Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 99

Search results for: histogram

99 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
98 3D Receiver Operator Characteristic Histogram

Authors: Xiaoli Zhang, Xiongfei Li, Yuncong Feng


ROC curves, as a widely used evaluating tool in machine learning field, are the tradeoff of true positive rate and negative rate. However, they are blamed for ignoring some vital information in the evaluation process, such as the amount of information about the target that each instance carries, predicted score given by each classification model to each instance. Hence, in this paper, a new classification performance method is proposed by extending the Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to 3D space, which is denoted as 3D ROC Histogram. In the histogram, the

Keywords: classification, performance evaluation, receiver operating characteristic histogram, hardness prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
97 Global Based Histogram for 3D Object Recognition

Authors: Somar Boubou, Tatsuo Narikiyo, Michihiro Kawanishi


In this work, we address the problem of 3D object recognition with depth sensors such as Kinect or Structure sensor. Compared with traditional approaches based on local descriptors, which depends on local information around the object key points, we propose a global features based descriptor. Proposed descriptor, which we name as Differential Histogram of Normal Vectors (DHONV), is designed particularly to capture the surface geometric characteristics of the 3D objects represented by depth images. We describe the 3D surface of an object in each frame using a 2D spatial histogram capturing the normalized distribution of differential angles of the surface normal vectors. The object recognition experiments on the benchmark RGB-D object dataset and a self-collected dataset show that our proposed descriptor outperforms two others descriptors based on spin-images and histogram of normal vectors with linear-SVM classifier.

Keywords: vision in control, robotics, histogram, differential histogram of normal vectors

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
96 Content-Based Color Image Retrieval Based on the 2-D Histogram and Statistical Moments

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


In this paper, we are interested in the problem of finding similar images in a large database. For this purpose we propose a new algorithm based on a combination of the 2-D histogram intersection in the HSV space and statistical moments. The proposed histogram is based on a 3x3 window and not only on the intensity of the pixel. This approach can overcome the drawback of the conventional 1-D histogram which is ignoring the spatial distribution of pixels in the image, while the statistical moments are used to escape the effects of the discretisation of the color space which is intrinsic to the use of histograms. We compare the performance of our new algorithm to various methods of the state of the art and we show that it has several advantages. It is fast, consumes little memory and requires no learning. To validate our results, we apply this algorithm to search for similar images in different image databases.

Keywords: 2-D histogram, statistical moments, indexing, similarity distance, histograms intersection

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
95 Enhanced Thai Character Recognition with Histogram Projection Feature Extraction

Authors: Benjawan Rangsikamol, Chutimet Srinilta


This research paper deals with extraction of Thai character features using the proposed histogram projection so as to improve the recognition performance. The process starts with transformation of image files into binary files before thinning. After character thinning, the skeletons are entered into the proposed extraction using histogram projection (horizontal and vertical) to extract unique features which are inputs of the subsequent recognition step. The recognition rate with the proposed extraction technique is as high as 97 percent since the technique works very well with the idiosyncrasies of Thai characters.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, multilayer perceptron, Thai character features extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
94 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh


Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: digital watermarking, visual cryptography, histogram, butter worth filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
93 Selecting the Best Sub-Region Indexing the Images in the Case of Weak Segmentation Based on Local Color Histograms

Authors: Mawloud Mosbah, Bachir Boucheham


Color Histogram is considered as the oldest method used by CBIR systems for indexing images. In turn, the global histograms do not include the spatial information; this is why the other techniques coming later have attempted to encounter this limitation by involving the segmentation task as a preprocessing step. The weak segmentation is employed by the local histograms while other methods as CCV (Color Coherent Vector) are based on strong segmentation. The indexation based on local histograms consists of splitting the image into N overlapping blocks or sub-regions, and then the histogram of each block is computed. The dissimilarity between two images is reduced, as consequence, to compute the distance between the N local histograms of the both images resulting then in N*N values; generally, the lowest value is taken into account to rank images, that means that the lowest value is that which helps to designate which sub-region utilized to index images of the collection being asked. In this paper, we make under light the local histogram indexation method in the hope to compare the results obtained against those given by the global histogram. We address also another noteworthy issue when Relying on local histograms namely which value, among N*N values, to trust on when comparing images, in other words, which sub-region among the N*N sub-regions on which we base to index images. Based on the results achieved here, it seems that relying on the local histograms, which needs to pose an extra overhead on the system by involving another preprocessing step naming segmentation, does not necessary mean that it produces better results. In addition to that, we have proposed here some ideas to select the local histogram on which we rely on to encode the image rather than relying on the local histogram having lowest distance with the query histograms.

Keywords: CBIR, color global histogram, color local histogram, weak segmentation, Euclidean distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
92 Moving Object Detection Using Histogram of Uniformly Oriented Gradient

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Yu-Siang Su, Pau-Choo Chung, Jar-Ferr Yang


Moving object detection (MOD) is an important issue in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). There are two important moving objects, pedestrians and scooters in ADAS. In real-world systems, there exist two important challenges for MOD, including the computational complexity and the detection accuracy. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features can easily detect the edge of object without invariance to changes in illumination and shadowing. However, to reduce the execution time for real-time systems, the image size should be down sampled which would lead the outlier influence to increase. For this reason, we propose the histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient (HUG) features to get better accurate description of the contour of human body. In the testing phase, the support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel function is involved. Experimental results show the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method. With SVM classifiers, the real testing results show the proposed HUG features achieve better than classification performance than the HOG ones.

Keywords: moving object detection, histogram of oriented gradient, histogram of uniformly-oriented gradient, linear support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
91 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, M. Akbar, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud


The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Shannon entropy, medical image processing, image segmentation, modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
90 Dissimilarity Measure for General Histogram Data and Its Application to Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: K. Umbleja, M. Ichino


Symbolic data mining has been developed to analyze data in very large datasets. It is also useful in cases when entry specific details should remain hidden. Symbolic data mining is quickly gaining popularity as datasets in need of analyzing are becoming ever larger. One type of such symbolic data is a histogram, which enables to save huge amounts of information into a single variable with high-level of granularity. Other types of symbolic data can also be described in histograms, therefore making histogram a very important and general symbolic data type - a method developed for histograms - can also be applied to other types of symbolic data. Due to its complex structure, analyzing histograms is complicated. This paper proposes a method, which allows to compare two histogram-valued variables and therefore find a dissimilarity between two histograms. Proposed method uses the Ichino-Yaguchi dissimilarity measure for mixed feature-type data analysis as a base and develops a dissimilarity measure specifically for histogram data, which allows to compare histograms with different number of bins and bin widths (so called general histogram). Proposed dissimilarity measure is then used as a measure for clustering. Furthermore, linkage method based on weighted averages is proposed with the concept of cluster compactness to measure the quality of clustering. The method is then validated with application on real datasets. As a result, the proposed dissimilarity measure is found producing adequate and comparable results with general histograms without the loss of detail or need to transform the data.

Keywords: dissimilarity measure, hierarchical clustering, histograms, symbolic data analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
89 An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains

Authors: Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Feifei Lee, Tadahiro Ohmi


In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.

Keywords: binary vector quantization (BVQ), DCT coefficients, face recognition, local binary patterns (LBP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
88 Surveillance Video Summarization Based on Histogram Differencing and Sum Conditional Variance

Authors: Nada Jasim Habeeb, Rana Saad Mohammed, Muntaha Khudair Abbass


For more efficient and fast video summarization, this paper presents a surveillance video summarization method. The presented method works to improve video summarization technique. This method depends on temporal differencing to extract most important data from large video stream. This method uses histogram differencing and Sum Conditional Variance which is robust against to illumination variations in order to extract motion objects. The experimental results showed that the presented method gives better output compared with temporal differencing based summarization techniques.

Keywords: temporal differencing, video summarization, histogram differencing, sum conditional variance

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
87 Simulation Data Summarization Based on Spatial Histograms

Authors: Jing Zhao, Yoshiharu Ishikawa, Chuan Xiao, Kento Sugiura


In order to analyze large-scale scientific data, research on data exploration and visualization has gained popularity. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and visualization of scientific simulation data, and define a spatial V-Optimal histogram for data summarization. We propose histogram construction algorithms based on a general binary hierarchical partitioning as well as a more specific one, the l-grid partitioning. For effective data summarization and efficient data visualization in scientific data analysis, we propose an optimal algorithm as well as a heuristic algorithm for histogram construction. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments on the massive evacuation simulation data.

Keywords: simulation data, data summarization, spatial histograms, exploration, visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
86 An Improvement of Multi-Label Image Classification Method Based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient

Authors: Ziad Abdallah, Mohamad Oueidat, Ali El-Zaart


Image Multi-label Classification (IMC) assigns a label or a set of labels to an image. The big demand for image annotation and archiving in the web attracts the researchers to develop many algorithms for this application domain. The existing techniques for IMC have two drawbacks: The description of the elementary characteristics from the image and the correlation between labels are not taken into account. In this paper, we present an algorithm (MIML-HOGLPP), which simultaneously handles these limitations. The algorithm uses the histogram of gradients as feature descriptor. It applies the Label Priority Power-set as multi-label transformation to solve the problem of label correlation. The experiment shows that the results of MIML-HOGLPP are better in terms of some of the evaluation metrics comparing with the two existing techniques.

Keywords: data mining, information retrieval system, multi-label, problem transformation, histogram of gradients

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85 Analysis of Histogram Asymmetry for Waste Recognition

Authors: Janusz Bobulski, Kamila Pasternak


Despite many years of effort and research, the problem of waste management is still current. So far, no fully effective waste management system has been developed. Many programs and projects improve statistics on the percentage of waste recycled every year. In these efforts, it is worth using modern Computer Vision techniques supported by artificial intelligence. In the article, we present a method of identifying plastic waste based on the asymmetry analysis of the histogram of the image containing the waste. The method is simple but effective (94%), which allows it to be implemented on devices with low computing power, in particular on microcomputers. Such de-vices will be used both at home and in waste sorting plants.

Keywords: waste management, environmental protection, image processing, computer vision

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
84 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi


Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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83 Content-Based Image Retrieval Using HSV Color Space Features

Authors: Hamed Qazanfari, Hamid Hassanpour, Kazem Qazanfari


In this paper, a method is provided for content-based image retrieval. Content-based image retrieval system searches query an image based on its visual content in an image database to retrieve similar images. In this paper, with the aim of simulating the human visual system sensitivity to image's edges and color features, the concept of color difference histogram (CDH) is used. CDH includes the perceptually color difference between two neighboring pixels with regard to colors and edge orientations. Since the HSV color space is close to the human visual system, the CDH is calculated in this color space. In addition, to improve the color features, the color histogram in HSV color space is also used as a feature. Among the extracted features, efficient features are selected using entropy and correlation criteria. The final features extract the content of images most efficiently. The proposed method has been evaluated on three standard databases Corel 5k, Corel 10k and UKBench. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the proposed image retrieval method is significantly improved compared to the recently developed methods.

Keywords: content-based image retrieval, color difference histogram, efficient features selection, entropy, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
82 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem


The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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81 High Capacity Reversible Watermarking through Interpolated Error Shifting

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee


Reversible watermarking that not only protects the copyright but also preserve the original quality of the digital content have been intensively studied. In particular, the demand for reversible watermarking has increased. In this paper, we propose a reversible watermarking scheme based on interpolation-error shifting and error precompensation. The intensity of a pixel is interpolated from the intensities of neighbouring pixels, and the difference histogram between the interpolated and the original intensities is obtained and modified to embed the watermark message. By restoring the difference histogram, the embedded watermark is extracted and the original image is recovered by compensating for the interpolation error. The overflow and underflow are prevented by error precompensation. To show the performance of the method, the proposed algorithm is compared with other methods using various test images.

Keywords: reversible watermarking, high capacity, high quality, interpolated error shifting, error precompensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
80 Day/Night Detector for Vehicle Tracking in Traffic Monitoring Systems

Authors: M. Taha, Hala H. Zayed, T. Nazmy, M. Khalifa


Recently, traffic monitoring has attracted the attention of computer vision researchers. Many algorithms have been developed to detect and track moving vehicles. In fact, vehicle tracking in daytime and in nighttime cannot be approached with the same techniques, due to the extreme different illumination conditions. Consequently, traffic-monitoring systems are in need of having a component to differentiate between daytime and nighttime scenes. In this paper, a HSV-based day/night detector is proposed for traffic monitoring scenes. The detector employs the hue-histogram and the value-histogram on the top half of the image frame. Experimental results show that the extraction of the brightness features along with the color features within the top region of the image is effective for classifying traffic scenes. In addition, the detector achieves high precision and recall rates along with it is feasible for real time applications.

Keywords: day/night detector, daytime/nighttime classification, image classification, vehicle tracking, traffic monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
79 Efficient Human Motion Detection Feature Set by Using Local Phase Quantization Method

Authors: Arwa Alzughaibi


Human Motion detection is a challenging task due to a number of factors including variable appearance, posture and a wide range of illumination conditions and background. So, the first need of such a model is a reliable feature set that can discriminate between a human and a non-human form with a fair amount of confidence even under difficult conditions. By having richer representations, the classification task becomes easier and improved results can be achieved. The Aim of this paper is to investigate the reliable and accurate human motion detection models that are able to detect the human motions accurately under varying illumination levels and backgrounds. Different sets of features are tried and tested including Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Deformable Parts Model (DPM), Local Decorrelated Channel Feature (LDCF) and Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF). However, we propose an efficient and reliable human motion detection approach by combining Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and local phase quantization (LPQ) as the feature set, and implementing search pruning algorithm based on optical flow to reduce the number of false positive. Experimental results show the effectiveness of combining local phase quantization descriptor and the histogram of gradient to perform perfectly well for a large range of illumination conditions and backgrounds than the state-of-the-art human detectors. Areaunder th ROC Curve (AUC) of the proposed method achieved 0.781 for UCF dataset and 0.826 for CDW dataset which indicates that it performs comparably better than HOG, DPM, LDCF and ACF methods.

Keywords: human motion detection, histograms of oriented gradient, local phase quantization, local phase quantization

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
78 Printed Thai Character Recognition Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Phawin Sangsuvan, Chutimet Srinilta


This Paper presents the applications of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Method for Thai optical character recognition (OCR). OCR consists of the pre-processing, character recognition and post-processing. Before enter into recognition process. The Character must be “Prepped” by pre-processing process. The PSO is an optimization method that belongs to the swarm intelligence family based on the imitation of social behavior patterns of animals. Route of each particle is determined by an individual data among neighborhood particles. The interaction of the particles with neighbors is the advantage of Particle Swarm to determine the best solution. So PSO is interested by a lot of researchers in many difficult problems including character recognition. As the previous this research used a Projection Histogram to extract printed digits features and defined the simple Fitness Function for PSO. The results reveal that PSO gives 67.73% for testing dataset. So in the future there can be explored enhancement the better performance of PSO with improve the Fitness Function.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, particle swarm optimization, pattern recognition techniques

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77 A Hybrid Watermarking Model Based on Frequency of Occurrence

Authors: Hamza A. A. Al-Sewadi, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Samaa A. K. Khamis


Ownership proofs of multimedia such as text, image, audio or video files can be achieved by the burial of watermark is them. It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications would be in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: authentication, copyright protection, information hiding, ownership, watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 484
76 Frequency of Occurrence Hybrid Watermarking Scheme

Authors: Hamza A. Ali, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali


Generally, a watermark is information that identifies the ownership of multimedia (text, image, audio or video files). It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications are done according to a secret key in a descriptive model that would be either in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: watermarking, ownership, copyright protection, steganography, information hiding, authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
75 Multi-Spectral Medical Images Enhancement Using a Weber’s law

Authors: Muna F. Al-Sammaraie


The aim of this research is to present a multi spectral image enhancement methods used to achieve highly real digital image populates only a small portion of the available range of digital values. Also, a quantitative measure of image enhancement is presented. This measure is related with concepts of the Webers Low of the human visual system. For decades, several image enhancement techniques have been proposed. Although most techniques require profuse amount of advance and critical steps, the result for the perceive image are not as satisfied. This study involves changing the original values so that more of the available range is used; then increases the contrast between features and their backgrounds. It consists of reading the binary image on the basis of pixels taking them byte-wise and displaying it, calculating the statistics of an image, automatically enhancing the color of the image based on statistics calculation using algorithms and working with RGB color bands. Finally, the enhanced image is displayed along with image histogram. A number of experimental results illustrated the performance of these algorithms. Particularly the quantitative measure has helped to select optimal processing parameters: the best parameters and transform.

Keywords: image enhancement, multi-spectral, RGB, histogram

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74 Multi-Vehicle Detection Using Histogram of Oriented Gradients Features and Adaptive Sliding Window Technique

Authors: Saumya Srivastava, Rina Maiti


In order to achieve a better performance of vehicle detection in a complex environment, we present an efficient approach for a multi-vehicle detection system using an adaptive sliding window technique. For a given frame, image segmentation is carried out to establish the region of interest. Gradient computation followed by thresholding, denoising, and morphological operations is performed to extract the binary search image. Near-region field and far-region field are defined to generate hypotheses using the adaptive sliding window technique on the resultant binary search image. For each vehicle candidate, features are extracted using a histogram of oriented gradients, and a pre-trained support vector machine is applied for hypothesis verification. Later, the Kalman filter is used for tracking the vanishing point. The experimental results show that the method is robust and effective on various roads and driving scenarios. The algorithm was tested on highways and urban roads in India.

Keywords: gradient, vehicle detection, histograms of oriented gradients, support vector machine

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73 Image Encryption Using Eureqa to Generate an Automated Mathematical Key

Authors: Halima Adel Halim Shnishah, David Mulvaney


Applying traditional symmetric cryptography algorithms while computing encryption and decryption provides immunity to secret keys against different attacks. One of the popular techniques generating automated secret keys is evolutionary computing by using Eureqa API tool, which got attention in 2013. In this paper, we are generating automated secret keys for image encryption and decryption using Eureqa API (tool which is used in evolutionary computing technique). Eureqa API models pseudo-random input data obtained from a suitable source to generate secret keys. The validation of generated secret keys is investigated by performing various statistical tests (histogram, chi-square, correlation of two adjacent pixels, correlation between original and encrypted images, entropy and key sensitivity). Experimental results obtained from methods including histogram analysis, correlation coefficient, entropy and key sensitivity, show that the proposed image encryption algorithms are secure and reliable, with the potential to be adapted for secure image communication applications.

Keywords: image encryption algorithms, Eureqa, statistical measurements, automated key generation

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72 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari


The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
71 Dosimetric Dependence on the Collimator Angle in Prostate Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

Authors: Muhammad Isa Khan, Jalil Ur Rehman, Muhammad Afzal Khan Rao, James Chow


Purpose: This study investigates the dose-volume variations in planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs) using different collimator angles for smart arc prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Awareness of the collimator angle for PTV and OARs sparing is essential for the planner because optimization contains numerous treatment constraints producing a complex, unstable and computationally challenging problem throughout its examination of an optimal plan in a rational time. Materials and Methods: Single arc VMAT plans at different collimator angles varied systematically (0°-90°) were performed on a Harold phantom and a new treatment plan is optimized for each collimator angle. We analyzed the conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), gradient index (GI), monitor units (MUs), dose-volume histogram, mean and maximum doses to PTV. We also explored OARs (e.g. bladder, rectum and femoral heads), dose-volume criteria in the treatment plan (e.g. D30%, D50%, V30Gy and V38Gy of bladder and rectum; D5%,V14Gy and V22Gy of femoral heads), dose-volume histogram, mean and maximum doses for smart arc VMAT at different collimator angles. Results: There was no significance difference found in VMAT optimization at all studied collimator angles. However, if 0.5% accuracy is concerned then collimator angle = 45° provides higher CI and lower HI. Collimator angle = 15° also provides lower HI values like collimator angle 45°. It is seen that collimator angle = 75° is established as a good for rectum and right femur sparing. Collimator angle = 90° and collimator angle = 30° were found good for rectum and left femur sparing respectively. The PTV dose coverage statistics for each plan are comparatively independent of the collimator angles. Conclusion: It is concluded that this study will help the planner to have freedom to choose any collimator angle from (0°-90°) for PTV coverage and select a suitable collimator angle to spare OARs.

Keywords: VMAT, dose-volume histogram, collimator angle, organs-at-risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
70 Detecting HCC Tumor in Three Phasic CT Liver Images with Optimization of Neural Network

Authors: Mahdieh Khalilinezhad, Silvana Dellepiane, Gianni Vernazza


The aim of the present work is to build a model based on tissue characterization that is able to discriminate pathological and non-pathological regions from three-phasic CT images. Based on feature selection in different phases, in this research, we design a neural network system that has optimal neuron number in a hidden layer. Our approach consists of three steps: feature selection, feature reduction, and classification. For each ROI, 6 distinct set of texture features are extracted such as first order histogram parameters, absolute gradient, run-length matrix, co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and wavelet, for a total of 270 texture features. We show that with the injection of liquid and the analysis of more phases the high relevant features in each region changed. Our results show that for detecting HCC tumor phase3 is the best one in most of the features that we apply to the classification algorithm. The percentage of detection between these two classes according to our method, relates to first order histogram parameters with the accuracy of 85% in phase 1, 95% phase 2, and 95% in phase 3.

Keywords: multi-phasic liver images, texture analysis, neural network, hidden layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 206