Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1115

Search results for: Sindh Province

1115 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Over Two Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar

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Global and Diffuse Solar radiation on horizontal surface over two cities of Sindh, namely Jacobabad and Rohri were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization in Sindh province. The result obtained shows a high variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months (80% direct and 20% diffuse). The contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low even in monsoon months i.e. July and August. The appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated value indicates that this part of Sindh has higher solar potential and solar panels can be used for power generation. The solar energy can be utilized throughout the year in this part of Sindh, Pakistan.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over two cities of Sindh, environmental engineering

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1114 Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies over Seven Cities of Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaik

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Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface over seven cities of Sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Chore, Padidan, Nawabshah, Rohri and Jacobabad were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization at Sindh province. The result obtained shows a variation of direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in southern Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi, and Hyderabad) where there is a large variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in northern region (80% direct and 20% diffuse for Rohri and Jacobabad). In southern Sindh, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is higher during the monsoon months (July and August). The sky remains clear during September to June. In northern Sindh (Rohri and Jacobabad) the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low even in monsoon months i,e in July and August. The Kt value for northern Sindh indicates a clear sky. In northern part of the Sindh percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. The appearance of cloud is rare. From the point of view of power generation, the estimated values indicate that northern part of Sindh has high solar potential while the southern part has low solar potential.

Keywords: global and diffuse solar radiation, solar potential, Province of Sindh, solar radiation studies for power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1113 An Assessment of the Temperature Change Scenarios Using RS and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Sindh

Authors: Jan Muhammad, Saad Malik, Fadia W. Al-Azawi, Ali Imran

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In the era of climate variability, rising temperatures are the most significant aspect. In this study PRECIS model data and observed data are used for assessing the temperature change scenarios of Sindh province during the first half of present century. Observed data from various meteorological stations of Sindh are the primary source for temperature change detection. The current scenario (1961–1990) and the future one (2010-2050) are acted by the PRECIS Regional Climate Model at a spatial resolution of 25 * 25 km. Regional Climate Model (RCM) can yield reasonably suitable projections to be used for climate-scenario. The main objective of the study is to map the simulated temperature as obtained from climate model-PRECIS and their comparison with observed temperatures. The analysis is done on all the districts of Sindh in order to have a more precise picture of temperature change scenarios. According to results the temperature is likely to increases by 1.5 - 2.1°C by 2050, compared to the baseline temperature of 1961-1990. The model assesses more accurate values in northern districts of Sindh as compared to the coastal belt of Sindh. All the district of the Sindh province exhibit an increasing trend in the mean temperature scenarios and each decade seems to be warmer than the previous one. An understanding of the change in temperatures is very vital for various sectors such as weather forecasting, water, agriculture, and health, etc.

Keywords: PRECIS Model, real observed data, Arc GIS, interpolation techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
1112 Solar Energy Potential Studies of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

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Solar radiation studies of Sindh province have been studied to evaluate the solar energy potential of the area. Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface over five cities namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Chore and Padidan of Sindh province were carried out using sun shine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization. The result obtained shows a large variation of direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in winter and summer months. 50% direct and 50% diffuse solar radiation for Karachi and Hyderabad were observed and for Chore in summer month July and August the diffuse radiation is about 33 to 39%. For other areas of Sindh such as Nawabshah and Patidan the contribution of direct solar radiation is high throughout the year. The Kt values for Nawabshah and Patidan indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. In Nawabshah area the percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 29%. The appearance of cloud is rare even in the monsoon months July and August whereas Karachi and Hyderabad and Chore has low solar potential during the monsoon months. During the monsoon period Karachi and Hyderabad can utilize hybrid system with wind power as wind speed is higher. From the point of view of power generation the estimated values indicate that Karachi and Hyderabad and chore has low solar potential for July and August while Nawabshah, and Padidan has high solar potential Throughout the year.

Keywords: global and diffuse solar radiation, province of Sindh, solar energy potential, solar radiation studies for power generation

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1111 Difficulties in Teaching and Learning English Pronunciation in Sindh Province, Pakistan

Authors: Majno Ajbani

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Difficulties in teaching and learning English pronunciation in Sindh province, Pakistan Abstract Sindhi language is widely spoken in Sindh province, and it is one of the difficult languages of the world. Sindhi language has fifty-two alphabets which have caused a serious issue in learning and teaching of English pronunciation for teachers and students of Colleges and Universities. This study focuses on teachers’ and students’ need for extensive training in the pronunciation that articulates the real pronunciation of actual words. The study is set to contribute in the sociolinguistic studies of English learning communities in this region. Data from 200 English teachers and students was collected by already tested structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS 20 software. The data analysis clearly demonstrates the higher range of inappropriate pronunciations towards English learning and teaching. The anthropogenic responses indicate 87 percentages teachers and students had an improper pronunciation. This indicates the substantial negative effects on academic and sociolinguistic aspects. It is suggested an improper speaking of English, based on rapid changes in geopolitical and sociocultural surroundings.

Keywords: alphabets, pronunciation, sociolinguistic, anthropogenic, imprudent, malapropos

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1110 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui, Adeel Tahir

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Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, power generation, solar and wind energy potential, southern Sindh

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1109 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Lower Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of Lower Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization for power generation in Sindh province. The results obtained show a large variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in Lower Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi and Hyderabad). In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low during the monsoon months, July and August. The KT value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky throughout almost the entire year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even during the monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential, whereas Karachi and Hyderabad have low solar potential. During the monsoon months the Lower part of Sindh can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 m/sec to 6.9 m/sec. A wind corridor exists near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in the monsoon months of July and August, wind speeds are higher in the Lower region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, lower Sindh, power generation, solar and wind energy potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
1108 From Orthodox to Haploid Mitochondrial DNA Markers: Exploring the Datum Folder of population of Sindh in Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhattiab, M. Aslamkhana, Sana Abbasbc, Marcella Attimonellid, Kumarasamy Thangaraje, Erica Martinha Silva de Souzaf, Uzay U. Sezen

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The present study was designed to investigate three regions of mitochondrial DNA, HVI, HVII and HVIII, to hold a powwow genetic diversity and affiliations in 115 probands of 6 major ethnic groups, viz., Bijarani, Chandio, Ghallu, Khoso, Nasrani and Solangi, in the province of Sindh of Pakistan. For this purpose 88 haplotypes were scrutinized, defined by particular set of nucleotides (ignoring the C insertions around position 309 and 315). In spite of that 82% sequences were observed once, 12 % twice and 5.2 % thrice. The most common South Asian haplotypes were observed M (42%), N (6.9%) and R (6.9%) whereas west Eurasian haplotypes were J (1.7%), U (23.4%), H (9.5%), W (6.9%) and T (0.86%), in six ethnic groups. A random match probability between two unrelated individuals was found 0.06 %, while genetic diversity was ranged to be 0.991 to 0.999, and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0089 to 0.0142 for the whole control region of the population studied.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, Sindh, ethnicity

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1107 Amphibians and Water Quality: An Assessment of Diversity and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Habitats for Amphibians in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Kalsoom Shaikh, Saima Memon, Riffat Sultana

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Water pollution affects amphibians because they are intimately water dependent. The permeable skin makes amphibians very sensitive to the physico-chemical parameters of their aquatic environment. They spawn in water bodies where quality of water can affect the growth, development, and survival of their eggs which may die even before hatching into larvae or developing into adults due to water contamination. Considering the importance of amphibians in agriculture, food web, ecosystem and pharmaceutics as well as adverse impact of environmental degradation on them, present study was proposed to comprehensively determine the status of their diversity and habitats in Sindh province of Pakistan so as to execute monitoring for their conservation in future. Physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC (electric conductivity), TDS (total dissolved solids), T-Hard (total hardness), T-Alk (total alkalinity), Cl (chloride), CO₂ (carbon dioxide), SO₄ (sulphate), PO₄ (phosphate), NO₂ (nitrite) and NO₃ (nitrate) were analyzed from amphibian habitats using instruments and methodology of analytical grade. The results of present study after being compared with scientific data provided by different researchers and EPA (environmental protection agency), it was concluded that amphibian habitats consisted of high values of analyzed parameters except pH and CO₂. Entire study area required an urgent implementation of conservation actions for saving amphibians.

Keywords: amphibians, diversity, habitats, physico-chemical parameters, water quality, Pakistan, Sindh Province

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1106 Project Time Prediction Model: A Case Study of Construction Projects in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Tauha Hussain Ali, Shabir Hussain Khahro, Nafees Ahmed Memon

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Accurate prediction of project time for planning and bid preparation stage should contain realistic dates. Constructors use their experience to estimate the project duration for the new projects, which is based on intuitions. It has been a constant concern to both researchers and constructors to analyze the accurate prediction of project duration for bid preparation stage. In Pakistan, such study for time cost relationship has been lacked to predict duration performance for the construction projects. This study is an attempt to explore the time cost relationship that would conclude with a mathematical model to predict the time for the drainage rehabilitation projects in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data has been collected from National Engineering Services (NESPAK), Pakistan and regression analysis has been carried out for the analysis of results. Significant relationship has been found between time and cost of the construction projects in Sindh and the generated mathematical model can be used by the constructors to predict the project duration for the upcoming projects of same nature. This study also provides the professionals with a requisite knowledge to make decisions regarding project duration, which is significantly important to win the projects at the bid stage.

Keywords: BTC Model, project time, relationship of time cost, regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
1105 Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children under 5 Years of Age before Introduction of Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV 10) in Urban and Rural Sindh

Authors: Muhammad Imran Nisar, Fyezah Jehan, Tauseef Akhund, Sadia Shakoor, Kanwal Nayani, Furqan Kabir, Asad Ali, Anita Zaidi

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Pneumococcal Vaccine -10 (PCV 10) was included in the Expanded Program of immunization (EPI) in Sindh, Pakistan in February 2013. This study was carried out immediately before the introduction of PCV 10 to establish baseline pneumococcal carriage and prevalent serotypes in naso-pharynx of children 3-11 months of age in an urban and rural community in Sindh, Pakistan. An additional sample of children aged 12 to 59 months was drawn from the urban community. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from a random sample of children. Samples were processed in a central laboratory in Karachi. Pneumococci were cultured on 5% Sheep Blood Agar and serotyping was performed using CDC standardized sequential multiplex PCR assay on bacterial colonies. Serotypes were then categorized into vaccine (PCV-10 and PCV-13) type and non-vaccine types. A total of 670 children were enrolled. Carriage rate for pneumococcus based on culture positivity was 74% and 79.5 % in the infant group in Karachi and Matiari respectively. Carriage rate was 78.2% for children aged 12 to 59 months in Karachi. Proportion of PCV 10 serotypes in infants was 38.8% and 33.5% in Karachi and Matiari respectively. In the older age group in Karachi, the proportion was 30.6%. Most common serotypes were 6A, 6B, 23F, 19A and 18C. This survey establishes vaccine and non-vaccine serotype carriage rate in a vaccine-naïve pediatric population among rural and urban communities in Sindh province. Annually planned surveys in the same communities will inform change in carriage rate after the introduction and uptake of PCV 10 in these communities.

Keywords: Naso-Pharyngeal carriage, Pakistan, PCV10, Pneumococcus

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1104 Solar Radiation Studies and Performance of Solar Panels for Three Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar

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Solar radiation on horizontal surface over three southern cities of Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad and Nawabshah has been investigated to asses the feasibility of solar energy application for power generation. In the present work, measured data of bright sunshine hour of the region have been used to estimate the global and diffuse solar radiation. The regression coefficient 'a' and 'b' have been calculated using first order Angstrom type co-relation. The result obtained shows that the contribution of direct solar radiation is low and diffuse radiation is high during the monsoon months July and August for Karachi and Hyderabad. The sky remains clear from September to June, whereas for Nawabshah the global radiation remains high throughout the year. The potential of grid quality solar photovoltaic power in Karachi is estimated for 10 square meter area of solar panel.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over three cities of Sindh, solar panels

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1103 Impact of Urbanization on Natural Drainage Pattern in District of Larkana, Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Sumaira Zafar, Arjumand Zaidi

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During past few years, several floods have adversely affected the areas along lower Indus River. Besides other climate related anomalies, rapidly increasing urbanization and blockage of natural drains due to siltation or encroachments are two other critical causes that may be responsible for these disasters. Due to flat topography of river Indus plains and blockage of natural waterways, drainage of storm water takes time adversely affecting the crop health and soil properties of the area. Government of Sindh is taking a keen interest in revival of natural drainage network in the province and has initiated this work under Sindh Irrigation and Drainage Authority. In this paper, geospatial techniques are used to analyze landuse/land-cover changes of Larkana district over the past three decades (1980-present) and their impact on natural drainage system. Satellite derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and topographic sheets (recent and 1950) are used to delineate natural drainage pattern of the district. The urban landuse map developed in this study is further overlaid on drainage line layer to identify the critical areas where the natural floodwater flows are being inhibited by urbanization. Rainfall and flow data are utilized to identify areas of heavy flow, whereas, satellite data including Landsat 7 and Google Earth are used to map previous floods extent and landuse/cover of the study area. Alternatives to natural drainage systems are also suggested wherever possible. The output maps of natural drainage pattern can be used to develop a decision support system for urban planners, Sindh development authorities and flood mitigation and management agencies.

Keywords: geospatial techniques, satellite data, natural drainage, flood, urbanization

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1102 Wind Energy Potential of Southern Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

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A study has been carried out to see the prospect of wind power potential of southern Sindh namely Karachi, Hawksbay, Norriabad, Hyderabad, Ketibander and Shahbander using local wind speed data. The monthly average wind speed for these area ranges from 4.5m/sec to 8.5m/sec at 30m height from ground. Extractable wind power, wind energy and Weibul parameter for above mentioned areas have been examined. Furthermore, the power output using fast and slow wind machine using different blade diameter along with the 4Kw and 20 Kw aero-generator were examined to see the possible use for deep well pumping and electricity supply to remote villages. The analysis reveals that in this wind corridor of southern Sindh Hawksbay, Ketibander and Shahbander belongs to wind power class-3 Hyderabad and Nooriabad belongs to wind power class-5 and Karachi belongs to wind power class-2. The result shows that the that higher wind speed values occur between June till August. It was found that considering maximum wind speed location, Hawksbay,Noriabad are the best location for setting up wind machines for power generation.

Keywords: wind energy generation, Southern Sindh, seasonal change, Weibull parameter, wind machines

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1101 Assessment of Amphibian Diversity and Status of Their Habitats through Physico-Chemical Parameters in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Kalsoom Shaikh, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Saima Memon

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Our study aimed to assess diversity and habitats of amphibian fauna in Sindh province as amphibians are among most vulnerable animals and the risk of their extinction is increasing in many parts of world mainly due to habitat degradation. Present study consisted of field surveys and laboratory analytical work; field surveys were carried out to confirm amphibian diversity and collection of water samples from their habitats, whereas laboratory work was conducted for identification of species and analysis of water quality of habitats through physico-chemical parameters. For identification of amphibian species, morphology was thoroughly examined using taxonomic key, whereas water quality was assessed via physico-chemical parameters including pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (T. Hard), total alkalinity (T. Alk), chloride (Cl), carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfate (SO₄), phosphate (PO₄), nitrite (NO₂) and nitrate (NO₃) using material and methods of analytical grade. pH value was analyzed using pH meter, whereas levels of EC and TDS were recorded using conductivity meter and TDS meter, respectively. Other parameters with exception of non-metallic parameters (SO₄, PO₄, NO₂, and NO₃) were analyzed through distinct titration methods. Concentration of non-metallic parameters was evaluated using ultra-violet spectrophotometer. This study revealed existence of four amphibian species including Hoplobatrachus tigerinus, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Allopa hazarensis belonging to Family Ranidae and Bufo stomaticus (Family Bufonidae) randomly distributed in district Ghotki, Jamshoro, Kashmor, Larkana, Matiari and Shikarpur in Sindh. Assessment of aquatic habitats in different areas found value of parameters as followed: Habitats in district Ghoki (pH: 7.8 ± 0.3, EC: 2165.3 ± 712.6, TDS: 1507.0 ± 413.1, T-Hard: 416.4 ± 67.5, T. Alk: 393.4 ± 78.4, Cl: 362.4 ± 70.1, CO₂: 21.1 ± 3.5, SO₄: 429.3 ± 100.1, PO₄: 487.5 ± 122.5, NO₂: 13.7 ± 1.0, NO₃: 14.7 ± 2.5), district Jamshoro habitats (pH: 8.1 ± 0.4, EC: 2403.8 ± 55.4, TDS: 1697.2 ± 77.0, T. Hard: 548.7 ± 43.2, T. Alk: 294.4 ± 29.0, Cl: 454.7 ± 50.8 CO₂: 16.9 ± 2.4, SO₄: 713.0 ± 49.3, PO₄: 826.2 ± 53.0, NO₂: 15.2 ± 3.4, NO₃: 21.6 ± 3.7), habitats in Kashmor district (pH: 8.0 ± 0.5, EC: 2450.3 ± 610.9, TDS: 1745.3 ± 440.9, T. Hard: 624.6 ± 305.8, T. Alk: 445.7 ± 120.5, Cl: 448.9 ± 128.8, CO₂: 18.9 ± 4.5, SO₄: 619.8 ± 205.8, PO₄: 474.1 ± 94.2, NO₂: 15.2 ± 3.1, NO₃ 14.3 ± 2.6), district Larkana habitats (pH: 8.4 ± 0.4, EC: 2555.8 ± 70.3, TDS: 1784.4 ± 36.9, T. Hard: 623.0 ± 42.5, T. Alk: 329.6 ± 36.7, Cl: 614.3 ± 89.5, CO₂: 17.6 ± 1.2, SO₄: 845.1 ± 67.6, PO₄: 895.0 ± 61.4, NO₂: 13.6 ± 3.8, NO₃: 23.1 ± 2.8), district Matiari habitats (pH: 8.0 ± 0.4 EC: 2492.3 ± 928.1, TDS: 430.0 ± 161.3, T. Hard: 396.7 ± 183.3, T. Alk: 388.1 ± 97.4, Cl: 551.6 ± 73.4, CO₂: 15.8 ± 2.9, SO₄: 576.5 ± 200.0, PO₄: 434.7 ± 100.6, NO₂: 15.8 ± 2.9, NO₃: 15.2 ± 3.0) and habitats in Shikarpur district (pH: 8.1 ± 0.6, EC: 2191.7 ± 765.1, TDS: 1764.9 ± 409.2, T. Hard: 431.9 ± 68.4,T. Alk: 350.3 ± 44.3, Cl: 381.5 ± 29.5, CO₂: 18.0 ± 4.0, SO₄: 518.8 ± 97.9, PO₄: 493.6 ± 64.6, NO₂: 14.0 ± 0.8, NO₃: 16.1 ± 2.8). Values of physico-chemical parameters were found higher than permissible level of Environmental Protectiona Agency (EPA). Monthly variation in concentration of physico-chemical parameters was also prominently recorded at all the study locals. This study discovered poor diversity of amphibian fauna and condition of their habitats was also observed as pitiable. This study established base line information that may be used in execution of an effective management plan and future monitoring of amphibian diversity and their habitats in Sindh.

Keywords: amphibians, diversity, habitats, Pakistan, Sindh

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1100 Impact of Violence against Women on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Rural Sindh: A Case Study of Kandhkot

Authors: Mohammad Shoaib Khan, Abdul Sattar Bahalkani

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This research investigates the violence and their impact on SMEs in Sindh. The main objective of current research is to examine the women empowerment through women participation in small and medium enterprises in upper Sindh. The data were collected from 500 respondents from Kandhkot District, by using simple random technique. A structural questionnaire was designed as an instrument for measuring the impact of SMEs business in women empowerment in rural Sindh. It was revealed that the rural women is less confident and their husbands were always given them hard time once they are exposing themselves to outside the boundaries of the house. It was revealed that rural women have a major contribution in social, economic, and political development. It was further revealed that women are getting low wages and due to non-availability of market facility they are paying low wages. The negative impact of husbands’ income and having children at the age of 0-6 years old are also significant. High income of other household member raises the reservation wage of mothers, thus lowers the probability of participation when the objective of working is to help family’s financial need. The impact of childcare on mothers’ labor force participation is significant but not as the theory predicted. The probability of participation in labor force is significantly higher for women who lived in the urban areas where job opportunities are greater compared to the rural.

Keywords: empowerment, violence against women, SMEs, rural

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1099 Poverty Status and Determinants of Income Diversification among Rural Households of Pakistan

Authors: Saba Javed, Abdul Majeed Nadeem, Imran Qaiser, Muhammad Asif Kamran, Azka Amin

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This study is designed to determine the poverty status and determinants of income diversification in rural areas of Pakistan using cross sectional data of Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PSLM) for 2010-2011. The variables used for measuring income diversification are demographic indicators, poverty status, and income of households. Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measures show that 43.1% poor and 56.9% non-poor resided in rural areas of Pakistan. A Tobit model was employed to examine the determinants of livelihood diversification among households. The result showed that age, gender, marital status, household size and province have significant impact on income diversification. The data show that non-poor and female headed household with higher family size diversify more as compared to poor, male headed household with small size of family members. The place of residence (province used as proxy for place) also plays important role for income diversification as Sindh Province was found more diversified as compared to Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoon Kha (KPK). It is recommended to improve the ways of income diversification among rural household to reduce poverty among them. This can be done by more investment in education with universal access for poor and remote localities households.

Keywords: poverty, income diversification, rural Pakistan, Tobit regression model, FGT

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1098 Spatial Assessment of Creek Habitats of Marine Fish Stock in Sindh Province

Authors: Syed Jamil H. Kazmi, Faiza Sarwar

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The Indus delta of Sindh Province forms the largest creeks zone of Pakistan. The Sindh coast starts from the mouth of Hab River and terminates at Sir Creek area. In this paper, we have considered the major creeks from the site of Bin Qasim Port in Karachi to Jetty of Keti Bunder in Thatta District. A general decline in the mangrove forest has been observed that within a span of last 25 years. The unprecedented human interventions damage the creeks habitat badly which includes haphazard urban development, industrial and sewage disposal, illegal cutting of mangroves forest, reduced and inconsistent fresh water flow mainly from Jhang and Indus rivers. These activities not only harm the creeks habitat but affected the fish stock substantially. Fishing is the main livelihood of coastal people but with the above-mentioned threats, it is also under enormous pressure by fish catches resulted in unchecked overutilization of the fish resources. This pressure is almost unbearable when it joins with deleterious fishing methods, uncontrolled fleet size, increase trash and by-catch of juvenile and illegal mesh size. Along with these anthropogenic interventions study area is under the red zone of tropical cyclones and active seismicity causing floods, sea intrusion, damage mangroves forests and devastation of fish stock. In order to sustain the natural resources of the Indus Creeks, this study was initiated with the support of FAO, WWF and NIO, the main purpose was to develop a Geo-Spatial dataset for fish stock assessment. The study has been spread over a year (2013-14) on monthly basis which mainly includes detailed fish stock survey, water analysis and few other environmental analyses. Environmental analysis also includes the habitat classification of study area which has done through remote sensing techniques for 22 years’ time series (1992-2014). Furthermore, out of 252 species collected, fifteen species from estuarine and marine groups were short-listed to measure the weight, health and growth of fish species at each creek under GIS data through SPSS system. Furthermore, habitat suitability analysis has been conducted by assessing the surface topographic and aspect derivation through different GIS techniques. The output variables then overlaid in GIS system to measure the creeks productivity. Which provided the results in terms of subsequent classes: extremely productive, highly productive, productive, moderately productive and less productive. This study has revealed the Geospatial tools utilization along with the evaluation of the fisheries resources and creeks habitat risk zone mapping. It has also been identified that the geo-spatial technologies are highly beneficial to identify the areas of high environmental risk in Sindh Creeks. This has been clearly discovered from this study that creeks with high rugosity are more productive than the creeks with low levels of rugosity. The study area has the immense potential to boost the economy of Pakistan in terms of fish export, if geo-spatial techniques are implemented instead of conventional techniques.

Keywords: fish stock, geo-spatial, productivity analysis, risk

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1097 European and Scandinavian Tourists' Perceptions and Desire to Travel in Ranong Province

Authors: Wipanee Maen-In

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The objectives of the research are i) to study the motivations of european and scandinavian tourists who select Ranong province as their destinations ii) to study their perception towards the Ranong Province and iii) to study the visitors’ decision making while visiting Ranong Province. The samples of the study are 220 European and Scandinavian tourists’ visitors at the Ranong by accidental sampling and in clouding online questionnaires for 53 sampling. The data analysis includes Percentage, Frequency and One-way ANOVA. The findings from the research are the motivation level of the visitors is considered prominent, the average score of the motivational factors ranks higher than the average of the pull factors to visit the Ranong province when considering the factors analysis, the research shows that the reason that most tourists visit the Ranong is for relaxation while the purity of the natural mineral hot springs is the most important pull factor.

Keywords: European and Scandinavian, Ranong province, tourists’ perceptions, visitors’ decision making

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1096 Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Nasreen Memon, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada, Saima Pathan

Abstract:

Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.

Keywords: prevelance, green peach aphid, Jacobabad, Sindh Pakistan

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1095 Sirhindi Family's Islamic Movements in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Nasurullah Qureshi

Abstract:

Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Mujadid Alif Thani (1564-1624) and his philosophy had influenced sub-continent as the whole; its rulers and nation. In his reign, he convinced the rulers toward Islamic way of life and succeed in his goal. After his death in 1624, his family consecutively produced prominent scholars to present. Some of them moved to Afghanistan and Pakistan's cities i.e., Jalalabad, Qandhar, Peshawar, Queta, Shikarpur, Hyderabad, and Sehwan. They played a vital role in their areas and transmitted spiritual and legal Islamic teachings to people. This research is aimed to elaborate efforts of the family's Sindh settled branch from 1898-present in fields of politics and Islamic education. Their link with Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi will be provided in the introduction. After that, the work will explain their scholarly published work briefly in different fields of Islamic studies such as Quran exegeses and its translation in Sindhi language, Hadith and its sciences, Islamic Jurisprudence, Sufism and etc. In addition, their political role will be briefly discussed in the research throughout the period, especially their noticeable role in the separate homeland for Muslims in the subcontinent. Furthermore, the impact of their scholarly work, political influence and spirituality will be enlightened. Lastly, the research will present the critical viewpoint on their struggle.

Keywords: Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi, Sirhindi scholars, Sindh, Sufism

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1094 An Ethnographic Study of the Structure of English Compulsory Classes at a Pakistani University Aimed at Making an Intervention

Authors: Rafique A. Memon

Abstract:

The University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan (USJP) is a public sector institution which caters to the rural population of the Sindh Province. It consists of fifty-six (56) teaching departments with approximately 30,000 enrolled students. Within USJP, the Institute of English Language and Literature (IELL) works as a service provider by offering English Compulsory courses to the students majoring in other subjects such as Political Science, Communication Studies, International Relations, Maths, Physics, chemistry, etc. The medium of instruction is English across the disciplines, and course content is also written in English; therefore, the compulsory classes are meant to help students learn English language skills so that they can develop their competence in the target language. However, owing to the poor performance of students and complaints from the stake holders the researcher undertook to investigate the structure of English Compulsory Lessons. This was aimed at understanding characteristics and nature of those classes with the resulting emphasis on making an improvement. An ethnographic approach was adopted in which the researcher observed classes and videotaped six English Compulsory lessons which were then transcribed for the purpose of analysis. Each transcript was divided into episodes, on the basis of the criteria, i.e. (a) Language signals as boundary markers, e.g., OK, Well, OK let’s start (b) Patterns of interaction, e.g., teacher monologue, student teacher interaction (c) Functional unity, e.g., warm-up, interpretation of the text and wrap up. It was found that the episodic structure of the six traditional lessons was very similar. The lessons started with teacher-student interaction, followed by a group of extended teacher turns, and ended in teacher-student interaction in most of the cases. The data revealed that teachers mostly followed the transmission model of teaching. Students could get rare opportunities for participation only in the opening and closing episodes. This led to the conclusion that apparently the main stake holders, i.e., teachers, students and policy makers were either unaware or ignorant of the latest developments in the domain of teaching and learning. This teaching context seems to be in a dire need of intervention and innovation. This may well be achieved by providing teacher training, updating teaching material, and reducing number of students per class. The findings of this may serve as an eye-opener for policy makers of the public sector universities in Pakistan in general and for the University of Sindh in particular.

Keywords: English compulsory, structure, episodes, language signals

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1093 Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: Evaluation of Serum Lipid Profiles in Urban and Rural Population of Sindh

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of serum lipid profiles in Urban and Rural Population of Sindh, to indicate the existing risk of cardiovascular diseases. Material and Methods: Study was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, in the cities of Jamshoro and Hyderabad of Sindh. Blood samples from 300 healthy individuals were collected in fasting condition, out them 100 were from rural population, 100 were urban while 100 were used as control group. The biochemistry of these samples was obtained by the analysis of total Cholesterol, high density lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) and Triglycerides using kit method on Analyzer Clinical Chemistry. Results and Conclusion: Serum levels of total cholesterol, Triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol were significantly raised in the rural and urban males, whereas HDL cholesterol was decreased as compared to the Healthy controls that indicated significant risk of CVD. Urban population was with more risk of CVD and male gender in both groups was at more risk. The worst lipid profile in gender wise distribution was observed in male gender of urban population with highest Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio while female gender also shown moderate risk of CVD with highest LDL/HDL Ratio.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, lipid profiles, urban and rural population, LDL/HDL Ratio

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1092 Reducing Inequalities for the Uptake of Long-Term Reversible Contraceptive Methods through Special Family Planning Camps: A High Impact Service Delivery Model of Family Planning Practices

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Halepota, Zaib Dahar

Abstract:

Background: Low acceptance of FP services, particularly in hard to reach areas where geographic, economic, or social barriers limit-service uptake. Moreover, limited resources appeared to be a reflection of dismal contraceptive use in Pakistan. People’s Primary Health Care Initiative (PPHI) is a Public Private Partnership Program of Government of Sindh which aims to improve maternal child health through accessible family planning services in far flung areas. In 2015 PPHI launched special family planning camps to have achieved a rapid improvement in CPR. On quarterly basis, these camps focus on Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC). These camps are arranged at 250 BHU Plus (24/7 MCHCs). The Organization manages 1140 primary health care facilities all over Sindh province and focuses on maternal, newborn and child health which includes antenatal care, labor/delivery, postnatal care, family planning, immunization, nutrition, BEmONC, CEmONC, diagnostic laboratories, ambulance services. Under the FPRH program, the organization launched special family planning camps in far flung areas to achieve a rapid improvement in CPR-committed to FP 2020 goal. Objective: To assess the performance of special FP camps for the improvement of long acting reversible contraceptive in hard to reach areas. Methodology: Outreach camps are organized on quarterly basis in 250 BHUs and maternal and child health centers (available-24/7). Using observational study design, the study reports 2 years data of special FP camps conducted in 23 various districts of Sindh during April 2015-April 2017. These special camps served a range of modern contraceptive methods including IUCDs, implants, condoms, pills, and injections. Moreover, 125 male medical officers are trained across Sindh in LARC and 554 female have been trained in implants and IUCD insertions. MSI Impact calculator was used to determine health and demographic impact of services. Results: This intervention has brought exceptional results, and the response has been overwhelming in time. Total 2048 special camps during 2015 till April 2017 have been carried out. 231796 MWRAs visited camps 91% opted modern FP, of which 45% opted Implants, 6% selected IUCDs from LARC (long term reversible contraceptive) from short term, 17% opted injectable 18% choose pills, and 12% used condoms. This intervention created a high contraceptive impact in rural Sindh an estimated 125048 FP users have been created, of this 111846 LARC users and 13498 are SARC users, through this intervention an estimated 55774 unintended pregnancies, 36299 live births, 9394, 80 maternal deaths, 926 and 6077 unsafe abortion have been averted. Moreover, the intervention created an economic impact and saved 2,409,563 direct health expenditure on each woman with reproductive age. Conclusion: Special FP Camps along with routine services is an effective and acceptable model for increase in provision of long-acting and permanent methods in hard to reach areas. This innovative approach by PHHI-Sindh has also been adopted in other provinces of Pakistan.

Keywords: inequalities, special camps, family planning services, hard to reach areas

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1091 The Quality of Working Life and the Organizational Commitment of Municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon Province

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn

Abstract:

This research aims to investigate: (1) Relationship between the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province. (2) To compare the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province by the gender, age, education, official experience, position, division, and income. This study is a quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the municipal employee in Samut Sakhon province for 241 sample by stratified random sampling. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including t-test, F-test and Pearson correlation for hypothesis testing. Finding showed that the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon province in terms of compensation and fair has a positive correlation (r = 0.673) and the comparison of the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employees in Samut Sakhon province by gender. We found that the overall difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level and we also found stability and progress in career path and the characteristics are beneficial to society has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.01 level, and the participation and social acceptance has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Keywords: quality of working life, organizational commitment, municipal employee, Samut Sakhon province

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1090 The Behavior and Satisfaction of Tourists Affecting the Sustainable Tourism at the Amphawa Floating Market in Samut Songkhram Province

Authors: Chanpen Meenakorn

Abstract:

This research aims to study; (1) behavior of the tourists affecting the satisfaction level of tourism at the Amphawa floating market in Samut Songkhram province, (2) to study the satisfaction level of tourism at the Amphawa floating market. The research method will use quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the tourist who visits the Amphawa floating market for 480 samples. Data was analyzed by SPSS software to process descriptive statistic including frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic is t-test, F-test, and chi-square. The results showed that the behavior of tourists had known tourist attractions in the province comes from the mouth of relatives and friends suggested that he come here before and the reasons to visit is to want to pay homage to the various temples for the frequency to visit travel an average of 2-4 times and  the satisfaction of the tourists in the province found that the satisfaction level of tourists in the province at the significant level of the place, convenient  and services have a high level of satisfaction.

Keywords: amphawa floating market behavior of the tourists, satisfaction level, sustainable tourism, Samut Songkhram province

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1089 A Narrative of Monks: Culture Heroes in Songkhla Province

Authors: Kuntalee Vaitayavanich

Abstract:

This study aimed to look into roles of culture heroes of monks in Buddhism in Songkhla province during the last 50 years. Qualitative study, in-depth interviews, participatory observation and non-participatory observation were employed for this study. The results of the study indicated that culture heroes in Songkhla province would act as the followings. 1) For secular matters, monks would do something beneficial to the community. 2) For religious matters, monks would behave to follow Buddhism discipline strictly and unambitiously. At the same time, monks would not neglect to teach Buddhists to give respect to Lord Buddha by doing meditation and praying. However, when some of those culture heroes passed away, villagers in the community would show gratitude and appreciation by arranging a religious death anniversary ceremony, having icon, or having narrative to recognize those, continuously.

Keywords: narrative of monks, culture heroes, Songkhla province, social sustainability

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1088 Community Product Development of Basket Handicraft-Bag, Ang Thong Province, Thailand

Authors: Patsara Sirikamonsin

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were I) to study development guidelines of community product which was basket handicraft-bag of Ang Thong province; II) to study consumer demand for the community of basket handicraft-bag products of Ang Thong province. Data were collected via group interview of the community of basket handicraft-bag and consumer in order to obtain information related to product development guidelines in line with consumer demand. The study revealed that development guidelines of community product which was basket handicraft-bag of Ang Thong province caused by the demand of consumers changed by the era which made community of basket handicraft-bag products of Ang Thong province might develop community products to be novel, stylish and accessible. The consumer demand for the product came from the need to consume goods that are like local symbols. Most of them were foreigners and tourists. The advantage of this research was that it would lead to policy implementation and lead to the development of basket handicraft-bag community products of Ang Thong to meet the needs of consumers.

Keywords: community product, product development, basket handicraft-bag, business research

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1087 Utilization of Biodiversity of Peaces Herbals Used as Food and Treat the Path of Economic Phu Sing District in Sisaket Province Thailand

Authors: Nopparet Thammasaranyakun

Abstract:

This research objects are: 1: To study the biodiversity of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 2: To study the use of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 3: To provide a database of information on biodiversity for food and medicinal plants and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. 4: Learn to create a biodiversity of medicinal plants used as food and treatment by Journeys economic Phu Sing district Sisaket province Boundaries used in this study was the Phu Sing district. Population and Agricultural Development Center, rayong Mun due to the initiative for youth Local, Government Health officials, community leaders, teachers, students, schools, the local people and tourists. Sage wisdom to know the herbs and women's groups, OTOP Phu Sing district in SiisaKet province. By selecting the specific data that way. The process of participatory action research (PAR) is a community-based research. The method of collecting qualitative data. (Qualitative) tool is used from context, Community areas, interview and Taped recordings. Observation and focus group data was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics (Descriptive Statistics). The results findings: 1- A study of the biodiversity of plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province. Were used in the dry season and the rainy season find the medicinal plants of 251 species 41 types of drugs. 2- The study utilized medicinal plants used as food and the treatment of indigenous Phu Sing Sisaket province. Found 251 species have medicinal properties that are used for food and medicinal purposes 41 types of drugs. 3- Of the database technology of biodiversity for food and medicinal plants used by local treatment Phu Sing district Sisaket province. A data base of 251 medicinal species 41 types of drugs is used for food and medicinal properties Sisaket province. 4- learning the biodiversity of medicinal plants used for food and medicinal tourism economies along the Phu Sing district Sisaket province.

Keywords: utilization of biodiversity, peaces herbals, used as Food, Sing district, sisaket

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1086 Feeding Habitat of Parrot (Ringed Necked Parakeet) in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan

Authors: Aisha Liaquat Ali, Ghulam Sarwar Gachal, Muhammad Yusuf Sheikh

Abstract:

The parrot (Rose Ringed) commonly known as tota, belongs to the order ‘psiitaciformes’ and family ‘Psittacidea’, Four species of parakeet inhabits tropical and subtropical regions of Pakistan mostly adopted parks in cities deciduous woodlands, light secondary jungles, semidesert, and scrubland and in orchards and cultivated farmlands. They are mostly feed on citrus fruits, guava, mango, green unripen seed and almond nuts as well as bud and flowers etc. the core aim of the present study was to investigate the Feeding Habitat of Parrot (Ringed Necked Parakeet) in District Mirpurkhas Sindh Pakistan. Sampling was obtained from various adjoining areas of District Mirpurkhas by Non-Random Method, which was conducted from June to Nov 2017. During the present study, a total no: of 84 specimens were collected from different localities of City Mirpurkhas (42.8%) were male ♂ and (57.1%) were female ♀. Maximum population density of Psittaculla Krameri Borealis (50.0%) was collected from Guava (Psidium Guajava) Orchards, Mango (Mangifera Indica) orchard (41.6%), chekoo (Manilkara Zapota) orchard (5.9%) and the Minimum No: of Psittaculla krameri Borealis (2.3%) collected Date (Phoenix Dactylifera) orchard. It was observed that Psittaculla krameri Borealis were highly consumed Guava (Psidium Guajava) and the minimum consume food was Date (Phoenix Dactylifera).

Keywords: district Mirpur Khas Sindh Pakistan, feeding, habitat, parrot (ringed necked parakeet)

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