Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: morphometric

58 Effect of Genotype and Sex on Morphometric Traits of Turkey

Authors: I. O. Dudusola, I. Ogunjimi


This study was carried out to determine the effect of sex and genotype on morphometric traits of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in a turkey population. Linear body measurements were taken on 150 turkeys. 70 exotic turkeys which include both males (20) and Females (50) and 80 locally adapted turkeys which include males (30) and females (50). The study was conducted at the Turkey Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. The linear body measurements taken and recorded were the beak length, head length, neck length, body length, keel length, wingspan, wing length, drumstick, Shank length, toe length, tail length and body girth all taken in centimetres (cm). The recorded variables were analyzed with SAS (2008). Duncan multiple range test was used to detect differences among means. Variation was noted between male and female turkeys in favour of the male turkeys as an expression of sexual dimorphism for all studied traits. The male is found to be significantly higher (p <0.05) than the females for all the morphometric traits measured both for the local and exotic type. The exotic type is found to be significantly higher (p <0.05) than the local type for all the morphometric traits measured. The interaction is higher significantly (p <0.05) in the exotic genotype and in the male sex in relation with the morphometric trait especially in the beak length, neck length, body length, keel length, drumstick, shank length and the toe length.

Keywords: exotic type, linear measurement, local type, morphometric traits, Meleagris gallopavo

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57 Morphometric Relationships of Unfarmed Puntius sophore, Collected from Chenab River, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Alina Zafar


In this particular research, various morphometric characters such as total length (TL), wet weight (WW), standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL), head width (HW), body depth (BD), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), pelvic fin length (PelFL), pectoral fin length (PecFL), anal fin length (AFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), anal fin base (AFB), caudal fin length (CFL) and caudal fin width (CFW) of wild collected Puntius sophore were studied, to know the types of growth patterns and correlations in reference to length and weight, however, high significant relationships were recorded between total length and wet weight, as the correlation coefficient (r) possessed value of 0.989. The growth pattern was observed to be positively allometric as the value of ‘b’ was 3.22 (slightly higher than the ideal value, 3) with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 3.076 to 3.372. Wet weight and total length parameters showed high significant correlations (p < 0.001) with all other morphometric characters.

Keywords: Puntius sophore, length and weight relation, morphometrics, small indigenous species

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56 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks

Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia


An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.

Keywords: blood flow, morphometric data, vascular tree, Strahler ordering system

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55 Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Yelganga-Shivbhadra and Kohilla River Sub-Basins in Aurangabad District Maharashtra India

Authors: Chandrakant Gurav, Md Babar, Ajaykumar Asode


Morphometric analysis is the first stage of any basin analysis. By using these morphometric parameters we give indirect information about the nature and relations of stream with other streams, Geology of the area, groundwater condition and tectonic history of the basin. In the present study, Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla rivers, tributaries of the Godavari River in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra, India are considered to compare and study their morphometric characters. The linear, areal and relief morphometric aspects of the sub-basins have been assessed and evaluated in GIS environment. For this study, ArcGIS 10.1 software has been used for delineating, digitizing and generating different thematic maps. The Survey of India (SOI) toposheets maps and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) on resolution 30 m downloaded from United States Geological Survey (USGS) have been used for preparation of map and data generation. Geologically, the study area is covered by Central Deccan Volcanic Province (CDVP). It mainly consists of ‘aa’ type of basaltic lava flows of Late (upper) Cretaceous to Early (lower) Eocene age. The total geographical area of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla river sub-basins are 185.5 sq. km., 142.6 sq. km and 122.3 sq. km. respectively The stream ordering method as suggested by the Strahler has been employed for present study and found that all the sub-basins are of 5th order streams. The average bifurcation ratio value of the sub-basins is below 5, indicates that there appears to be no strong structural control on drainage development, homogeneous nature of lithology and drainage network is in well-developed stage of erosion. The drainage density of Yelganga, Shivbhadra and Kohilla Sub-basins is 1.79 km/km2, 1.48 km/km2 and 1.89 km/km2 respectively and stream frequency is 1.94 streams/km2, 1.19 streams/km2 and 1.68 streams/km2 respectively, indicating semi-permeable sub-surface. Based on textural ratio values it indicates that the sub-basins have coarse texture. Shape parameters such as form factor ratio, circularity ratio and elongation ratio values shows that all three sub- basins are elongated in shape.

Keywords: GIS, Kohilla, morphometry, Shivbhadra, Yelganga

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54 Comparison of Agree Method and Shortest Path Method for Determining the Flow Direction in Basin Morphometric Analysis: Case Study of Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Bhaumik Shah


Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is elevation data of the virtual grid on the ground. DEM can be used in application in GIS such as hydrological modelling, flood forecasting, morphometrical analysis and surveying etc.. For morphometrical analysis the stream flow network plays a very important role. DEM lacks accuracy and cannot match field data as it should for accurate results of morphometrical analysis. The present study focuses on comparing the Agree method and the conventional Shortest path method for finding out morphometric parameters in the flat region of the Lower Tapi Basin which is located in the western India. For the present study, open source SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission with 1 arc resolution) and toposheets issued by Survey of India (SOI) were used to determine the morphometric linear aspect such as stream order, number of stream, stream length, bifurcation ratio, mean stream length, mean bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, length of overland flow, constant of channel maintenance and aerial aspect such as drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, shape factor and relief aspect such as relief ratio, gradient ratio and basin relief for 53 catchments of Lower Tapi Basin. Stream network was digitized from the available toposheets. Agree DEM was created by using the SRTM and stream network from the toposheets. The results obtained were used to demonstrate a comparison between the two methods in the flat areas.

Keywords: agree method, morphometric analysis, lower Tapi basin, shortest path method

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53 Principal Component Analysis of Body Weight and Morphometric Traits of New Zealand Rabbits Raised under Semi-Arid Condition in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Abayomi Rotimi


Context: Rabbits production plays important role in increasing animal protein supply in Nigeria. Rabbit production provides a cheap, affordable, and healthy source of meat. The growth of animals involves an increase in body weight, which can change the conformation of various parts of the body. Live weight and linear measurements are indicators of growth rate in rabbits and other farm animals. Aims: This study aimed to define the body dimensions of New Zealand rabbits and also to investigate the morphometric traits variables that contribute to body conformation by the use of principal component analysis (PCA). Methods: Data were obtained from 80 New Zealand rabbits (40 bucks and 40 does) raised in Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsinma. Data were taken on body weight (BWT), body length (BL), ear length (EL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG) and abdominal circumference (AC). Data collected were subjected to multivariate analysis using SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Key results: The descriptive statistics showed that the mean BWT, BL, EL, TL, HG, and AC were 0.91kg, 27.34cm, 10.24cm, 8.35cm, 19.55cm and 21.30cm respectively. Sex showed significant (P<0.05) effect on all the variables examined, with higher values recorded for does. The phenotypic correlation coefficient values (r) between the morphometric traits were all positive and ranged from r = 0.406 (between EL and BL) to r = 0.909 (between AC and HG). HG is the most correlated with BWT (r = 0.786). The principal component analysis with variance maximizing orthogonal rotation was used to extract the components. Two principal components (PCs) from the factor analysis of morphometric traits explained about 80.42% of the total variance. PC1 accounted for 64.46% while PC2 accounted for 15.97% of the total variances. Three variables, representing body conformation, loaded highest in PC1. PC1 had the highest contribution (64.46%) to the total variance, and it is regarded as body conformation traits. Conclusions: This component could be used as selection criteria for improving body weight of rabbits.

Keywords: conformation, multicollinearity, multivariate, rabbits and principal component analysis

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52 Morphological Anatomical Study of the Axis Vertebra and Its Clinical Orientation

Authors: Mangala M. Pai, B. V. Murlimanju, Latha V. Prabhu, P. J. Jiji , Vandana Blossom


Background:To study the morphological parameters of the axis vertebra in anatomical specimens. Methods: The present study was designed to obtain the morphometric data of axis vertebra. The superior and inferior articular facets of the axis were macroscopically observed for their shapes and the different parameters were measured using the digital Vernier caliper. It included 20 dried axis bones, which were obtained from the anatomy laboratory. Results: The morphometric data obtained in the present study are represented in the tables. The side wise comparison of the length and width of the articular facets of the axis vertebra were done. The present study observed that, there is no statistically significant difference observed among the parameters of right and left side articular facets (p>0.05). The superior and inferior articular facets were observed to have variable shapes. The frequencies of different shapes of superior and inferior articular facets are represented in figures. All the shapes of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Among the superior articular facets, the constrictions were absent in 13 cases (65%), 2 (10%) exhibited a single constriction, 3 (15%) had 2 constrictions and 2 (10%) were having 3 constrictions. The constrictions were absent in 11 (55%) of the inferior articular facets, 3 (15%) of them had 1 constriction, 3 (15%) were having 2 constrictions, 2 (10%) exhibited 3 constrictions and 1 (5%) of them had 4 constrictions. The constrictions of the inferior and superior articular facets were symmetrical over the right and left sides. Conclusion: We believe that the present study has provided additional information on the morphometric data of the axis vertebra. The data are important to the neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and radiologists. The preoperative assessment of the axis vertebra may prevent dangerous complications like spinal cord and nerve root compression during the surgical intervention.

Keywords: axis, articular facet, morphology, morphometry

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51 Morphometric Relationships of Length-Weight and Length-Length of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size and Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Sumera Yasmin, Abir Ishtiaq


In the present study, eighty-three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aL^b), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P < 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: lenght-weight, Oreochromis aureus, morphometric study

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50 An Assessment of Pre-Weaning Performance of Red Sokoto Goat Kids Raised on Complete Diet of Different Energy Levels

Authors: Aliyu Suleiman, Gaddafi Sani, Muhammad Muhammad


This study was conducted at the Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsin-Ma to determine the pre-weaning performance of red Sokoto Goat kids raised on a complete diets containing different energy levels. Four experimental diets were formulated containing graded energy level 2400, 2200, 2000, 1800kcal ME/kg designated as treatment T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, in a completely randomized design (CRD). Result obtained indicated no significant (P>0.05) difference in terms of morphometric characteristics, milk consumed, though treatment T4 recorded the highest value. Conversely significant (P<0.05) were recorded in terms of average daily gain (ADG), with treatment T1 having the highest value followed by treatment T4. Similarly, result of the cost of feed formulated (N/kg) showed significant (P<0.05) that treatment T1 had the highest cost (₦ 49.14) followed by treatment D (₦ 42.46); while treatment T2 had the least cost (₦ 40.78).

Keywords: pre-weanign, morphometric test, red Sokoto kids, energy levels

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49 Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Ambardi and Mangari Watersheds of Kadvi and Kasari River Sub-Basins in Kolhapur District, Maharashtra, India: Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Chandrakant Gurav, Md. Babar


In the present study, an attempt is made to delineate the comparative morphometric analysis of Ambardi and Mangari watersheds of Kadvi and Kasari rivers sub-basins, Kolhapur District, Maharashtra India, using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. GIS is a computer assisted information method to store, analyze and display spatial data. Both the watersheds originate from Masai plateau of Jotiba- Panhala Hill range in Panhala Taluka of Kolhapur district. Ambardi watersheds cover 42.31 Sq. km. area and occur in northern hill slope, whereas Mangari watershed covers 54.63 Sq. km. area and occur on southern hill slope. Geologically, the entire study area is covered by Deccan Basaltic Province (DBP) of late Cretaceous to early Eocene age. Laterites belonging to late Pleistocene age also occur in the top of the hills. The objective of the present study is to carry out the morphometric parameters of watersheds, which occurs in differing slopes of the hill. Morphometric analysis of Ambardi watershed indicates it is of 4th order stream and Mangari watershed is of 5th order stream. Average bifurcation ratio of both watersheds is 5.4 and 4.0 showing that in both the watersheds streams flow from homogeneous nature of lithology and there is no structural controlled in development of the watersheds. Drainage density of Ambardi and Mangari watersheds is 3.45 km/km2 and 3.81 km/km2 respectively, and Stream Frequency is 4.51 streams/ km2 and 5.97 streams/ km2, it indicates that high drainage density and high stream frequency is governed by steep slope and low infiltration rate of the area for groundwater recharge. Textural ratio of both the watersheds is 6.6 km-1 and 9.6 km-1, which indicates that the drainage texture is fine to very fine. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratios of the Ambardi and Mangari watersheds shows that both the watersheds are elongated in shape. The basin relief of Ambardi watershed is 447 m, while Mangari is 456 m. Relief ratio of Ambardi is 0.0428 and Mangari is 0.040. The ruggedness number of Ambardi is 1.542 and Mangari watershed is 1.737. The ruggedness number of both the watersheds is high which indicates the relief and drainage density is high.

Keywords: Ambardi, Deccan basalt, GIS, morphometry, Mangari, watershed

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48 Morphometric Parameters and Evaluation of Persian Fallow Deer Semen in Dashenaz Refuge in Iran

Authors: Behrang Ekrami, Amin Tamadon


Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) is belonging to the family Cervidae and is only found in a few protected areas in the northwest, north, and southwest of Iran. The aims of this study were analysis of inbreeding and morphometric parameters of semen in male Persian fallow deer to investigate the cause of reduced fertility of this endangered species in Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge, Sari, Iran. The Persian fallow deer semen was collected from four adult bucks randomly during the breeding and non-breeding season from five dehorned and horned deer's BY an artificial vagina. Twelve blood samples was taken from Persian fallow deer and mitochondrial DNA was extracted, amplified, extracted, sequenced, and then were considered for genetic analysis. The Persian fallow deer semen, both with normal and abnormal spermatozoa, is similar to that of domestic ruminants but very smaller and difficult to observe at the primary observation. The post-mating season collected ejaculates contained abnormal spermatozoa, debris and secretion of accessory glands in horned bucks and accessory glands secretion free of any spermatozoa in dehorned or early velvet budding bucks. Microscopic evaluation in all four bucks during the mating season showed the mean concentration of 9×106 spermatozoa/ml. The mean ±SD of age, testes length and testes width was 4.60±1.52 years, 3.58±0.32 and 1.86±0.09 cm, respectively. The results identified 1120 loci (assuming each nucleotide as locus) in which 377 were polymorphic. In conclusion, reduced fertility of male Persian fallow deer may be caused by inbreeding of the protected herd in a limited area of Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge.

Keywords: Persian fallow deer, spermatozoa, reproductive characteristics, morphometric parameters

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47 Morphometric Study of Human Anterior and Posterior Meniscofemoral Ligaments of the Knee Joint on Thiel Embalmed Cadavers

Authors: Mohammad Alobaidy, David Nicoll, Tracey Wilkinson


Background: Many patients suffer postoperative knee stability after total knee arthroplasty (joint replacement) involving posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sacrificing or retaining, but is not clear whether the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) are retained during these procedures; their function in terms of knee stability is not well established in the literature. Purpose: Macroscopic, detailed, morphometric investigation of the anterior and posterior MFLs of the knee joint was undertaken to assist understanding of knee stability after total knee arthroplasty and ligament reconstruction. Methods: Dissection of eighty Thiel embalmed knees from 19 male and 21 female cadavers was conducted, mean age 77 (range 47-99 years). The origin and insertion of the anterior and posterior MFLs were measured using high accuracy, calibrated, digital Vernier calipers at 0.01mm. Results: The means were: anterior meniscofemoral ligament (aMFL) length 28.4 ± 2.7mm; posterior meniscofemoral ligament (pMFL) length 29 ± 3.7mm; aMFL femoral width 6.4 ± 1.7mm, mid-distance ligament width 4 ± 1.1mm, meniscal ligament width 3.9 ± 1.2mm; pMFL femoral width 5.6 ± 1.5mm, mid-distance ligament width 4.1 ± 1.1mm, meniscal ligament width 4.1 ± 1.3mm. Some of the male measurements were larger than female, with significant differences in the length of the aMFL femoral length p<0.01 and pMFL femoral length p<0.007, and width of the pMFL mid-distance p<0.04. Conclusion: This study may help explore the role of the meniscofemoral ligaments in knee stability after total knee arthroplasty with a posterior cruciate ligament retaining prosthesis. Anatomical information for Thiel embalmed knees may aid orthopaedic surgeons in ligament reconstruction.

Keywords: anterior and posterior meniscofemoral ligaments, morphometric analysis, Thiel embalmed knees, knee arthroplasty

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46 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Based on Morphmetric Parameters of the Populations of Labeo rohita

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Shakeela Parveen


Labeo rohita populations from five geographical locations from the hatchery and riverine system of Punjab-Pakistan were studied for the clustering on the basis of similarities and differences based on morphometric parameters within the species. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) was done by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) as Agglomeration method by XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02. A dendrogram with the data on the morphometrics of the representative samples of each site divided the populations of Labeo rohita in to five major clusters or classes. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 19.24% for within class variation, while 80.76% for the between class differences. The representative central objects of the each class, the distances between the class centroids and also the distance between the central objects of the classes were generated by the analysis. A measurable distinction between the classes of the populations of the Labeo rohita was indicated in this study which determined the impacts of changing environment and other possible factors influencing the variation level among the populations of the same species.

Keywords: AHC, Labeo rohita, hatchery, riverine, morphometric

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45 Calculation of Fractal Dimension and Its Relation to Some Morphometric Characteristics of Iranian Landforms

Authors: Mitra Saberi, Saeideh Fakhari, Amir Karam, Ali Ahmadabadi


Geomorphology is the scientific study of the characteristics of form and shape of the Earth's surface. The existence of types of landforms and their variation is mainly controlled by changes in the shape and position of land and topography. In fact, the interest and application of fractal issues in geomorphology is due to the fact that many geomorphic landforms have fractal structures and their formation and transformation can be explained by mathematical relations. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the fractal behavior of landforms of macro geomorphologic regions of Iran, as well as studying and analyzing topographic and landform characteristics based on fractal relationships. In this study, using the Iranian digital elevation model in the form of slopes, coefficients of deposition and alluvial fan, the fractal dimensions of the curves were calculated through the box counting method. The morphometric characteristics of the landforms and their fractal dimension were then calculated for 4criteria (height, slope, profile curvature and planimetric curvature) and indices (maximum, Average, standard deviation) using ArcMap software separately. After investigating their correlation with fractal dimension, two-way regression analysis was performed and the relationship between fractal dimension and morphometric characteristics of landforms was investigated. The results show that the fractal dimension in different pixels size of 30, 90 and 200m, topographic curves of different landform units of Iran including mountain, hill, plateau, plain of Iran, from1.06in alluvial fans to1.17in The mountains are different. Generally, for all pixels of different sizes, the fractal dimension is reduced from mountain to plain. The fractal dimension with the slope criterion and the standard deviation index has the highest correlation coefficient, with the curvature of the profile and the mean index has the lowest correlation coefficient, and as the pixels become larger, the correlation coefficient between the indices and the fractal dimension decreases.

Keywords: box counting method, fractal dimension, geomorphology, Iran, landform

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44 Protective Effect of Ginger Root Extract on Dioxin-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

Authors: Hamid Abdulroof Saleh


Background: Dioxins are one of the most widely distributed environmental pollutants. Dioxins consist of feedstock during the preparation of some industries, such as the paper industry as they can be produced in the atmosphere during the process of burning garbage and waste, especially medical waste. Dioxins can be found in the adipose tissues of animals in the food chain as well as in human breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic component of a large group of dioxins. Humans are exposed to TCDD through contaminated food items like meat, fish, milk products, eggs etc. Recently, natural formulations relating to reducing or eliminating TCDD toxicity have been in focus. Ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale R., family: Zingiberaceae), is used worldwide as a spice. Both antioxidative and androgenic activity of Z. officinale was reported in animal models. Researchers showed that ginger oil has dominative protective effect on DNA damage and might act as a scavenger of oxygen radical and might be used as an antioxidant. Aim of the work: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of TCDD on the structure and histoarchitecture of the testis and the protective role of co-administration of ginger root extract to prevent this toxicity. Materials & Methods: Male adult rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were assigned to four groups, eight rats in each; control group, dioxin treated group (given TCDD at the dose of 100 ng/kg Bwt/day by gavage), ginger treated group (given 50 mg/kg Bwt/day of ginger root extract by gavage), dioxin and ginger treated group (given TCDD at the dose of 100 ng/kg Bwt/day and 50 mg/kg Bwt/day of ginger root extract by gavages). After three weeks, rats were weighed and sacrificed where testis were removed and weighted. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining. Tissue sections were examined for different morphometric and histopathological changes. Results: Dioxin administration showed a harmful effects in the body, testis weight and other morphometric parameters of the testis. In addition, it produced varying degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules, which were shrunken and devoid of mature spermatids. The basement membrane was disorganized with vacuolization and loss of germinal cells. The co-administration of ginger root extract showed obvious improvement in the above changes and showed reversible morphometric and histopathological changes of the seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: Ginger root extract treatment in this study was successful in reversing all morphometric and histological changes of dioxin testicular damage. Therefore, it showed a protective effect on testis against dioxin toxicity.

Keywords: dioxin, ginger, rat, testis

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43 Prioritization of Sub-Watersheds in Semi Arid Region: A Case Study of Shevgaon and Pathardi Tahsils in Maharashtra

Authors: Dadasaheb R. Jawre, Maya G. Unde


Prioritization of sub-watershed plays important role in watershed management. It shows the requirement of watershed to give a treatment for the green growth of the region and conservation of the sub-watersheds. There is a number of factors like topography of the region, climatic characteristics like rainfall and runoff, land-use land-cover, social factors which are related to the development of watershed for agricultural uses and domestic purposes in the region. The present research is throwing a focus on how morphometric parameters in association with GIS analysis will help in identifying the ranking of the sub-watersheds for further development which help of suggested watershed structures. Shevgaon and Pathardi tahsils are drought prone tahsils of Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra. These tahsils come under the semi-arid region. Sub-watershed prioritization is necessary for proper planning and management of natural resources for sustainable development of the study area. Less rainfall and increasing population pressure on the land as well as water resources lead to scarcity of the water in the region. Hence, researcher has selected Shevgaon and Pathardi tahsils for sub-watershed prioritization. There are seven sub-watersheds which selected for the present research paper. In the morphological analysis linear aspects, aerial aspects and relief aspects are considered for the prioritization. The largest sub-watershed is Erdha which is located at Karanji in Pathardi tahsil having an area of 145.06 km2 and smallest sub-watershed is Erandgaon which is located in Shevgaon tahsil having an area of 40.143 km2. For all seven sub-watersheds, seven morphometric parameters were considered for calculating the compound parameter values. Finally, compound parameter values are grouped into three groups such as, high priority (below 4.0), moderate priority (4.0 to 5.0) and low priority (above 5.0) according to the compound value Erandgaon, Chapadgaon and Tarak sub-watersheds comes under high priority group, Erdha and Domeshwar sub-watersheds come under moderate priority group and Chandani and Kasichi sub-watershed come under low priority group. Both the tahsils falls in drought prone area, after getting the watershed structure overall development of the region will take place.

Keywords: sub-watersheds, GIS and remote sensing, morphometric analysis, compound parameter value, prioritization

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42 Osteometry of the Long Bones of Adult Chinkara (Gazella bennettii): A Remarkable Example of Sexual Dimorphism

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan


The objective of this study was 1) to measure osteometric parameters of the long bones of the adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data 2) to study sexual dimorphism in the adult Chinkara through osteometry and 3) to estimate body weight from the measurements of greatest length and shaft of the long bones. For this purpose, after taking body measurements of adult Chinkara after mortality, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age were buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Various osteometric parameters of the humerus, radius, metacarpus, femur, tibia and metatarsal were measured through the digital calliper. Statistically significant (P < 0.05), differences in some of the osteometrical parameters between male and female adult Chinkara were observed. Sexual dimorphism exit between the long bones of male and female adult Chinkara. In both male and female Chinkara value obtained for the estimated body weight from humeral, metacarpal and metatarsal measurements were near to the actual body weight of the adult Chinkara. In conclusion, the present study estimates preliminary data on long bones osteometrics and suggests that the morphometric details of the male and female adult Chinkara have differed morphometrically from each other.

Keywords: body mass measurements, Chinkara, long bones, morphometric, sexual dimorphism

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41 Ex Situ Conservation of Neutraceutical Banana-Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan

Authors: V. Krishna, Shashikumar


Edible Bananas (Musa spp.) are the major staple food for rural and urban consumers in India and an important source of rural income. The cultivar Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan is an endemic cultivar of Malnad region of Karnataka and used as a glomolueroprotective neutraceutical to solve kidney problems. The protocol for mass multiplication of plantlets for this indigenous banana cultivar Karibale Monthan has not yet been standardized so far. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop high frequency in vitro regeneration protocol and evaluation of morphoagronomic characteristics in the farmyard. The high frequency shoot initiation (93.33 %) was recorded at the synergetic effect of BAP (2 to 8mg/L), TDZ (0.1 to 1.2mg/L) and coconut water (0.1 to 1.2ml/L). It was optimized at the concentration 5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.5 ml/l coconut water with 15.90 ± 1.66 frequency of shoots per propagule. Supplementation of 1.0 mg/l IBA induces 5.33 ± 1.21 numbers of roots with a mean root length of 7.50 ± 1.87 roots. 99% of plantlets with distinct roots and shoots were successfully acclimatized in the green house and transferred to the field to evaluate the agro-morphological variations. The micropropagated plants showed significantly higher morphometric values for height of the plant (16.80±2.17), number of leaves (12.40±1.14), length of the bunch (56.20±2.17), weight of the bunch (13.60±1.14), number of hands in a bunch (11.40±1.14) and girth of the pseudostem (49.80±1.48) when compared with in vivo plants.

Keywords: banana cv. Karibale Monthan, neutraceutical, high-frequency regeneration, morphometric evaluation

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40 Study of Potato Cyst Nematodes (Globodera Rostochiensis, Globodera pallida) in Georgia

Authors: Ekatereine Abashidze, Nino Nazarashvili, Dali Gaganidze, Oleg Gorgadze, Mariam Aznarashvili, Eter Gvritishvili


Potato is one of the leading agricultural crops in Georgia. Georgia produces early and late potato varieties in almost all regions. Potato production is equal to 25,000 ha and its average yield is 20-25 t/ha. Among the plant pests that limit potato production and quality, the potato cyst nematodes (Globodera pallida (Stone) Behrens and Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenveber) Behrens) are harmful around the world. PCN is among the most difficult plant pests to control. Cysts protected by a durable wall can survive for over 30 years . Control of PCN (G. pallida and G. rostochiensis) is regulated by Council Directive 2007/33/EE C. There was no legislative regulation of these pests in Georgia before 2016. By Resolution #302 from July 1, 2016, developed within the action plan of the DCFTA (Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area) the Government of Georgia established control over potato cyst nematodes. The Agreement about the legal acts approximation to EU legislation concerns the approval of rules of PCN control and research of these pests. Taking into consideration the above mentioned, it is necessary to study PCN (G. pallida and G. rostochiensis) in the potato-growing areas of Georgia. The aim of this research is to conduct survey of potato cyst nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida) in two geographically distinct regions of Georgia - Samtskhe - Javakheti and Svanetii and to identify the species G. Rostochiensis and G. Pallida by the morphological - morphometric and molecular methods. Soil samples were taken in each village, in a zig-zag pattern on the potato fields of the private sector, using the Metlitsky method. Samples were taken also from infested potato plant roots. To extract nematode cysts from soil samples Fanwick can be used according to standard methods by EPPO. Cysts were measured under a stereoscopic microscope (Leica M50). Identification of the nematod species was carried out according to morphological and morphometric characteristics of the cysts and larvae using appropriate protocols EPPO. For molecular identification, a multiplex PCR test was performed by the universal ITS5 and cyst nematodes’ (G. pallida, G. rostochiensis) specific primers. To identify the species of potato cyst nematodes (PCN) in two regions (Samtskhe-Javakheti and Svaneti) were taken 200 samples, among them: 80 samples in Samtskhe-Javakheti region and 120 in Svaneti region. Cysts of Globiodera spp. were revealed in 50 samples obtained from Samtskhe-Javakheti and 80 samples from Svaneti regions. Morphological, morphometric and molecular analysis of two forms of PCN found in investigated regions of Georgia shows that one form of PCN belongs to G. rostoshiensi; the second form is the different species of Globodera sp.t is the subject of future research. Despite the different geographic locations, larvae and cysts of G. rostoshiensi were found in both regions. But cysts and larvae of G. pallida were not reported. Acknowledgement: The research has been supported by the Shota Rustaveli National Scientific Foundation of Georgia: Project # FR17_235.

Keywords: cyst nematode, globodera rostochiensis, globodera pallida, morphologic-morphometric measurement

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39 Erosion Susceptibility Zoning and Prioritization of Micro-Watersheds: A Remote Sensing-Gis Based Study of Asan River Basin, Western Doon Valley, India

Authors: Pijush Roy, Vinay Kumar Rai


The present study highlights the estimation of soil loss and identification of critical area for implementation of best management practice is central to the success of soil conservation programme. The quantification of morphometric and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors using remote sensing and GIS for prioritization of micro-watersheds in Asan River catchment, western Doon valley at foothills of Siwalik ranges in the Dehradun districts of Uttarakhand, India. The watershed has classified as a dendritic pattern with sixth order stream. The area is classified into very high, high, moderately high, medium and low susceptibility zones. High to very high erosion zone exists in the urban area and agricultural land. Average annual soil loss of 64 tons/ha/year has been estimated for the watershed. The optimum management practices proposed for micro-watersheds of Asan River basin are; afforestation, contour bunding suitable sites for water harvesting structure as check dam and soil conservation, agronomical measure and bench terrace.

Keywords: erosion susceptibility zones, morphometric characteristics, prioritization, remote sensing and GIS, universal soil loss equation

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38 Polymorphisms of Calpastatin Gene and Its Association with Growth Traits in Indonesian Thin Tail Sheep

Authors: Muhammad Ihsan Andi Dagong, Cece Sumantri, Ronny Rachman Noor, Rachmat Herman, Mohamad Yamin


Calpastatin involved in various physiological processes in the body such as the protein turnover, growth, fusion and mioblast migration. Thus, allegedly Calpastatin gene diversity (CAST) have an association with growth and potential use as candidate genes for growth trait. This study aims to identify the association between the genetic diversity of CAST gene with some growth properties such as body dimention (morphometric), body weight and daily weight gain in sheep. A total of 157 heads of Thin Tail Sheep (TTS) reared intensively for fattening purposes in the uniform environmental conditions. Overall sheep used were male, and maintained for 3 months. The parameters of growth properties were measured among others: body weight gain (ADG) (g/head / day), body weight (kg), body length (cm), chest circumference (cm), height (cm). All the sheep were genotyped by using PCR-SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) methods. CAST gene in locus fragment intron 5 - exon 6 were amplified with a predicted length of about 254 bp PCR products. Then the sheep were stratified based on their CAST genotypes. The result of this research showed that no association were found between the CAST gene variations with morphometric body weight, but there was a significant association with daily body weight gain (ADG) in sheep observed. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes has higher average daily gain than other genotypes. CAST-23 and CAST-33 genotypes that carrying the CAST-2 and CAST-3 alleles potential to be used in the selection of the nature of the growth trait of the TTS sheep.

Keywords: body weight, calpastatin, genotype, growth trait, thin tail sheep

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37 Subthalamic Nucleus in Adult Human Cadaveric Brain: A Morphometric Study

Authors: Mangala Kohli, P. A. Athira, Reeha Mahajan


The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a biconvex nucleus situated in the diencephalon. The knowledge of the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus is essential for accurate targeting of the nucleus during Deep Brain Stimulation. The present study aims to note the morphometry of the subthalamic nucleus in both the cerebral hemispheres which will prove to be of great value to radiologists and neurosurgeons. A cross‐sectional observational study was conducted in the Departments of Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Hospitals, New Delhi on thirty adult cadaveric brain specimens of unclaimed and donated corpses. The specimens were categorized into 3 age groups: 20-35, 35-50 and above 50 years. All samples were collected after following the standard protocol for ethical clearance. The morphometric study of 60 subthalamic nucleus was thus conducted. Transverse section of the brain was made at a plane 4mm ventral to the plane containing mid commissural point. The dimensions of the subthalamic nucleus were measured bilaterally with the aid of digital Vernier caliper and magnifying glass. In the present study, the mean length and width and AC-PC length of the subthalamic nucleus was recorded on the right and left side in Group A, B and C. On comparison of mean of subthalamic nucleus dimensions between the right and left side in Group C, no statistically significant difference was observed. The length and width of subthalamic nucleus measured in the 3 age groups were compared with each other and the p value calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the dimensions of Group A and B, Group B and C as well as Group A and C. The present study reveals that there is no significant reduction in the size of the nucleus was noted with increasing age. Thus, the values obtained in the present study can be used as a reference for various invasive and non-invasive procedures on subthalamic nucleus.

Keywords: cerebral hemisphere, deep brain stimulation, morphometry, subthalamic nucleus

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36 Morphometric Parametersand Evaluation of Male Persian Fallow Deer Semen

Authors: Behrang Ekrami, Amin Tamadon, Iman Razeghian Jahromi, Darioush Moghadas, Mehdi Ghahremani-Seno, Mostafa Ghaderi-Zefrehei, Ahmad Sodagar Amiri, Taheri Reza


Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) is belonging to the family Cervidae and is only found in a few protected areas in the northwest, north, and southwest of Iran. The aims of this study were analysis of inbreeding and morphometric parameters of semen in male Persian fallow deer to investigate the cause of reduced fertility of this endangered species in Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge, Sari, Iran. The Persian fallow deer semen was collected from four adult bucks randomly during the breeding and non-breeding season from five dehorned and horned deer's by an artificial vagina. Twelve blood samples was taken from Persian fallow deer and mitochondrial DNA was extracted, amplified, extracted, sequenced and then were considered for genetic analysis. The Persian fallow deer semen, both with normal and abnormal spermatozoa, is similar to that of domestic ruminants but very smaller and difficult to observe at the primary observation. The post-mating season collected ejaculates contained abnormal spermatozoa, debris and secretion of accessory glands in horned bucks and accessory glands secretion free of any spermatozoa in dehorned or early velvet budding bucks. Microscopic evaluation in all four bucks during the mating season showed the mean concentration of 9×106 spermatozoa/ml. The mean ± SD of age, testes length and testes width was 4.60 ± 1.52 years, 3.58 ± 0.32 and 1.86 ± 0.09 cm, respectively. The results identified 1120 loci (assuming each nucleotide as locus) in which 377 were polymorphic. In conclusion, reduced fertility of male Persian fallow deer may be caused by inbreeding of the protected herd in a limited area of Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge.

Keywords: Persian fallow deer, genetic analysis, spermatozoa, reproductive characteristics

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35 Cryptic Diversity: Identifying Two Morphologically Similar Species of Invasive Apple Snails in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Suganiya Rama Rao, Yoon-Yen Yow, Thor-Seng Liew, Shyamala Ratnayeke


Invasive snails in the genus Pomacea have spread across Southeast Asia including Peninsular Malaysia. Apart from significant economic costs to wetland crops, very little is known about the snails’ effects on native species, and wetland function through their alteration of macrophyte communities. This study was conducted to establish diagnostic characteristics of Pomacea species in the Malaysian environment using genetic and morphological criteria. Snails were collected from eight localities in northern and central regions of Peninsular Malaysia. The mitochondrial COI gene of 52 adult snails was amplified and sequenced. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to analyse species identity and assess phylogenetic relationships among snails from different geographic locations. Shells of the two species were compared using geometric morphometric analysis and covariance analyses. Shell height accounted for most of the observed variation between P. canaliculata and P. maculata, with the latter possessing a smaller mean ratio of shell height: aperture height (p < 0.0001) and shell height to shell width (give p < 0.0001). Genomic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the presence of two monophyletic taxa, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in Peninsular Malaysia samples. P. maculata co-occurred with P. canaliculata in 5 localities, but samples from 3 localities contained only P. canaliculata. This study is the first to confirm the presence of two of the most invasive species of Pomacea in Peninsular Malaysia using a genomic approach. P. canaliculata appears to be the more widespread species. Despite statistical differences, both quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics demonstrate much interspecific overlap and intraspecific variability; thus morphology alone cannot reliably verify species identity. Molecular techniques for distinguishing between these two highly invasive Pomacea species are needed to understand their specific ecological niches and develop effective protocols for their management.

Keywords: Pomacea canaliculata, Pomacea maculata, invasive species, phylog enetic analysis, geometric morphometric analysis

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34 Chronological Skin System Aging: Improvements in Reversing Markers with Different Routes of Green Tea Extract Administration

Authors: Aliaa Mahmoud Issa


Green tea may provide an alternative treatment for many skin system disorders. Intrinsic or chronological aging represents the structural, functional, and metabolic changes in the skin, which depend on the passage of time per se. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of green tea extract administration, in drinking water or topically, on the chronological changes of the old Swiss albino mice skin. A total number of forty Swiss albino female mice (Mus musculus) were used; thirty were old females, 50-52 weeks old and the remaining ten young females were about 10 weeks old. The skin of the back of all the studied mice was dehaired with a topical depilatory cream. Treatment with green tea extract was applied in two different ways: in the drinking water (0.5mg/ml/day) or topically, applied to the skin of the dorsal side (6mg/ml water). They were divided into four main groups each of 10 animals: Group I: young untreated, Group II: old untreated groups, Group III: tea-drinking (TD) group, and Group IV: topical tea (TT) group. The animals were euthanized after 3 and 6 weeks from the beginning of green tea extract treatment. The skin was subject to morphometric (epidermal, dermal, and stratum corneum thicknesses; collagen and elastin content) studies. The skin ultrastructure of the groups treated for 6 weeks with the green tea extract was also examined. The old mouse skin was compared to the young one to investigate the chronological changes of the tissue. The results revealed that the skin of mice treated with green tea extract, either topically or to less extent in drinking water, showed a reduction in the aging features manifested by a numerical but statistically insignificant improvement in the morphometric measurements. A remarkable amelioration in the ultrastructure of the old skin was also observed. Generally, green tea extract in the drinking water revealed inconsistent results. The topical application of green tea extract to the skin revealed that the epidermal, dermal and stratum corneum thicknesses and the elastin content, that were statistically significant, approach those of the young group. The ultrastructural study revealed the same observations. The disjunction of the lower epidermal keratinocytes was reduced. It could be concluded that the topical application of green tea extract to the skin of old mice showed improvement in reversing markers of skin system aging more than using the extract in the drinking water.

Keywords: aging, green tea extract, morphometry, skin, ultrastructure

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33 Stereological and Morphometric Evaluation of Wound Healing Burns Treated with Ulmo Honey (Eucryphia cordifolia) Unsupplemented and Supplemented with Ascorbic Acid in Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

Authors: Carolina Schencke, Cristian Sandoval, Belgica Vasquez, Mariano Del Sol


Introduction: In a burn injury, the successful repair requires not only the participation of various cells, such as granulocytes and fibroblasts, but also of collagen, which plays a crucial role as a structural and regulatory molecule of scar tissue. Since honey and ascorbic acid have presented a great therapeutic potential to cellular and structural level, experimental studies have proposed its combination in the treatment of wounds. Aim: To evaluate stereological and morphometric parameters of healing wounds, caused by burns, treated with honey Ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia) unsupplemented, comparing its effect with Ulmo honey supplemented with ascorbic acid. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used, of both sexes, average weight 450 g from the Centro de Excelencia en Estudios Morfológicos y Quirúrgicos (CEMyQ) at the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The animals were divided at random into three groups: positive control (C+), honey only (H) and supplemented honey (SH) and were fed on pellets supplemented with ascorbic acid and water ad libitum, under ambient conditions controlled for temperature, ambient noise and a cycle of 12h light–darkness. The protocol for the experiment was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Universidad de La Frontera, Chile. The parameters measured were number density per area (NA), volume density (VV), and surface density (SV) of fibroblast; NA and VV of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and, evaluation of the content of collagen fibers in the scar dermis. One-way ANOVA was used for statistics analysis and its respective Post hoc tests. Results: The ANOVA analysis for NA, VV and SV of fibroblasts, NA and VV of PMN, and evaluation of collagen content, type I and III, showed that at least one group differs from other (P≤ 0.001). There were differences (P= 0.000) in NA of fibroblast between the groups [C+= 3599.560 mm-2 (SD= 764.461), H= 3355.336 mm-2 (SD= 699.443) and SH= 4253.025 mm-2 (SD= 1041.751)]. The VV and SV of fibroblast increased (P= 0.000) in the SH group [20.400% (SD= 5.897) and 100.876 mm2/mm3 (SD= 29.431), respectively], compared to the C+ [16.324% (SD= 7.719) and 81.676 mm2/mm3 (SD= 28.884), respectively). The mean values of NA and VV of PMN were higher (P= 0.000) in the H [756.875 mm-2 (SD= 516.489) and 2.686% (SD= 2.380), respectively) group. Regarding to the evaluation of the content of collagen fibers, type I and III, the one-way analysis of ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05). The content of collagen fibers type I was higher in C+ (1988.292 μm2; SD= 1312.379), while the content of collagen fibers type III was higher in SH (1967.163 μm2; SD= 1047.944 μm2) group. Conclusions: The stereological results were correlated with the stage of healing observed for each group. These results suggest that the combination of honey with ascorbic acid potentiate the healing effect, where both participated synergistically.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, morphometry, stereology, Ulmo honey

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32 Channel Characteristics and Morphometry of a Part of Umtrew River, Meghalaya

Authors: Pratyashi Phukan, Ranjan Saikia


Morphometry incorporates quantitative study of the area ,altitude,volume, slope profiles of a land and drainage basin characteristics of the area concerned.Fluvial geomorphology includes the consideration of linear,areal and relief aspects of a fluvially originated drainage basin. The linear aspect deals with the hierarchical orders of streams, numbers, and lenghts of stream segments and various relationship among them.The areal aspect includes the analysis of basin perimeters,basin shape, basin area, and related morphometric laws. The relief aspect incorporates besides hypsometric, climographic and altimetric analysis,the study of absolute and relative reliefs, relief ratios, average slope, etc. In this paper we have analysed the relationship among stream velocity, channel shape,sediment load,channel width,channel depth, etc.

Keywords: morphometry, hydraulic geometry, Umtrew river, Meghalaya

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31 Allocating Channels and Flow Estimation at Flood Prone Area in Desert, Example from AlKharj City, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Farhan Aljuaidi


The rapid expansion of Alkarj city, Saudi Arabia, towards the outlet of Wadi AlAin is critical for the planners and decision makers. Nowadays, two major projects such as Salman bin Abdulaziz University compound and new industrial area are developed in this flood prone area where no channels are clear and identified. The main contribution of this study is to divert the flow away from these vital projects by reconstructing new channels. To do so, Lidar data were used to generate contour lines for the actual elevation of the highways and local roads. These data were analyzed and compared to the contour lines derived from the topographical maps 1:50.000. The magnitude of the expected flow was estimated using Snyder's Model based on the morphometric data acquired by DEM of the catchment area. The results indicate that maximum discharge peak reaches 2694,3 m3/sec, the mean is 303,7 m3/sec and the minimum is 74,3 m3/sec. The runoff was estimated at 252,2. 610 m3/s, the mean is 41,5. 610 m3/s and the minimum is 12,4. 610 m3/s.

Keywords: Desert flood, Saudi Arabia, Snyder's Model, flow estimation

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30 An AFM Approach of RBC Micro and Nanoscale Topographic Features During Storage

Authors: K. Santacruz-Gomez, E. Silva-Campa, S. Álvarez-García, V. Mata-Haro, D. Soto-Puebla, M. Pedroza-Montero


Blood gamma irradiation is the only available method to prevent transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD). However, when blood is irradiated, determine blood shelf time is crucial. Non-irradiated blood has a self-time from 21 to 35 days when is preserved with an anticoagulated solution and stored at 4°C. During their storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo a series of biochemical, biomechanical and molecular changes involving what is known as storage lesion (SL). SL include loss of structural integrity of RBC, a decrease of 2,3-diphosphatidylglyceric acid levels, and an increase of both ion potassium concentration and hemoglobin (Hb). On the other hand, Atomic force Microscopy (AFM) represents a versatile tool for a nano-scale high-resolution topographic analysis in biological systems. In order to evaluate SL in irradiated and non-irradiated blood, RBC topography and morphometric parameters were obtained from an AFM XE-BIO system. Cell viability was followed using flow cytometry. Our results showed that early markers as nanoscale roughness, allow us to evaluate blood quality since another perspective.

Keywords: AFM, blood γ-irradiation, roughness, storage lesion

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29 Analysis of Persian Fallow Deer Semen Parameters in Breeding and Non-Breeding Seasons

Authors: Hamid Ghasemzadeh-Nava, Behrang Ekrami


Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) is belonging to the family Cervidae and is only found in a few protected areas in the northwest, north, and southwest of Iran. The aims of this study were the analysis of inbreeding and morphometric parameters of semen in male Persian fallow deer to investigate the cause of reduced fertility of this endangered species in Dasht-e-Naz National Refuge, Sari, Iran. The Persian fallow deer semen was collected from four adult bucks randomly during the breeding and non-breeding season from five dehorned and horned deer's by using a ram electroejaculator. The post-mating season collected ejaculates contained abnormal spermatozoa, debris and secretion of accessory glands in horned bucks and accessory glands secretion free of any spermatozoa in dehorned or early velvet budding bucks. Many dag defect abnormalities observed in all samples may be the cause of high rate of polymorphism because of small primary herd size of Persian fallow deer in this area, so needs be evaluated genetically.

Keywords: electroejaculator, Persian fallow deer, reproductive characteristics, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 284