Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: amyloids

5 Functionalized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles for Targeting and Disrupting Amyloid Fibrils

Authors: Elad Arad, Raz Jelinek, Hanna Rapaport

Abstract:

Amyloidoses are a family of diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding that leads to aggregation. They accumulate to form fibrillar plaques which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer, prion, diabetes type II and other diseases. To the best of our knowledge, despite extensive research efforts devoted to plaque aggregates inhibition, there is yet no cure for this phenomenon. Titanium and its alloys are found in growing interest for biomedical applications. Variety of surface modifications enable porous, adhesive, bioactive coatings for its surface. Titanium oxides (titania) are also being developed for photothermal and photodynamic treatments. Inspired by this, we set to explore the effect of functionalized titania nanoparticles in combination with external stimuli, as potential photothermal ablating agents against amyloids. Titania nanoparticles were coated with bi-functional catechol derivatives (dihydroxy-phenylalanine propanoic acid, noted DPA) to gain targeting properties. In conjunction with UV-radiation, these nanoparticles may selectively destroy the vicinity of their target. Titania modified 5 nm nanoparticles coated with DPA were further conjugated to the amyloid-targeting Congo Red (CR). These Titania-DPA-CR nanoparticles were found to target mature amyloid fibril of both amyloid-β (Aβ 1-42 a.a). Moreover, irradiation of the peptides in presence of the modified nanoparticles decreased the aggregate content and oligomer fraction. This work provides insights into the use of modified titania nanoparticles for amyloid plaque targeting and photothermal destruction. It may shed light on future modifications and functionalization of titania nanoparticles for different applications.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, amyloids, photothermal treatment, catechol, Congo-red

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4 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat

Abstract:

Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

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3 Investigations of Protein Aggregation Using Sequence and Structure Based Features

Authors: M. Michael Gromiha, A. Mary Thangakani, Sandeep Kumar, D. Velmurugan

Abstract:

The main cause of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzhemier, Parkinson, and spongiform encephalopathies is formation of amyloid fibrils and plaques in proteins. We have analyzed different sets of proteins and peptides to understand the influence of sequence-based features on protein aggregation process. The comparison of 373 pairs of homologous mesophilic and thermophilic proteins showed that aggregation-prone regions (APRs) are present in both. But, the thermophilic protein monomers show greater ability to ‘stow away’ the APRs in their hydrophobic cores and protect them from solvent exposure. The comparison of amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating hexapeptides suggested distinct preferences for specific residues at the six positions as well as all possible combinations of nine residue pairs. The compositions of residues at different positions and residue pairs have been converted into energy potentials and utilized for distinguishing between amyloid forming and amorphous b-aggregating peptides. Our method could correctly identify the amyloid forming peptides at an accuracy of 95-100% in different datasets of peptides.

Keywords: aggregation, amyloids, thermophilic proteins, amino acid residues, machine learning techniques

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2 Hydration of Three-Piece K Peptide Fragments Studied by Means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Marcin Stasiulewicz, Sebastian Filipkowski, Aneta Panuszko

Abstract:

Background: The hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, is an aggregation of the abnormal forms of peptides and proteins. Water is essential to functioning biomolecules, and it is one of the key factors influencing protein folding and misfolding. However, the hydration studies of proteins are complicated due to the complexity of protein systems. The use of model compounds can facilitate the interpretation of results involving larger systems. Objectives: The goal of the research was to characterize the properties of the hydration water surrounding the two three-residue K peptide fragments INS (Isoleucine - Asparagine - Serine) and NSR (Asparagine - Serine - Arginine). Methods: Fourier-transform infrared spectra of aqueous solutions of the tripeptides were recorded on Nicolet 8700 spectrometer (Thermo Electron Co.) Measurements were carried out at 25°C for varying molality of solute. To remove oscillation couplings from water spectra and, consequently, obtain narrow O-D semi-heavy water bands (HDO), the isotopic dilution method of HDO in H₂O was used. The difference spectra method allowed us to isolate the tripeptide-affected HDO spectrum. Results: The structural and energetic properties of water affected by the tripeptides were compared to the properties of pure water. The shift of the values of the gravity center of bands (related to the mean energy of water hydrogen bonds) towards lower values with respect to the ones corresponding to pure water suggests that the energy of hydrogen bonds between water molecules surrounding tripeptides is higher than in pure water. A comparison of the values of the mean oxygen-oxygen distances in water affected by tripeptides and pure water indicates that water-water hydrogen bonds are shorter in the presence of these tripeptides. The analysis of differences in oxygen-oxygen distance distributions between the tripeptide-affected water and pure water indicates that around the tripeptides, the contribution of water molecules with the mean energy of hydrogen bonds decreases, and simultaneously the contribution of strong hydrogen bonds increases. Conclusions: It was found that hydrogen bonds between water molecules in the hydration sphere of tripeptides are shorter and stronger than in pure water. It means that in the presence of the tested tripeptides, the structure of water is strengthened compared to pure water. Moreover, it has been shown that in the vicinity of the Asparagine - Serine - Arginine, water forms stronger and shorter hydrogen bonds. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant 2017/26/D/NZ1/00497).

Keywords: amyloids, K-peptide, hydration, FTIR spectroscopy

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1 Pharmacophore-Based Modeling of a Series of Human Glutaminyl Cyclase Inhibitors to Identify Lead Molecules by Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

Authors: Ankur Chaudhuri, Sibani Sen Chakraborty

Abstract:

In human, glutaminyl cyclase activity is highly abundant in neuronal and secretory tissues and is preferentially restricted to hypothalamus and pituitary. The N-terminal modification of β-amyloids (Aβs) peptides by the generation of a pyro-glutamyl (pGlu) modified Aβs (pE-Aβs) is an important process in the initiation of the formation of neurotoxic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This process is catalyzed by glutaminyl cyclase (QC). The expression of QC is characteristically up-regulated in the early stage of AD, and the hallmark of the inhibition of QC is the prevention of the formation of pE-Aβs and plaques. A computer-aided drug design (CADD) process was employed to give an idea for the designing of potentially active compounds to understand the inhibitory potency against human glutaminyl cyclase (QC). This work elaborates the ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore exploration of glutaminyl cyclase (QC) by using the known inhibitors. Three dimensional (3D) quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods were applied to 154 compounds with known IC50 values. All the inhibitors were divided into two sets, training-set, and test-sets. Generally, training-set was used to build the quantitative pharmacophore model based on the principle of structural diversity, whereas the test-set was employed to evaluate the predictive ability of the pharmacophore hypotheses. A chemical feature-based pharmacophore model was generated from the known 92 training-set compounds by HypoGen module implemented in Discovery Studio 2017 R2 software package. The best hypothesis was selected (Hypo1) based upon the highest correlation coefficient (0.8906), lowest total cost (463.72), and the lowest root mean square deviation (2.24Å) values. The highest correlation coefficient value indicates greater predictive activity of the hypothesis, whereas the lower root mean square deviation signifies a small deviation of experimental activity from the predicted one. The best pharmacophore model (Hypo1) of the candidate inhibitors predicted comprised four features: two hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and one hydrophobic feature. The Hypo1 was validated by several parameters such as test set activity prediction, cost analysis, Fischer's randomization test, leave-one-out method, and heat map of ligand profiler. The predicted features were then used for virtual screening of potential compounds from NCI, ASINEX, Maybridge and Chembridge databases. More than seven million compounds were used for this purpose. The hit compounds were filtered by drug-likeness and pharmacokinetics properties. The selective hits were docked to the high-resolution three-dimensional structure of the target protein glutaminyl cyclase (PDB ID: 2AFU/2AFW) to filter these hits further. To validate the molecular docking results, the most active compound from the dataset was selected as a reference molecule. From the density functional theory (DFT) study, ten molecules were selected based on their highest HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbitals) energy and the lowest bandgap values. Molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvation systems of the final ten hit compounds revealed that a large number of non-covalent interactions were formed with the binding site of the human glutaminyl cyclase. It was suggested that the hit compounds reported in this study could help in future designing of potent inhibitors as leads against human glutaminyl cyclase.

Keywords: glutaminyl cyclase, hit lead, pharmacophore model, simulation

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