 is less species-rich than the other Alticinae genera captured. It represens about 38% of the all species collected. Cruciferae and Compositae were the mostly prefered host plant families representing Alticinae species. For each species we mentioned the collecting sites, geographical distribution and the host plants.

Keywords: Algeria, Alticinae, Chrysomelidae, Coleoptera, distribution, host plants, species composition, Setif

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
2581 A Faunistic Comparative Study of Families Hesperiidae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) of Syrian Arab Republic and Republic of Armenia

Authors: N. Zarikian

Abstract:

Comparative analysis of the fauna of two families of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) – Hesperiidae and Nymphalidae were carried out. In general, 122 species of the families are recorded. among these 33 species belong to Hesperiidae and 89 to Nymphalidae. The numbers by countries are as follows: 72 species are found in Syria (including 24 Hesperiidae and 48 Nymphalidae) and 97 in Armenia (26 and 71 species, respectively). Two species of Hesperiidae are reported for Syrian fauna for the first time and one species is newly recorded for Armenia. From the species above mentioned 38 are common both for Syria and Armenia. For estimation of the similarity of faunas studied were used the Jaccard index. By families the index is rather different, consisting for Hesperiidae 0.5151 and for Nymphalidae 0.337.

Keywords: Armenia, fauna, Hesperiidae, Nymphalidae, (Rhopalocera: Lepidoptera), Syria

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2580 Improved Rare Species Identification Using Focal Loss Based Deep Learning Models

Authors: Chad Goldsworthy, B. Rajeswari Matam

Abstract:

The use of deep learning for species identification in camera trap images has revolutionised our ability to study, conserve and monitor species in a highly efficient and unobtrusive manner, with state-of-the-art models achieving accuracies surpassing the accuracy of manual human classification. The high imbalance of camera trap datasets, however, results in poor accuracies for minority (rare or endangered) species due to their relative insignificance to the overall model accuracy. This paper investigates the use of Focal Loss, in comparison to the traditional Cross Entropy Loss function, to improve the identification of minority species in the “255 Bird Species” dataset from Kaggle. The results show that, although Focal Loss slightly decreased the accuracy of the majority species, it was able to increase the F1-score by 0.06 and improve the identification of the bottom two, five and ten (minority) species by 37.5%, 15.7% and 10.8%, respectively, as well as resulting in an improved overall accuracy of 2.96%.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, data imbalance, deep learning, focal loss, species classification, wildlife conservation

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2579 The Efficacy of Salicylic Acid and Puccinia Triticina Isolates Priming Wheat Plant to Diuraphis Noxia Damage

Authors: Huzaifa Bilal

Abstract:

Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov) is considered an economically important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pest worldwide and in South Africa. The RWA damages wheat plants and reduces annual yields by more than 10%. Even though pest management by pesticides and resistance breeding is an attractive option, chemicals can cause harm to the environment. Furthermore, the evolution of resistance-breaking aphid biotypes has out-paced the release of resistant cultivars. An alternative strategy to reduce the impact of aphid damage on plants, such as priming, which sensitizes plants to respond effectively to subsequent attacks, is necessary. In this study, wheat plants at the seedling and flag leaf stages were primed by salicylic acid and isolate representative of two races of the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina Eriks. (Pt), before RWA (South African RWA biotypes 1 and 4) infestation. Randomized complete block design experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to study plant-pest interaction in primed and non-primed plants. Analysis of induced aphid damage indicated salicylic acid differentially primed wheat cultivars for increased resistance to the RWASA biotypes. At the seedling stage, all cultivars were primed for enhanced resistance to RWASA1, while at the flag leaf stage, only PAN 3111, SST 356 and Makalote were primed for increased resistance. The Puccinia triticina efficaciously primed wheat cultivars for excellent resistance to RWASA1 at the seedling and flag leaf stages. However, Pt failed to enhance the four Lesotho cultivars' resistance to RWASA4 at the seedling stage and PAN 3118 at the flag leaf stage. The induced responses at the seedling and flag leaf stages were positively correlated in all the treatments. Primed plants induced high activity of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. High antioxidant activity indicates activation of resistant responses in primed plants (primed by salicylic acid and Puccina triticina). Isolates of avirulent Pt races can be a worthy priming agent for improved resistance to RWA infestation. Further confirmation of the priming effects needs to be evaluated at the field trials to investigate its application efficiency.

Keywords: Russian wheat aphis, salicylic acid, puccina triticina, priming

Procedia PDF Downloads 130