Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7450

Search results for: net energy gain

7450 Characterization of InGaAsP/InP Quantum Well Lasers

Authors: K. Melouk, M. Dellakrachaï

Abstract:

Analytical formula for the optical gain based on a simple parabolic-band by introducing theoretical expressions for the quantized energy is presented. The model used in this treatment take into account the effects of intraband relaxation. It is shown, as a result, that the gain for the TE mode is larger than that for TM mode and the presence of acceptor impurity increase the peak gain.

Keywords: InGaAsP, laser, quantum well, semiconductor

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7449 Input Energy Requirements and Performance of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Yield of Maize Crop

Authors: Shafique Qadir Memon, Muhammad Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal, Nadeem Amjad

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in maize production, to evaluate the inputs energy consumption and outputs energy gained for maize production in Islamabad, Pakistan for spring 2013. Results showed that grain yield was maximum under deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input/output were maximum in deep tillage as compared to conventional tillage while lowest in zero tillage, net energy gain were found maximum under deep tillage.

Keywords: tillage, energy, grain yield, net energy gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
7448 Many-Body Effect on Optical Gain of n+ Doping Tensile-Strained Ge/GeSiSn Quantum Wells

Authors: W. J. Fan, B. S. Ma

Abstract:

The many-body effect on band structure and optical gain of n+ doping tensile-strained Ge/GeSiSn quantum wells are investigated by using an 8-band k•p method. Phase diagram of Ge/GeSiSn quantum well is obtained. The E-k dispersion curves, band gap renormalization and optical gain spectra including many-body effect will be calculated and discussed. We find that the k.p method without many-body effect will overestimate the optical gain and transition energy.

Keywords: Si photonics, many-body effect, optical gain, Ge-on-Si, Quantum well

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7447 Hybrid MIMO-OFDM Detection Scheme for High Performance

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Dong-Hyun Ha, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas. In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system, various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.

Keywords: DFE, diversity gain, hybrid, MIMO, multiplexing gain.

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7446 An Approach To Flatten The Gain Of Fiber Raman Amplifiers With Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: FRA, WDM, pumping, flat gain

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7445 Ratio Energy and Protein of Dietary Based on Rice Straw Ammoniated on Productivity of Male Simenthal Cattle

Authors: Mardiati Zain, Yetti Marlida, Elihasridas Elihasridas, Erpomen Erpomen, Andri Andri

Abstract:

Background: Livestock productivity is greatly influenced by the energy and protein balance in diet. This study aimed to determine the energy and protein balance of male Simenthal cattle diet with protein and energy levels. The experimental design used was a randomized block design (RBD) 2x3x3 factorial design. There are two factors namely A level of energy diet that is 65% and 70% TDN. Factor B is a protein level of diet used were 10, 12 and 14% and each treatment is repeated three times. The weight of Simenthal cattle used ranged between 240 - 300 kg. Diet consisted of ammoniated rice straw and concentrated with ratio 40:60. Concentrate consisted of palm kernel cake, rice brain, cassava, mineral, and urea. The variables measured were digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and fiber, dry matter intake, daily gain, feed efficiency and blood characteristic. Results: There was no interaction between protein and energy level of diet on the nutrients intake (DM intake, OM intake, CP intake), weight gain and efficiency (P < 0.01). There was an interaction between protein and energy level of diet on digestibility (DM, OM, CP and allantoin urine (P > 0.01) Nutrients intake decreases with increasing levels of energy and protein diet, while nutrient digestibility, Avarage daily gain and feed efficiency increases with increasing levels of energy and protein diet. Conclusions: The result can be concluded that the best treatment was A2B1 which is energy level 70% TDN and protein 10%, where are dry matter intake 7.66 kg/d, daily gain 1.25 kg/d, feed efficiency 16.12%, and dry matter and organic matter digestibility 64.08 and 69.42% respectively.

Keywords: energy and protein ratio, simenthal cattle, rice straw ammoniated, digestibility

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7444 Applicability of Overhangs for Energy Saving in Existing High-Rise Housing in Different Climates

Authors: Qiong He, S. Thomas Ng

Abstract:

Upgrading the thermal performance of building envelope of existing residential buildings is an effective way to reduce heat gain or heat loss. Overhang device is a common solution for building envelope improvement as it can cut down solar heat gain and thereby can reduce the energy used for space cooling in summer time. Despite that, overhang can increase the demand for indoor heating in winter due to its function of lowering the solar heat gain. Obviously, overhang has different impacts on energy use in different climatic zones which have different energy demand. To evaluate the impact of overhang device on building energy performance under different climates of China, an energy analysis model is built up in a computer-based simulation program known as DesignBuilder based on the data of a typical high-rise residential building. The energy simulation results show that single overhang is able to cut down around 5% of the energy consumption of the case building in the stand-alone situation or about 2% when the building is surrounded by other buildings in regions which predominantly rely on space cooling though it has no contribution to energy reduction in cold region. In regions with cold summer and cold winter, adding overhang over windows can cut down around 4% and 1.8% energy use with and without adjoining buildings, respectively. The results indicate that overhang might not an effective shading device to reduce the energy consumption in the mixed climate or cold regions.

Keywords: overhang, energy analysis, computer-based simulation, design builder, high-rise residential building, climate, BIM model

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7443 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis

Abstract:

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain

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7442 Optimal Beam for Accelerator Driven Systems

Authors: M. Paraipan, V. M. Javadova, S. I. Tyutyunnikov

Abstract:

The concept of energy amplifier or accelerator driven system (ADS) involves the use of a particle accelerator coupled with a nuclear reactor. The accelerated particle beam generates a supplementary source of neutrons, which allows the subcritical functioning of the reactor, and consequently a safe exploitation. The harder neutron spectrum realized ensures a better incineration of the actinides. The almost generalized opinion is that the optimal beam for ADS is represented by protons with energy around 1 GeV (gigaelectronvolt). In the present work, a systematic analysis of the energy gain for proton beams with energy from 0.5 to 3 GeV and ion beams from deuteron to neon with energies between 0.25 and 2 AGeV is performed. The target is an assembly of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel rods in a bath of lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. The rods length is 150 cm. A beryllium converter with length 110 cm is used in order to maximize the energy released in the target. The case of a linear accelerator is considered, with a beam intensity of 1.25‧10¹⁶ p/s, and a total accelerator efficiency of 0.18 for proton beam. These values are planned to be achieved in the European Spallation Source project. The energy gain G is calculated as the ratio between the energy released in the target to the energy spent to accelerate the beam. The energy released is obtained through simulation with the code Geant4. The energy spent is calculating by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for the reference particle (proton). The analysis concerns the G values, the net power produce, the accelerator length, and the period between refueling. The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV. At this energy, G reaches a plateau around a value of 8 and a net power production of 120 MW (megawatt). Starting with alpha, ion beams have a higher G than 1.5 GeV protons. A beam of 0.25 AGeV(gigaelectronvolt per nucleon) ⁷Li realizes the same net power production as 1.5 GeV protons, has a G of 15, and needs an accelerator length 2.6 times lower than for protons, representing the best solution for ADS. Beams of ¹⁶O or ²⁰Ne with energy 0.75 AGeV, accelerated in an accelerator with the same length as 1.5 GeV protons produce approximately 900 MW net power, with a gain of 23-25. The study of the evolution of the isotopes composition during irradiation shows that the increase in power production diminishes the period between refueling. For a net power produced of 120 MW, the target can be irradiated approximately 5000 days without refueling, but only 600 days when the net power reaches 1 GW (gigawatt).

Keywords: accelerator driven system, ion beam, electrical power, energy gain

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7441 Inverter Based Gain-Boosting Fully Differential CMOS Amplifier

Authors: Alpana Agarwal, Akhil Sharma

Abstract:

This work presents a fully differential CMOS amplifier consisting of two self-biased gain boosted inverter stages, that provides an alternative to the power hungry operational amplifier. The self-biasing avoids the use of external biasing circuitry, thus reduces the die area, design efforts, and power consumption. In the present work, regulated cascode technique has been employed for gain boosting. The Miller compensation is also applied to enhance the phase margin. The circuit has been designed and simulated in 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The simulation results show a high DC gain of 100.7 dB, Unity-Gain Bandwidth of 107.8 MHz, and Phase Margin of 66.7o with a power dissipation of 286 μW and makes it suitable candidate for the high resolution pipelined ADCs.

Keywords: CMOS amplifier, gain boosting, inverter-based amplifier, self-biased inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
7440 Solar Collectors for Northern Countries

Authors: Ilze Pelece, Imants Ziemelis, Henriks Putans

Abstract:

Traditionally the solar energy has been used in southern countries, but it has been used also in northern ones. Most popular kind of use of solar energy in Latvia is solar collector for water heating. Traditionally flat-plate solar collectors are used because of simplicity of manufacturing. However, some peculiarities in use of solar energy in northern countries must be taken into account. In northern countries, there is lower irradiance, but longer day and longer path of the sun during summer. Therefore traditional flat-plate solar collectors are not appropriate enough in northern countries, but new forms must be developed. There are two forms of solar collectors - cylindrical and semi-spherical – proposed in this work. Such collectors can be made both for water or air heating. Theoretical calculations and measurements of energy gain from those two collectors have been done. Results show that daily energy sum received by the semi-spherical collector from the sun at the middle of summer is 1.43 times more than that of the flat one, but for the cylindrical collector, it is 1.74 times more than that of the flat one or equal to that of the tracking to sun flat-plate collector. The resulting difference in energy gain from collector will be not so large because of the difference in heat loses. Heat can be decreased by switching off the water circulation pump when the sun is covered by clouds. For this purpose solar batteries, powered pump can be used instead of complicated and expensive automatics. Even more important than overall energy gain is the fact that semi-spherical and cylindrical collectors work all day (17 hours in the middle of summer at 57 northern latitudes), while flat-plate collector only about 11 hours. Yearly energy sum received by the collector from the sun is 1.5 and 1.9 times larger for the semi-spherical and cylindrical collector respectively as for the flat one. The cylindrical solar collector is easier to manufacture, but semi-spherical one is more aesthetical and durable against the impact of the wind. Although solar collectors for water and air heating are studied in this article, main ideas are applicable also for solar batteries.

Keywords: cylindric, semi-spherical, solar collector, solar energy, water heating

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7439 A Comparative Case Study of the Impact of Square and Yurt-Shape Buildings on Energy Efficiency

Authors: Valeriya Tyo, Serikbolat Yessengabulov

Abstract:

Regions with extreme climate conditions such as Astana city require energy saving measures to increase the energy performance of buildings which are responsible for more than 40% of total energy consumption. Identification of optimal building geometry is one of the key factors to be considered. The architectural form of a building has the impact on space heating and cooling energy use, however, the interrelationship between the geometry and resultant energy use is not always readily apparent. This paper presents a comparative case study of two prototypical buildings with compact building shape to assess its impact on energy performance.

Keywords: building geometry, energy efficiency, heat gain, heat loss

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7438 A Test Methodology to Measure the Open-Loop Voltage Gain of an Operational Amplifier

Authors: Maninder Kaur Gill, Alpana Agarwal

Abstract:

It is practically not feasible to measure the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier in the open loop configuration. It is because the open-loop voltage gain of the operational amplifier is very large. In order to avoid the saturation of the output voltage, a very small input should be given to operational amplifier which is not possible to be measured practically by a digital multimeter. A test circuit for measurement of open loop voltage gain of an operational amplifier has been proposed and verified using simulation tools as well as by experimental methods on breadboard. The main advantage of this test circuit is that it is simple, fast, accurate, cost effective, and easy to handle even on a breadboard. The test circuit requires only the device under test (DUT) along with resistors. This circuit has been tested for measurement of open loop voltage gain for different operational amplifiers. The underlying goal is to design testable circuits for various analog devices that are simple to realize in VLSI systems, giving accurate results and without changing the characteristics of the original system. The DUTs used are LM741CN and UA741CP. For LM741CN, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 89.71 dB and 87.71 dB, respectively. For UA741CP, the simulated gain and experimentally measured gain (average) are calculated as 101.15 dB and 105.15 dB, respectively. These values are found to be close to the datasheet values.

Keywords: Device Under Test (DUT), open loop voltage gain, operational amplifier, test circuit

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7437 Analog Voltage Inverter Drive for Capacitive Load with Adaptive Gain Control

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Yong-Ho Cho, Ki-Seok Kim, Tae-Sam Kang

Abstract:

Piezoelectric actuator is treated as RC load when it is modeled electrically. For some piezoelectric actuator applications, arbitrary voltage is required to actuate. Especially for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving like as sine wave, some special inverter with circuit that can charge and discharge the capacitive energy can be used. In this case, the difference between power supply level and the object voltage level for RC load is varied. Because the control gain is constant, the controlled output is not uniform according to the voltage difference. In this paper, for charge and discharge circuit for unidirectional arbitrary voltage driving for piezoelectric actuator, the controller gain is controlled according to the voltage difference. With the proposed simple idea, the load voltage can have controlled smoothly although the voltage difference is varied. The appropriateness is proved from the simulation of the proposed circuit.

Keywords: analog voltage inverter, capacitive load, gain control, dc-dc converter, piezoelectric, voltage waveform

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7436 The Environmental Impact of Geothermal Energy and Opportunities for Its Utilization in Hungary

Authors: András Medve, Katalin Szabad, István Patkó

Abstract:

According to the International Energy Association the previous principles of the energy sector should be reassessed, in which renewable energy sources have a significant role. We might witness the exchange of roles of countries from importer to exporter, which look for the main resources of market needs. According to the World Energy Outlook 2013, the duration of high oil prices is exceptionally long in the history of the energy market. Forecasts also point at the expected great differences between the regional prices of gas and electric energy. The energy need of the world will grow by its third. two thirds of which will appear in China, India, and South-East Asia, while only 4 per cent of which will be related to OECD countries. Current trends also forecast the growth of the price of energy sources and the emission of glasshouse gases. As a reflection of these forecasts alternative energy sources will gain value, of which geothermic energy is one of the cheapest and most economical. Hungary possesses outstanding resources of geothermic energy. The aim of the study is to research the environmental effects of geothermic energy and the opportunities of its exploitation in Hungary, related to „Horizon 2020” project.

Keywords: sustainable energy, renewable energy, development of geothermic energy in Hungary

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7435 55 dB High Gain L-Band EDFA Utilizing Single Pump Source

Authors: M. H. Al-Mansoori, W. S. Al-Ghaithi, F. N. Hasoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of an efficient high gain triple-pass L-band Erbium-Doped Fiber (EDF) amplifier structure with a single pump source. The amplifier gain and noise figure variation with EDF pump power, input signal power and wavelengths have been investigated. The generated backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise of the first amplifier stage is suppressed by using a tunable band-pass filter. The amplifier achieves a signal gain of 55 dB with low noise figure of 3.8 dB at -50 dBm input signal power. The amplifier gain shows significant improvement of 12.8 dB compared to amplifier structure without ASE suppression.

Keywords: optical amplifiers, EDFA, L-band, optical networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
7434 Efficiency Improvement for Conventional Rectangular Horn Antenna by Using EBG Technique

Authors: S. Kampeephat, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

The conventional rectangular horn has been used for microwave antenna a long time. Its gain can be increased by enlarging the construction of horn to flare exponentially. This paper presents a study of the shaped woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) to improve its gain for conventional horn without construction enlargement. The gain enhancement synthesis method for shaped woodpile EBG that has to transfer the electromagnetic fields from aperture of a horn antenna through woodpile EBG is presented by using the variety of shaped woodpile EBGs such as planar, triangular, quadratic, circular, gaussian, cosine, and squared cosine structures. The proposed technique has the advantages of low profile, low cost for fabrication and light weight. The antenna characteristics such as reflection coefficient (S11), radiation patterns and gain are simulated by utilized A Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. With the proposed concept, an antenna prototype was fabricated and experimented. The S11 and radiation patterns obtained from measurements show a good impedance matching and a gain enhancement of the proposed antenna. The gain at dominant frequency of 10 GHz is 25.6 dB, application for X- and Ku-Band Radar, that higher than the gain of the basic rectangular horn antenna around 8 dB with adding only one appropriated EBG structures.

Keywords: conventional rectangular horn antenna, electromagnetic band gap, gain enhancement, X- and Ku-band radar

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7433 Growth Performance and Economy of Production of Pullets Fed on Different Energy Based Sources

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, A. Ogunbameru, F. P. Agbaye, R. O. Odunukan

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the growth performance and economics of pullets fed on different dietary energy sources. A total of 300 Harco black was used for this experiment. The birds were completely randomized and divided into four diet treatment groups. Each treatment group had three replicates of twenty-five birds per replicate. Four diets containing maize, spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit was formulated to represent diet 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Diet 1 containing maize is the control, while diet 2, 3, and 4 contains spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit waste meal at 100% replacement for maize on weight for weight basis. Performance indices on Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economy of production were measured. Blood samples were also collected for heamatology and serum biochemistry assessment. The result of the experiment indicated that different dietary energy source fed to birds significantly (P < 0.05) affect feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The best cost of feed per kilogram of body weight gain was obtained in Spaghetti based diet (₦559.30). However, the best performance were obtained from diet 1(maize), it can be concluded that spaghetti as a replacement for maize in diet of pullet is most economical and profitable for production without any deleterious effects attached. Blood parameters of birds were not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by the use of the dietary energy sources used in this experiment.

Keywords: growth performance, spaghetti, noodles, biscuit, profit, hematology, serum biochemistry

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7432 Directivity and Gain Improvement for Microstrip Array Antenna with Directors

Authors: Hassan M. Elkamchouchi, Samy H. Darwish, Yasser H. Elkamchouchi, M. E. Morsy

Abstract:

Methodology is suggested to design a linear rectangular microstrip array antenna based on Yagi antenna theory. The antenna with different directors' lengths as parasitic elements were designed, simulated, and analyzed using HFSS. The calculus and results illustrate the effectiveness of using specific parasitic elements to improve the directivity and gain for microstrip array antenna. The results have shown that the suggested methodology has the potential to be applied for improving the antenna performance. Maximum radiation intensity (Umax) of the order of 0.47w/st was recorded, directivity of 6.58dB, and gain better than 6.07dB are readily achievable for the antenna that working.

Keywords: directivity, director, microstrip antenna, gain improvment

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7431 High Gain Mobile Base Station Antenna Using Curved Woodpile EBG Technique

Authors: P. Kamphikul, P. Krachodnok, R. Wongsan

Abstract:

This paper presents the gain improvement of a sector antenna for mobile phone base station by using the new technique to enhance its gain for microstrip antenna (MSA) array without construction enlargement. The curved woodpile Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) has been utilized to improve the gain instead. The advantages of this proposed antenna are reducing the length of MSAs array but providing the higher gain and easy fabrication and installation. Moreover, it provides a fan-shaped radiation pattern, wide in the horizontal direction and relatively narrow in the vertical direction, which appropriate for mobile phone base station. The paper also presents the design procedures of a 1x8 MSAs array associated with U-shaped reflector for decreasing their back and side lobes. The fabricated curved woodpile EBG exhibits bandgap characteristics at 2.1 GHz and is utilized for realizing a resonant cavity of MSAs array. This idea has been verified by both the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software and experimental results. As the results, the fabricated proposed antenna achieves a high gain of 20.3 dB and the half-power beam widths in the E- and H-plane of 36.8 and 8.7 degrees, respectively. Good qualitative agreement between measured and simulated results of the proposed antenna was obtained.

Keywords: gain improvement, microstrip antenna array, electromagnetic band gap, base station

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7430 Performance Analysis of Transformerless DC-DC Boost Converter

Authors: Nidhi Vijay, A. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Many industrial applications require power from dc source. DC-DC boost converters are now being used all over the world for rapid transit system. Although these provide high efficiency, smooth control, fast response and regeneration, conventional DC-DC boost converters are unable to provide high step up voltage gain due to effect of power switches, rectifier diodes and equivalent series resistance of inductor and capacitor. This paper proposes new transformerless dc-dc converters to achieve high step up voltage gain as compared to the conventional converter without an extremely high duty ratio. Only one power stage is used in this converter. Steady-state analysis of voltage gain is discussed in brief. Finally, a comparative analysis is given in order to verify the results.

Keywords: MATLAB, DC-DC boost converter, voltage gain, voltage stress

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7429 Miniaturization of I-Slot Antenna with Improved Efficiency and Gain

Authors: Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani

Abstract:

In this paper, novel miniaturization technique of antenna is proposed using I-slot. Using this technique, gain of antenna can increased for 4dB (antenna only) to 6.6dB for the proposed I-slot antenna and a frequency shift of about 0.45 GHz to 1 GHz is obtained. Also a reduction of the shape size of the antenna is achieved (about 38 %) to operate in the Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) band.RF Moreover the frequency shift can be controlled by changing the place or the length of the I-slot. Finally the proposed miniature antenna with an improved radiation efficiency and gain was built and tested.

Keywords: slot antenna, miniaturization, RF, electrical equivalent circuit (EEC)

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7428 Effects of Bile Acids and Lipase Supplementation in Low-Energy Diets on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Muhammad Adeel Arshad, Shaukat Ali Bhatti

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate the effect of bile acids and lipase supplementation in low-energy diets on growth performance and meat quality of broilers. Seven hundred day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45.9 ± 0.3 g were assigned to 5 dietary treatments, with five replications of 28 birds each in a completely randomized design. The five treatments were as follows: (i) HE: broilers received a diet with high energy content; (ii) LE: broilers received a diet with low energy content and energy content reduced by 100 kcal/kg as compared to HE; (iii) LEB: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 300 g/ton bile acids; (iv) LEL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with 180 g/ton lipase enzyme and (v) LEBL: broilers received a diet similar to the LE group supplemented with both 300 g/ton bile acids and 180 g/ton lipase enzyme. The experimental period lasted for 35 days. Broilers fed HE had a lower (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) gain and lower feed intake (1-35 d), but during finisher period (21-35 d), BW gain was similar with other treatments. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was lower in HE and higher in LEBL group (P < 0.05), while the LE, LEB, and LEL had intermediate values. At 35 d no difference occurred between treatment for water holding capacity and pH of breast and thigh muscles (P > 0.05). The relative weight of pancreas was higher (P < 0.05) in LEB treatment but lower (P < 0.05) in LEL treatment. In conclusion, bile acids and lipase supplementation at 300 g/ton and 150g/ton of feed in low-energy diets respectively had no effect on broiler performance and meat quality. However, FCR was improved in HE treatment.

Keywords: bile acids, energy, enzyme, growth

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7427 Efficiency Improvement of REV-Method for Calibration of Phased Array Antennas

Authors: Daniel Hristov

Abstract:

The paper describes the principle of operation, simulation and physical validation of method for simultaneous acquisition of gain and phase states of multiple antenna elements and the corresponding feed lines across a Phased Array Antenna (PAA). The derived values for gain and phase are used for PAA-calibration. The method utilizes the Rotating-Element Electric- Field Vector (REV) principle currently used for gain and phase state estimation of single antenna element across an active antenna aperture. A significant reduction of procedure execution time is achieved with simultaneous setting of different phase delays to multiple phase shifters, followed by a single power measurement. The initial gain and phase states are calculated using spectral and correlation analysis of the measured power series.

Keywords: antenna, antenna arrays, calibration, phase measurement, power measurement

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7426 Increasing of Gain in Unstable Thin Disk Resonator

Authors: M. Asl. Dehghan, M. H. Daemi, S. Radmard, S. H. Nabavi

Abstract:

Thin disk lasers are engineered for efficient thermal cooling and exhibit superior performance for this task. However the disk thickness and large pumped area make the use of this gain format in a resonator difficult when constructing a single-mode laser. Choosing an unstable resonator design is beneficial for this purpose. On the other hand, the low gain medium restricts the application of unstable resonators to low magnifications and therefore to a poor beam quality. A promising idea to enable the application of unstable resonators to wide aperture, low gain lasers is to couple a fraction of the out coupled radiation back into the resonator. The output coupling gets dependent on the ratio of the back reflection and can be adjusted independently from the magnification. The excitation of the converging wave can be done by the use of an external reflector. The resonator performance is numerically predicted. First of all the threshold condition of linear, V and 2V shape resonator is investigated. Results show that the maximum magnification is 1.066 that is very low for high quality purposes. Inserting an additional reflector covers the low gain. The reflectivity and the related magnification of a 350 micron Yb:YAG disk are calculated. The theoretical model was based on the coupled Kirchhoff integrals and solved numerically by the Fox and Li algorithm. Results show that with back reflection mechanism in combination with increasing the number of beam incidents on disk, high gain and high magnification can occur.

Keywords: unstable resonators, thin disk lasers, gain, external reflector

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7425 Near Optimal Closed-Loop Guidance Gains Determination for Vector Guidance Law, from Impact Angle Errors and Miss Distance Considerations

Authors: Karthikeyan Kalirajan, Ashok Joshi

Abstract:

An optimization problem is to setup to maximize the terminal kinetic energy of a maneuverable reentry vehicle (MaRV). The target location, the impact angle is given as constraints. The MaRV uses an explicit guidance law called Vector guidance. This law has two gains which are taken as decision variables. The problem is to find the optimal value of these gains which will result in minimum miss distance and impact angle error. Using a simple 3DOF non-rotating flat earth model and Lockheed martin HP-MARV as the reentry vehicle, the nature of solutions of the optimization problem is studied. This is achieved by carrying out a parametric study for a range of closed loop gain values and the corresponding impact angle error and the miss distance values are generated. The results show that there are well defined lower and upper bounds on the gains that result in near optimal terminal guidance solution. It is found from this study, that there exist common permissible regions (values of gains) where all constraints are met. Moreover, the permissible region lies between flat regions and hence the optimization algorithm has to be chosen carefully. It is also found that, only one of the gain values is independent and that the other dependent gain value is related through a simple straight-line expression. Moreover, to reduce the computational burden of finding the optimal value of two gains, a guidance law called Diveline guidance is discussed, which uses single gain. The derivation of the Diveline guidance law from Vector guidance law is discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Marv guidance, reentry trajectory, trajectory optimization, guidance gain selection

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7424 Effects of Eggs Storage Period and Layer Hen Age on Eggs Hatchability and Weight of Broilers of Breed Ross

Authors: Alipanah Masoud, Sheihkei Iman

Abstract:

One day old chicken quality has great deal of contributions in increasing daily weight gain as well as economical productivity of broilers production. On the other hand, eggs are kept in different times in layer hens flocks and subsequently are transported to incubation units. In order to evaluate effects of two factors layer hen age and storage period of eggs on one day old broilers weight gain during feeding, eggs for layer hen gathered on 32 weeks old (young hen) and 74 weeks old (older ones) were used. Storage period for samples was set as 1 and 9 days. Data were analysed in completely randomized design in four replicates by software SAS. Results indicated that one day old broiler chickens from young had less weight gain, although they exhibited higher weight gain during next weeks. At the same time, there was no difference between chickens from eggs stored for nine days and those from stored for one day.

Keywords: egg, chicken, hatchability, layer

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7423 Weight Gain After Total Thyroidectomy

Authors: Yong Seong Kim, Seongbin Hong, So Hun Kim, Moonsuk Nam

Abstract:

Background: Patients who undergo thyroidectomy due to thyroid cancer often complain weight gain, although they are on suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. The aim of this study is to know whether thyroid cancer patients gain the weight after thyroidectomy and weight change is dependent on estrogen state or use of rhTSH. Material and Method: We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. Two hundred two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were included. As a control group, patients with thyroid nodule and euthyroidism were matched for age, gender, menopausal status. The weight changes occurring over first one year and thyroid function were assessed. Results: Mean age was 51±12 years and patients was composed with 38% of premenopausal, 15 % perimenopausal women, 37% of postmenopausal women and 20% of men. Patients with thyroid cancer gained 2.2 kg during the first year. It’ was not significantly different with control. However, weigh change in perimenopausal and post menopausal women gained more weight than control (P <0.05). Age, baseline body weight and weight gain were not correlated. Discussion: Patient who had undergone thyroidectomy gained more weight than their control, especially in peri- and postmenopausal women. Patients in this age should be monitored for their weight carefully.

Keywords: weight gain, thyroidectomy, thyroid cancer, weight chance

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
7422 Implementation of Model Reference Adaptive Control in Tuning of Controller Gains for Following-Vehicle System with Fixed Time Headway

Authors: Fatemeh Behbahani, Rubiyah Yusof

Abstract:

To avoid collision between following vehicles and vehicles in front, it is vital to keep appropriate, safe spacing between both vehicles over all speeds. Therefore, the following vehicle needs to have exact information regarding the speed and spacing between vehicles. This project is conducted to simulate the tuning of controller gain for a vehicle-following system through the selected control strategy, spacing control policy and fixed-time headway policy. In addition, the paper simulates and designs an adaptive gain controller for a road-vehicle-following system which uses information on the spacing, velocity and also acceleration of a preceding vehicle in the proposed one-vehicle look-ahead strategy. The mathematical model is implemented using Kirchhoff and Newton’s Laws, and stability simulated. The trial-error method was used to obtain a suitable value of controller gain. However, the adaptive-based controller system was able to optimize the gain value automatically. Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is designed and utilized and based on firstly the Gradient and secondly the Lyapunov approach. The Lyapunov approach considers stability. The Gradient approach was found to improve the best value of gain in the controller system with fixed-time headway.

Keywords: one-vehicle look-ahead, model reference adaptive, stability, tuning gain controller, MRAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
7421 Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Belloui Bouzid

Abstract:

In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.

Keywords: erbium doped fiber amplifier, erbium doped fiber laser, optical amplification, fiber laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 166