Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 76

Search results for: Ali Asghar Memon

76 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
75 Effect of Measured and Calculated Static Torque on Instantaneous Torque Profile of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

The simulation modeling of switched reluctance (SR) machine often relies and uses the three data tables identified as static torque characteristics that include flux linkage characteristics, co energy characteristics and static torque characteristics separately. It has been noticed from the literature that the data of static torque used in the simulation model is often calculated so far the literature is concerned. This paper presents the simulation model that include the data of measured and calculated static torque separately to see its effect on instantaneous torque profile of the machine. This is probably for the first time so far the literature review is concerned that static torque from co energy information, and measured static torque directly from experiments are separately used in the model. This research is helpful for accurate modeling of switched reluctance drive.

Keywords: static characteristics, current chopping, flux linkage characteristics, switched reluctance motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
74 Economical Analysis of Optimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Duct

Authors: D. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. G. Memon, R. A. Memon, K. Harijan

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is usually lost due to compression of insulation in Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct. In this paper, the economic impact of compression of insulation is estimated. Relevant mathematical models were used to estimate the optimal thickness at the points of compression. Furthermore, the payback period is calculated for the optimal thickness at the critical parts of supply air duct (SAD) and return air duct (RAD) considering natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels for chillier operation. The mathematical model is developed using preliminary data obtained for an HVAC system of a pharmaceutical company. The higher heat gain and cooling loss, due to compression of thermal insulation, is estimated using relevant heat transfer equations. The results reveal that maximum energy savings (ES) in SAD is 34.5 and 40%, while in RAD is 22.9% and 29% for NG and LPG, respectively. Moreover, the minimum payback period (PP) for SAD is 2 and 1.6years, while in RAD is 4.3 and 2.7years for NG and LPG, respectively. The optimum insulation thickness (OIT) corresponding to maximum ES and minimum PP is estimated to be 35 and 42mm for SAD, while 30 and 38mm for RAD in case of NG and LPG, respectively.

Keywords: optimum insulation thickness, life cycle cost analysis, payback period, HVAC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
73 Analyzing the Ecosystem for Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of Rural Areas of Jamshoro, Pakistan

Authors: Aisha M. Memon, Arabella Bhutto, Zahid A. Memon, Adnan Pitafi

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the existing and non-existing elements in the entrepreneurial ecosystem which include finance, institutions, laws and regulations, human capital, culture, and markets, to measure the level of effectiveness of existing elements and to develop recommendations for improving the ecosystem to facilitate the women entrepreneurs in Jamshoro, Pakistan. The nature of this study is qualitative. Data were drawn from 25 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion with women entrepreneurs in rural Jamshoro, Pakistan. The findings show the lack of awareness and knowledge among women entrepreneurs about available financial resources, lack of knowledge about laws, an absence of familial and societal support for women in accessing the entrepreneurial ecosystem, the absence of business and innovation enablers in rural areas, communication gaps, and unskilled human capital. The study found that institutions like non-for-profit organizations are playing an active role in the growth of women entrepreneurs. The existing entrepreneurial ecosystem in Jamshoro can be improved through culturally sensitive coordinated approach, interventions aimed at increasing awareness about the resources, promoting an understanding about the laws and regulations, making business enablers more effective, establishing public-private partnerships, and providing the women entrepreneurs easy access to market and financial resources.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship ecosystem, Pakistan, women entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
72 Reduction of Defects Using Seven Quality Control Tools for Productivity Improvement at Automobile Company

Authors: Abdul Sattar Jamali, Imdad Ali Memon, Maqsood Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Quality of production near to zero defects is an objective of every manufacturing and service organization. In order to maintain and improve the quality by reduction in defects, Statistical tools are being used by any organizations. There are many statistical tools are available to assess the quality. Keeping in view the importance of many statistical tools, traditional 7QC tools has been used in any manufacturing and automobile Industry. Therefore, the 7QC tools have been successfully applied at one of the Automobile Company Pakistan. Preliminary survey has been done for the implementation of 7QC tool in the assembly line of Automobile Industry. During preliminary survey two inspection points were decided to collect the data, which are Chassis line and trim line. The data for defects at Chassis line and trim line were collected for reduction in defects which ultimately improve productivity. Every 7QC tools has its benefits observed from the results. The flow charts developed for better understanding about inspection point for data collection. The check sheets developed for helps for defects data collection. Histogram represents the severity level of defects. Pareto charts show the cumulative effect of defects. The Cause and Effect diagrams developed for finding the root causes of each defects. Scatter diagram developed the relation of defects increasing or decreasing. The P-Control charts developed for showing out of control points beyond the limits for corrective actions. The successful implementation of 7QC tools at the inspection points at Automobile Industry concluded that the considerable amount of reduction on defects level, as in Chassis line from 132 defects to 13 defects. The total 90% defects were reduced in Chassis Line. In Trim line defects were reduced from 157 defects to 28 defects. The total 82% defects were reduced in Trim Line. As the Automobile Company exercised only few of the 7 QC tools, not fully getting the fruits by the application of 7 QC tools. Therefore, it is suggested the company may need to manage a mechanism for the application of 7 QC tools at every section.

Keywords: check sheet, cause and effect diagram, control chart, histogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
71 Application of Golden Ratio in Contemporary Textile Industry and Its Effect on Consumer Preferences

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez

Abstract:

This research aims to determine the influence of Fibonacci numbers and golden ratio through textile designs. This study was carried out by collecting a variety of designs from different textile industries. Top textile designers were also interviewed regarding golden ratio and its application on their designs and design execution process. This study revealed that most of the designs fulfilled the golden ratio and the designs that were according to golden ratio were more favorite to the consumers.

Keywords: golden ratio, Fibonacci numbers, textile design, designs

Procedia PDF Downloads 623
70 Input Energy Requirements and Performance of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Yield of Maize Crop

Authors: Shafique Qadir Memon, Muhammad Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal, Nadeem Amjad

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in maize production, to evaluate the inputs energy consumption and outputs energy gained for maize production in Islamabad, Pakistan for spring 2013. Results showed that grain yield was maximum under deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input/output were maximum in deep tillage as compared to conventional tillage while lowest in zero tillage, net energy gain were found maximum under deep tillage.

Keywords: tillage, energy, grain yield, net energy gain

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69 Every g-Riesz Basis is a Riesz Basis

Authors: Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi, Asghar Rahimi

Abstract:

Sun introduced a generalization of frames and showed that this includes more other cases of generalizations of frame concept and proved that many basic properties can be derived within this more general context. Another generalization of frames is frames in Hilbert C*-module. It has been proved that every g-frame in Hilbert space H respect to Hilbert space K is a frame for B(H;K) as Hilbert C*-module. We show that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space H respect to K by add a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert B(K)-module B(H;K). Also, we investigate similar result for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases.

Keywords: frame, g-frame, Riesz basis, g-Riesz basis, Hilbert C*-module

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68 Mulberry Leave: An Efficient and Economical Adsorbent for Remediation of Arsenic (V) and Arsenic (III) Contaminated Water

Authors: Saima Q. Memon, Mazhar I. Khaskheli

Abstract:

The aim of present study was to investigate the efficiency of mulberry leaves for the removal of both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) from aqueous medium. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimize various parameters such as pH of metal ion solution, volume of sorbate, sorbent doze, and agitation speed and agitation time. Maximum sorption efficiency of mulberry leaves for As (III) and As (V) at optimum conditions were 2818 μg.g-1 and 4930 μg.g-1, respectively. The experimental data was a good fit to Freundlich and D-R adsorption isotherm. Energy of adsorption was found to be in the range of 3-6 KJ/mole suggesting the physical nature of process. Kinetic data followed the first order rate, Morris-Weber equations. Developed method was applied to remove arsenic from real water samples.

Keywords: arsenic removal, mulberry, adsorption isotherms, kinetics of adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
67 Electrochemical Regeneration of GIC Adsorbent in a Continuous Electrochemical Reactor

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, H. Sattar, E. P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

Arvia™ introduced a novel technology consisting of adsorption followed by electrochemical regeneration with a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent that takes place in a single unit. The adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate by-products products due to incomplete mineralization during electrochemical regeneration. Therefore, the investigation of breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation is of great concern regarding the commercial applications of this process. In the present paper, the formation of the chlorinated breakdown products during continuous process of adsorption and electrochemical regeneration based on a graphite intercalation compound adsorbent has been investigated.

Keywords: GIC, adsorption, electrochemical regeneration, chlorphenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
66 Reversible and Adaptive Watermarking for MRI Medical Images

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

A new medical image watermarking scheme delivering high embedding capacity is presented in this paper. Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Companding technique and adaptive thresholding are used in this scheme. The proposed scheme implants, recovers the hidden information and restores the input image to its pristine state at the receiving end. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images are used for experimental purposes. The scheme first segment the MRI medical image into non-overlapping blocks and then inserts watermark into wavelet coefficients having a high frequency of each block. The scheme uses block-based watermarking adopting iterative optimization of threshold for companding in order to avoid the histogram pre and post processing. Results show that proposed scheme performs better than other reversible medical image watermarking schemes available in literature for MRI medical images.

Keywords: adaptive thresholding, companding technique, data authentication, reversible watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
65 Survivable IP over WDM Network Design Based on 1 ⊕ 1 Network Coding

Authors: Nihed Bahria El Asghar, Imen Jouili, Mounir Frikha

Abstract:

Inter-datacenter transport network is very bandwidth and delay demanding. The data transferred over such a network is also highly QoS-exigent mostly because a huge volume of data should be transported transparently with regard to the application user. To avoid the data transfer failure, a backup path should be reserved. No re-routing delay should be observed. A dedicated 1+1 protection is however not applicable in inter-datacenter transport network because of the huge spare capacity. In this context, we propose a survivable virtual network with minimal backup based on network coding (1 ⊕ 1) and solve it using a modified Dijkstra-based heuristic.

Keywords: network coding, dedicated protection, spare capacity, inter-datacenters transport network

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64 A New Approach for Generalized First Derivative of Nonsmooth Functions Using Optimization

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazarei, Ali Asghar Behroozpoor

Abstract:

In this paper, we define an optimization problem corresponding to smooth and nonsmooth functions which its optimal solution is the first derivative of these functions in a domain. For this purpose, a linear programming problem corresponding to optimization problem is obtained. The optimal solution of this linear programming problem is the approximate generalized first derivative. In fact, we approximate generalized first derivative of nonsmooth functions as tailor series. We show the efficiency of our approach by some smooth and nonsmooth functions in some examples.

Keywords: general derivative, linear programming, optimization problem, smooth and nonsmooth functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
63 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen

Abstract:

The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
62 Nanohybride Porphyrin and Silver as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxidation of Alcohols by Tetrabutylammonium Peroxomonosulfate

Authors: Atena Naeimi, Asghar Amiri, Zahra Ghasemi

Abstract:

A stable suspension of nanocomposite simple manganese(III) meso-tetraphenylporphyrin nanoaggregates and Ag was prepared by a host–guest procedure, in which ethanol and water are used as ‘green’ solvents. The oxidation of alcohols by tetrabutylammonium Peroxomonosulfate(TP) were efficiently enhanced with excellent selectivity under the influence of simple Mn(TPP)OAc (TPP = meso-tetraphenylporphyrin) nanoparticles. Enhanced stabilities and activities were achieved with nanostructured Mn catalysts compared to those of the individual counterparts in solution according to turnover numbers and UV/Vis studies. The title nanocatalyst facilitates a greener reaction because the reaction solvent is water and TP is safe to use. The efficiency of the oxidation system depends critically upon the steric hindrances and electronic structures of both nitrogen donor ligand sand porphyrin nanoparticles.

Keywords: oxidation, nanoaggregates, porphyrinoids, silver

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
61 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
60 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
59 Variation of Inductance in a Switched-Reluctance Motor under Various Rotor Faults

Authors: Muhammad Asghar Saqib, Saad Saleem Khan, Syed Abdul Rahman Kashif

Abstract:

In order to have higher efficiency, performance and reliability the regular monitoring of an electrical motor is required. This article presents a novel view of the air-gap magnetic field analysis of a switched reluctance motor under rotor cracks and rotor tilt along its shaft axis. The fault diagnosis is illustrated on the basis of a 3-D model of the motor using finite element analysis (FEA). The analytical equations of flux linkages have been used to determine the inductance. The results of the 3-D finite element analysis on a 6/4 switched reluctance motor (SRM) shows the variation of mutual inductance with the tilting of the rotor shaft and cracked rotor conditions. These results present useful information regarding the detection of shaft tilting and cracked rotors.

Keywords: switched reluctance motor, finite element analysis, cracked rotor, 3-D modelling of a srm

Procedia PDF Downloads 552
58 Using Submerge Fermentation Method to Production of Extracellular Lipase by Aspergillus niger

Authors: Masoumeh Ghasemi, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Arman Farahbakhsh, Ali Asghar Safari

Abstract:

In this study, lipase production has been investigated using submerge fermentation by Aspergillus niger in Kilka fish oil as main substrate. The Taguchi method with an L9 orthogonal array design was used to investigate the effect of parameters and their levels on lipase productivity. The optimum conditions for Kilka fish oil concentration, incubation temperature and pH were obtained 3 gr./ml 35°C and 7, respectively. The amount of lipase activity in optimum condition was obtained 4.59IU/ml. By comparing this amount with the amount of productivity in the olive oil medium based on the cost of each medium, it was that using Kilka fish oil is 84% economical. Therefore Kilka fish oil can be used as an economical and suitable substrate in the lipase production and industrial usages.

Keywords: lipase, Aspergillus niger, Kilka fish oil, submerge fermentation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
57 Anticoccidial Activity of Vitis venifera Extract on Oocysts of Different Eimeria Species of Chicken

Authors: Asghar Abbas, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Asif Raza, Kashif Hussain

Abstract:

In the current experiment, in vitro anticoccidial potential of Vitis venifera (grape seed) extract was evaluated. For this purpose, an in vitro sporulation inhibition assay was used. Collected oocysts of different Eimeria species of chicken were exposed to six different concentrations (w/v) of Vitis venifera extract (TAE) in 10% dimethylsulphoxide solution (DMSO). Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and potassium dichromate solution (K₂Cr₂O₇) served as control groups. Results of the study revealed that Vitis venifera extract (TAE) showed an inhibitory effect on sporulation (%) and damage (%) of Eimeria oocysts in a dose-dependent manner as compared to both control groups. Vitis venifera extract also damaged the morphology of oocysts in terms of shape, size, and number of sporocysts.

Keywords: Vitis venifera, in vitro, Eimeria, oocysts

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
56 Extraction of Polystyrene from Styrofoam Waste: Synthesis of Novel Chelating Resin for the Enrichment and Speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(vi) Ions in Industrial Effluents

Authors: Ali N. Siyal, Saima Q. Memon, Latif Elçi, Aydan Elçi

Abstract:

Polystyrene (PS) was extracted from Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene foam) waste, so called white pollutant. The PS was functionalized with N, N- Bis(2-aminobenzylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine (ABA) ligand through an azo spacer. The resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The PS-N=N-ABA resin was used for the enrichment and speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and total Cr determination in aqueous samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The separation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions was achieved at pH 2. The recovery of Cr(VI) ions was achieved ≥ 95.0% at optimum parameters: pH 2; resin amount 300 mg; flow rates 2.0 mL min-1 of solution and 2.0 mL min-1 of eluent (2.0 mol L-1 HNO3). Total Cr was determined by oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) ions using H2O2. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of Cr(VI) were found to be 0.40 and 1.20 μg L-1, respectively with preconcentration factor of 250. Total saturation and breakthrough capacitates of the resin for Cr(IV) ions were found to be 0.181 and 0.531 mmol g-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration/speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and determination of total Cr in industrial effluents.

Keywords: styrofoam waste, polymeric resin, preconcentration, speciation, Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions, FAAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
55 Robust and Transparent Spread Spectrum Audio Watermarking

Authors: Ali Akbar Attari, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a blind and robust audio watermarking scheme based on spread spectrum in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. Watermarks are embedded in the low-frequency coefficients, which is less audible. The key idea is dividing the audio signal into small frames, and magnitude of the 6th level of DWT approximation coefficients is modifying based upon the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) technique. Also, the psychoacoustic model for enhancing in imperceptibility, as well as Savitsky-Golay filter for increasing accuracy in extraction, is used. The experimental results illustrate high robustness against most common attacks, i.e. Gaussian noise addition, Low pass filter, Resampling, Requantizing, MP3 compression, without significant perceptual distortion (ODG is higher than -1). The proposed scheme has about 83 bps data payload.

Keywords: audio watermarking, spread spectrum, discrete wavelet transform, psychoacoustic, Savitsky-Golay filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
54 In Vitro Micropropagation of Rosa damascena Mill

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimzadeh, Sattar Malekian, Mohammad Ali Aazami, Mohammad Bagher Hassanpouraghdam

Abstract:

Roses are of main ornamental flowers worldwide. Rosa damascena Mill., besides being an ornamental plant, has major pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance applications. Traditional propagation methods of the plant are using suckers, cutting and grafting. In the present experiment, we used the different explants (leaf section, petioles and nodal cutting) for the optimization of this high-valued ornamental from a native clonal plant. Diverse explants were acquired from mature plants during the growing season and were planted on MS medium supplemented with different hormonal combinations. 70% alcohol and sodium hypochloride were utilized for the surface sterilization. For proliferation, BAP and BA (1-5 mg L-1) and NAA (1-2 mg L-1) were tested. The highest proliferation rate was afforded from MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L-1 BA and 5 mg L-1 BAP. Callogenesis from leaf samples and petioles was the best with 1/2 MS medium enriched with 1mg L-1 BAP and 4 mg L-1 2,4-D. Rooting was occurred with the highest frequency in a medium containing 0.1 mg L-1 IBA.

Keywords: Rosa damascene, micropropagation, petiole, IBA, BAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
53 Study of Dormancy-Breaking of Bitter Apple Seed (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Schard)

Authors: Asghar Rahimi, Majid Puryousef

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine dormancy-breaking of bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis) seed. Seeds of wild bitter apple collected from the Balochestan zone in east of Iran were subjected to different treatments including temperatures (20 and 30°C) and some dormancy breaking methods on breaking seed dormancy of bitter apple. Only 6 treatments from 12 dormancy breaking treatments were effective in dormancy breaking, therefore only effective treatments were analyzed. In general, germination percentage of cleaved seeds, soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and soaking in H2SO4 in both temperatures was higher than other treatments and germination percentage of scarified seeds with sandy paper in both temperature was lower than other treatments. Also germination percentage of soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and naturally cracked seeds in temperature 20°c was higher than 30°c.

Keywords: foliar application, nano chelate, nitrogen, Safflower

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
52 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon

Abstract:

Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

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51 Hybridization and Dynamic Performance Analysis of Three-Wheeler Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, A. I. Bhatti, T. Izhar

Abstract:

The three-wheeled auto-rickshaw with a two or four-stroke Gasoline, Liquid Petrolium Gas (LPG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine is a petite, highly maneuverable vehicle and best suited for the small and heavily-congested roads and is an affordable means of transportation in Pakistan cities. However due to in-efficient engine design, it is a main cause of air-pollution in the shape of white smoke (CO2) (greenhouse gases) at the tail pipe. Due to the environmental pollution, a huge number of battery powered vehicles have been imported from all over the world to fulfill the need of country. Effect of degree of hybridization on fuel economy and acceleration performance has been discussed in this paper. From mild to full hybridization stages have been examined. Optimal level of hybridization ranges depending on the total driving power of vehicle are suggested. The degree of hybridization is varied and fuel economy is seen accordingly by using Advisor (NREL) software. The novel vehicle drive-train is modeled and simulated in the Advisor software.

Keywords: advisor, hybridization, fuel economy, Three-Wheeled Rickshaw

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
50 Modulation of Lipopolysaccharide Induced Interleukin-17F and Cyclooxygenase-2 Gene Expression by Echinacea purpurea in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ali Asghar Saki, Sayed Ali Hosseini Siyar, Abbass Ashoori

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Echinacea purpurea on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-17F (IL-17F) in seven-day-old broiler chickens. Four groups were fed with concentration of 0 g/kg, 5 g/kg, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg from the root of E. purpurea in the basal diet and two other groups were only fed with the basal diet for 21 days. At the 28th day, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg diet) was injected in four groups and the basal diet group was injected by saline as control. The chickens’ spleen RNA expression was measured for the COX-2 and IL-17F genes by Real-Time PCR. The results have shown that chickens which were fed E. purpurea had a lower COX-2 and IL-17F mRNA expression. The chickens who have received LPS only, lymphocyte was lower than other treatments. Vital organ weights were not significantly different, but body weight loss was recovered by dietary herbs inclusion. The results of this study have shown the positive effect of an anti-inflammatory herb to prevent the undesirable effect of inflammation.

Keywords: broiler chickens, Echinacea purporea, gene expression, lipopolysaccharide

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
49 An Improved Modular Multilevel Converter Voltage Balancing Approach for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Safia Bashir, Zulfiqar Memon

Abstract:

During the last decade, renewable energy sources in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) has gained increased attention. Therefore, various PV converters topologies have emerged. Among this topology, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered as one of the most promising topologies for the grid-connected PV system due to its modularity and transformerless features. When it comes to the safe operation of MMC, the balancing of the Submodules Voltages (SMs) plays a critical role. This paper proposes a balancing approach based on space vector PWM (SVPWM). Unlike the existing techniques, this method generates the switching vectors for the MMC by using only one SVPWM for the upper arm. The lower arm switching vectors are obtained by finding the complement of the upper arm switching vectors. The use of one SVPWM not only simplifies the calculation but also helped in reducing the circulating current in the MMC. The proposed method is varied through simulation using Matlab/Simulink and compared with other available modulation methods. The results validate the ability of the suggested method in balancing the SMs capacitors voltages and reducing the circulating current which will help in reducing the power loss of the PV system.

Keywords: capacitor voltage balancing, circulating current, modular multilevel converter, PV system

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48 Simulation of a Pressure Driven Based Subsonic Steady Gaseous Flow inside a Micro Channel Using Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo Method

Authors: Asghar Ebrahimi, Elyas Lakzian

Abstract:

For the analysis of flow inside micro geometries, classical CFD methods can not accurately predict the behavior of flow. Alternatively, the gas flow through micro geometries can be investigated precisely using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In the present paper, a pressure boundary condition is utilized to simulate a gaseous flow inside a micro channel using the DSMC method. Accuracy of simulation is guaranteed by choosing proper cell dimension and number of particle per cell analysis. Also, results of simulation are compared with the results of reliable references. Good agreement with results certifies the correctness of new boundary condition implemented on the micro channel.

Keywords: pressure boundary condition, DSMC, micro channel, cell dimension, particle per cell

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47 Robust Fuzzy PID Stabilizer: Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

Authors: Oveis Abedinia, Noradin Ghadimi, Nasser Mikaeilvand, Roza Poursoleiman, Asghar Poorfaraj

Abstract:

In this paper a robust Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (PID) controller is applied to multi-machine power system based on Modified Shuffled Frog Leaping (MSFL) algorithm. This newly proposed controller is more efficient because it copes with oscillations and different operating points. In this strategy the gains of the PID controller is optimized using the proposed technique. The nonlinear problem is formulated as an optimization problem for wide ranges of operating conditions using the MSFL algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness, good robustness and validity of the proposed method through some performance indices such as ITAE and FD under wide ranges operating conditions in comparison with TS and GSA techniques. The single-machine infinite bus system and New England 10-unit 39-bus standard power system are employed to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: fuzzy PID, MSFL, multi-machine, low frequency oscillation

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