Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: morphometrics

7 Morphometric Relationships of Unfarmed Puntius sophore, Collected from Chenab River, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Alina Zafar


In this particular research, various morphometric characters such as total length (TL), wet weight (WW), standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL), head width (HW), body depth (BD), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), pelvic fin length (PelFL), pectoral fin length (PecFL), anal fin length (AFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), anal fin base (AFB), caudal fin length (CFL) and caudal fin width (CFW) of wild collected Puntius sophore were studied, to know the types of growth patterns and correlations in reference to length and weight, however, high significant relationships were recorded between total length and wet weight, as the correlation coefficient (r) possessed value of 0.989. The growth pattern was observed to be positively allometric as the value of ‘b’ was 3.22 (slightly higher than the ideal value, 3) with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 3.076 to 3.372. Wet weight and total length parameters showed high significant correlations (p < 0.001) with all other morphometric characters.

Keywords: Puntius sophore, length and weight relation, morphometrics, small indigenous species

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6 Essential Oil Blend Containing Capsaicin, Carvacrol, and Cinnamaldehyde in Broiler Production Performance and Intestinal Morphometrics

Authors: Marianne D. M. Rendon, Sonia P. Acda, Veneranda A. Magpantay, Norma N. Fajardo, Amado A. Angeles


The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of supplementing broiler starter diet with different levels of an essential oil blend (EOB) containing capsaicin, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on the performance of broilers. A total of 300 day-old straight-run Cobb broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatments after 7-day group brooding following a completely randomized design (CRD). Birds assigned in treatment 1 were given starter basal diet while those in treatments 2 and 3 were given starter basal diet with 400 mg/kg antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) and 150 mg/kg EOB, respectively, until the 28th day. Basal finisher feed were given for all the treatments until harvest. Following 37 d feeding, body weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, livability and jejunal villi height were determined. Results showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance. However, villi height and crypt depth was significantly lower for birds fed EOB.

Keywords: broiler, capsaicin, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, essential oil

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5 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Based on Morphmetric Parameters of the Populations of Labeo rohita

Authors: Fayyaz Rasool, Naureen Aziz Qureshi, Shakeela Parveen


Labeo rohita populations from five geographical locations from the hatchery and riverine system of Punjab-Pakistan were studied for the clustering on the basis of similarities and differences based on morphometric parameters within the species. Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) was done by using Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) as Agglomeration method by XLSTAT 2012 version 1.02. A dendrogram with the data on the morphometrics of the representative samples of each site divided the populations of Labeo rohita in to five major clusters or classes. The variance decomposition for the optimal classification values remained as 19.24% for within class variation, while 80.76% for the between class differences. The representative central objects of the each class, the distances between the class centroids and also the distance between the central objects of the classes were generated by the analysis. A measurable distinction between the classes of the populations of the Labeo rohita was indicated in this study which determined the impacts of changing environment and other possible factors influencing the variation level among the populations of the same species.

Keywords: AHC, Labeo rohita, hatchery, riverine, morphometric

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4 Effects of the Food Colour Erythrosine on Thyroid Gland Function in Experimental Rats

Authors: Maha M.Saber, Eitedal Daoud, Moetazza M. Alshafei, Lobna M. Abd El-Latif


Children in the third world consumes many food products colored red like sweets and soft drink without knowing its effect on health or the type of color used in these products Erythrosine (ER,FD & C Red No.3) is one of the most common coloring agent used in these products and in coloring cherry in compotes. The possible adverse effect of erythrosine ER on the thyroid gland function is investigated in albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided to three groups two groups will receive ER orally in doses 68 and I36mg/kg respectively. Third group will receive distilled water for three months Sections of thyroid glands were examined for histopathological, morphometric analysis and MIB-I Ki67 (proliferative marker). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) were determined, results showed histological changes in the two treatment groups versus control group in the group with 68mg/kg dose show vaculation of the cytoplasm of follicular cells and pleomorphism of their nuclei. While the other treated group {136mg /kg} showed congestion of blood vessels, hyperplasia of the interstitial cells and increased multilayer of the follicular cells. Highly significant increase in the mean area of the thyroid follicles in both treated groups compared to control group.Erythrosine treated groups showed a very highly significant decrease (P < 0.001) in serum concentration of T3 and T 4 while TSH showed a very highly significant increase versus control.

Keywords: erythrosine, thyroid, morphometrics, proliferative marker

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3 Geometric-Morphometric Analysis of Head, Pronotum and Elytra of Brontispa Longissima Gestro in Selected Provinces of the Philippines

Authors: Ana Marie T. Acevedo


This study was conducted to describe variations in the shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum of populations of adult Brontispa longissima (Gestro) infesting coconut farms from selected areas in the Philippines using Cluster Analysis, Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms and Procustean analysis. The data used in this study included shape residuals captured using the method of landmark based geometric morphometrics. Results: The results of the cluster analyses based on the average shapes of the elytra, head and pronotum shows no consistent pattern of similarity between and among five populations of B. longissima. When localized variations using Relative Warp Analysis coupled with box plot and histograms was done, the findings revealed that RWA was only successful in summarizing variations using two relative warps in the shape of the elytra where the first two warps contained 86.29% of the variations of the female and 85.48% for the males. For the head and pronotum, the first two relative warps captured less than 50% of the overall variation. Looking at the shapes of the frequency histograms, all were found to follow a unimodal distribution. The box plots reveal no consistent results. Among the three characters studied only the elytra were more robust and reliable compared to head and pronotum and then Tandag differ from the rest of the other over-lapping populations. On the other hand, Procustean Analyses revealed that elytra were more spread in the posterior region both in male and female. The coordinates in head and pronotum were evenly distributed. In the overlapping consensus configurations show that variability was exaggerated in the right side of the elytra and the posterior parts of the head and pronotum. Results also showed expansion among females while compression among males in elytra. For males, expansion are localized in the posterior part of the elytra, For the head, results showed asymmetry in the distribution of expansion areas where expansion are observed in the right postero-lateral aspect of the female head. Conclusion: The overall results may imply that they might belong to one operational taxonomic unit or ecotype or biotype. Geography might not be the factor responsible for the differentiation of the populations of B. longissima.

Keywords: cluster analysis, relative warp analysis, procrustean analysis, environmental parameters

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2 Measuring Fluctuating Asymmetry in Human Faces Using High-Density 3D Surface Scans

Authors: O. Ekrami, P. Claes, S. Van Dongen


Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) has been studied for many years as an indicator of developmental stability or ‘genetic quality’ based on the assumption that perfect symmetry is ideally the expected outcome for a bilateral organism. Further studies have also investigated the possible link between FA and attractiveness or levels of masculinity or femininity. These hypotheses have been mostly examined using 2D images, and the structure of interest is usually presented using a limited number of landmarks. Such methods have the downside of simplifying and reducing the dimensionality of the structure, which will in return increase the error of the analysis. In an attempt to reach more conclusive and accurate results, in this study we have used high-resolution 3D scans of human faces and have developed an algorithm to measure and localize FA, taking a spatially-dense approach. A symmetric spatially dense anthropometric mask with paired vertices is non-rigidly mapped on target faces using an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) registration algorithm. A set of 19 manually indicated landmarks were used to examine the precision of our mapping step. The protocol’s accuracy in measurement and localizing FA is assessed using simulated faces with known amounts of asymmetry added to them. The results of validation of our approach show that the algorithm is perfectly capable of locating and measuring FA in 3D simulated faces. With the use of such algorithm, the additional captured information on asymmetry can be used to improve the studies of FA as an indicator of fitness or attractiveness. This algorithm can especially be of great benefit in studies of high number of subjects due to its automated and time-efficient nature. Additionally, taking a spatially dense approach provides us with information about the locality of FA, which is impossible to obtain using conventional methods. It also enables us to analyze the asymmetry of a morphological structures in a multivariate manner; This can be achieved by using methods such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA) or Factor Analysis, which can be a step towards understanding the underlying processes of asymmetry. This method can also be used in combination with genome wide association studies to help unravel the genetic bases of FA. To conclude, we introduced an algorithm to study and analyze asymmetry in human faces, with the possibility of extending the application to other morphological structures, in an automated, accurate and multi-variate framework.

Keywords: developmental stability, fluctuating asymmetry, morphometrics, 3D image processing

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1 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Salahud Din, Saima Masood, Hafsa Zaneb, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Imad Khan, Muqader Shah


The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Chinkara, skull, morphology, morphometrics, sexual dimorphism

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