Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 762

Search results for: adsorption isotherms

762 Comparative Isotherms Studies on Adsorptive Removal of Methyl Orange from Wastewater by Watermelon Rinds and Neem-Tree Leaves

Authors: Sadiq Sani, Muhammad B. Ibrahim


Watermelon rinds powder (WRP) and neem-tree leaves powder (NLP) were used as adsorbents for equilibrium adsorption isotherms studies for detoxification of methyl orange dye (MO) from simulated wastewater. The applicability of the process to various isotherm models was tested. All isotherms from the experimental data showed excellent linear reliability (R2: 0.9487-0.9992) but adsorptions onto WRP were more reliable (R2: 0.9724-0.9992) than onto NLP (R2: 0.9487-0.9989) except for Temkin’s Isotherm where reliability was better onto NLP (R2: 0.9937) than onto WRP (R2: 0.9935). Dubinin-Radushkevich’s monolayer adsorption capacities for both WRP and NLP (qD: 20.72 mg/g, 23.09 mg/g) were better than Langmuir’s (qm: 18.62 mg/g, 21.23 mg/g) with both capacities higher for adsorption onto NLP (qD: 23.09 mg/g; qm: 21.23 mg/g) than onto WRP (qD: 20.72 mg/g; qm: 18.62 mg/g). While values for Langmuir’s separation factor (RL) for both adsorbents suggested unfavourable adsorption processes (RL: -0.0461, -0.0250), Freundlich constant (nF) indicated favourable process onto both WRP (nF: 3.78) and NLP (nF: 5.47). Adsorption onto NLP had higher Dubinin-Radushkevich’s mean free energy of adsorption (E: 0.13 kJ/mol) than WRP (E: 0.08 kJ/mol) and Temkin’s heat of adsorption (bT) was better onto NLP (bT: -0.54 kJ/mol) than onto WRP (bT: -0.95 kJ/mol) all of which suggested physical adsorption.

Keywords: adsorption isotherms, methyl orange, neem leaves, watermelon rinds

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
761 A Quantitative Structure-Adsorption Study on Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials

Authors: Marc Sader, Michiel Stock, Bernard De Baets


Considering a large amount of adsorption data of adsorbate gases on adsorbent materials in literature, it is interesting to predict such adsorption data without experimentation. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is developed to correlate molecular characteristics of gases and existing knowledge of materials with their respective adsorption properties. The application of Random Forest, a machine learning method, on a set of adsorption isotherms at a wide range of partial pressures and concentrations is studied. The predicted adsorption isotherms are fitted to several adsorption equations to estimate the adsorption properties. To impute the adsorption properties of desired gases on desired materials, leave-one-out cross-validation is employed. Extensive experimental results for a range of settings are reported.

Keywords: adsorption, predictive modeling, QSAR, random forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
760 Determination of Chemical and Adsorption Kinetics: An Investigation of a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Utilizing GAC

Authors: Leila Vafajoo, Feria Ghanaat, Alireza Mohmadi Kartalaei, Amin Ghalebi


Petrochemical industries are playing an important role in producing wastewaters. Nowadays different methods are employed to treat these materials. The goal of the present research was to reduce the COD of a petrochemical wastewater via adsorption technique using a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) as adsorbent. In the current study, parameters of kinetic models as well as; adsorption isotherms were determined through utilizing the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The key parameters of KL= 0.0009 and qm= 33.33 for the former and nf=0.5 and Kf= 0.000004 for the latter isotherms resulted. Moreover, a correlation coefficient of above 90% for both cases proved logical use of such isotherms. On the other hand, pseudo-first and -second order kinetics equations were implemented. These resulted in coefficients of k1=0.005 and qe=2018 as well as; K2=0.009 and qe=1250; respectively. In addition, obtaining the correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.68 for these 1st and 2nd order kinetics; respectively indicated advantageous use of the former model. Furthermore, a significant experimental reduction of the petrochemical wastewater COD revealed that, using GAC for the process undertaken was an efficient mean of treatment. Ultimately, the current investigation paved down the road for predicting the system’s behavior on industrial scale.

Keywords: petrochemical wastewater, adsorption, granular activated carbon, equilibrium isotherm, kinetic model

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
759 Preparation of New Organoclays and Applications for Adsorption of Telon Dyes in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Benamar Makhoukhi


Clay ion-exchange using bismidazolium salts (MBIM) could provide organophilic clays materials that allow effective retention of polluting dyes. The present investigations deal with bentonite (Bt) modification using (ortho, meta and para) bisimidazolium cations and attempts to remove a synthetic textile dyes, such as (Telon-Orange, Telon-Red and Telon-Blue) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. The surface modification of MBIM–Bt was examined using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption tests applied to Telon dyes revealed a significant increase of the maximum adsorption capacity from ca. 21-28 to 88-108 mg.g-1 after intercalation. The highest adsorption level was noticed for Telon-Orange dye on the p-MBIM–Bt, presumably due higher interlayer space and better diffusion. The pseudo-first order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics data for all three dyestuffs. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. The results show that MBIM–Bt could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of Telon dyes from effluents.

Keywords: Bentonite, Organoclay, Bisimidazolium, Dyes, Isotherms, Adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
758 The Adsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Coconut Shell Activated Carbons

Authors: Premrudee Kanchanapiya, Supachai Songngam, Thanapol Tantisattayakul


Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that have increasingly attracted concerns due to their global distribution in environment, persistence, high bioaccumulation, and toxicity. It is important to study the effective treatment to remove PFOA from contaminated water. The feasibility of using commercial coconut shell activated carbon produced in Thailand to remove PFOA from water was investigated with regard to their adsorption kinetics and isotherms of powder activated carbon (PAC-325) and granular activated carbon (GAC-20x50). Adsorption kinetic results show that the adsorbent size significantly affected the adsorption rate of PFOA, and GAC-20x50 required at least 100 h to achieve the equilibrium, much longer than 3 h for PAC-325. Two kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data, and the pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption of PFOA on both PAC-325 and GAC-20x50. PAC-325 trended to adsorb PFOA faster than GAC-20x50, and testing with the shortest adsorption times (5 min) still yielded substantial PFOA removal (~80% for PAC-325). The adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of PAC-325 was 0.80 mmol/g, which is 83 % higher than that for GAC-20x50 (0.13 mmol/g), according to the Langmuir fitting.

Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, coconut shell activated carbons, adsorption, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
757 Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetic and Mechanism Studies of Some Substituted Phenols from Aqueous Solution by Jujuba Seeds Activated Carbon

Authors: O. Benturki, A. Benturki


Activated carbon was prepared from Jujube seeds by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by pyrolysis at 800°C. Batch studies were conducted for kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium studies on the adsorption of phenol (P) and 2-4 dichlorophenol (2-4 DCP) from aqueous solution, than the adsorption capacities followed the order of 2-4 dichlorophenol > phenol. The operating variables studied were initial phenols concentration, contact time, temperature and solution pH. Results show that the pH value of 7 is favorable for the adsorption of phenols. The sorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The isotherm data followed Langmuir Model. The adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy, entropy and Gibb’s free energy changes were also calculated and it was found that the sorption of phenols by Jujuba seeds activated carbon was a spontaneous process The maximum adsorption efficiency of phenol and 2-4 dichlorophenol was 142.85 mg.g−1 and 250 mg.g−1, respectively.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, isotherms, Jujuba seeds, phenols, langmuir

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
756 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
755 Adsorption Studies of Methane on Zeolite NaX, LiX, KX at High Pressures

Authors: El Hadi Zouaoui, Djamel Nibou, Mohamed Haddouche, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani, Samira Amokrane


In this study, CH₄ adsorption isotherms on NaX or Faujasite X and exchanged zeolites with Li⁺(LiX), and K⁺(KX) at different temperatures (298, 308, 323 and 353 K) has been investigated, using high pressure (3 MPa (30 bar)) thermo-gravimetric analyser. The experimental results were then validated using several isothermal kinetics models, namely Langmuir, Toth, and Marczewski-Jaroniec, followed by a calculation of the error coefficients between the experimental and theoretical results. It was found that the CH₄ adsorption isotherms are characterized by a strong increase in adsorption at low pressure and a tendency towards a high pressure limit value Qₘₐₓ. The size and position of the exchanged cations, the spherical shape of methane, the specific surface, and the volume of the pores revealed the most important influence parameters for this study. These results revealed that the experimentation and the modeling, well correlated with Marczewski-Jaroniec, Toth, and gave the best results whatever the temperature and the material used.

Keywords: CH₄ adsorption, exchange cations, exchanged zeolite, isotherm study, NaX zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
754 Cadmium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Natural Biosorbents

Authors: Z. V. P. Murthy, Preeti Arunachalam, Sangeeta Balram


Removal of metal ions from different wastewaters has become important due to their effects on living beings. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals found in different industrial wastewaters. There are many conventional methods available to remove heavy metals from wastewaters like adsorption, membrane separations, precipitation, electrolytic methods, etc. and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present work deals with the use of natural biosorbents (chitin and chitosan) to separate cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption data were fitted with different isotherms and kinetics models. Amongst different adsorption isotherms used to fit the adsorption data, the Freundlich isotherm showed better fits for both the biosorbents. The kinetics data of adsorption of cadmium showed better fit with pseudo-second order model for both the biosorbents. Chitosan, the derivative from chitin, showed better performance than chitin. The separation results are encouraging.

Keywords: chitin, chitosan, cadmium, isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
753 The Experimental and Modeling Adsorption Properties of Sr2+ on Raw and Purified Bentonite

Authors: A. A. Khodadadi, S. C. Ravaj, B. D. Tavildari, M. B. Abdolahi


The adsorption properties of local bentonite (Semnan Iran) and purified prepared from this bentonite towards Sr2+ adsorption, were investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of equilibration time, adsorption isotherms, kinetic adsorption, solution pH, and presence of EDTA and NaCl on these properties was studied and discussed. Kinetic data were found to be well fitted with a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Sr2+ is preferably adsorbed by bentonite and purified bentonite. The D-R isotherm model has the best fit with experimental data than other adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption of Sr2+ representing the highest negative charge density on the surface of the adsorbent was seen at pH 12. Presence of EDTA and NaCl decreased the amount of Sr2+ adsorption.

Keywords: bentonite, purified bentonite, Sr2+, equilibrium isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
752 Batch Adsorption Studies for the Removal of Textile Dyes from Aqueous Solution on Three Different Pine Bark

Authors: B. Cheknane, F. Zermane


The main objective of the present study is the valorization of natural raw materials of plant origin for the treatment of textile industry wastewater. Selected bark was: maritime (MP), pinyon (PP) and Aleppo pine (AP) bark. The efficiency of these barks were tested for the removal of three dye; rhodamine B (RhB), Green Malachite (GM) and X Methyl Orange (MO). At the first time we focus to study the different parameters which can influence the adsorption processes such as: nature of the adsorbents, nature of the pollutants (dyes) and the effect of pH. Obtained results reveals that the speed adsorption is strongly influencing by the pH medium and the comparative study show that adsorption is favorable in the acidic medium with amount adsorbed of (Q=40mg/g) for rhodamine B and (Q=46mg/g) for orange methyl. Results of adsorption kinetics reveals that the molecules of GM are adsorbed better (Q=48mg/g) than the molecules of RhB (Q=46mg/g) and methyl orange (Q=18mg/g), with equilibrium time of 6 hours. The results of adsorption isotherms show clearly that the maritime pine bark is the most effective adsorbents with adsorbed amount of (QRhB=200mg/g) and (QMO=88mg/g) followed by pinyon pine (PP) with (QRhB=184mg/g) and (QMO=56mg/g) and finally Aleppo pine (AP) bark with (QRhB=131mg/g) and (QMO= 46mg/g). The different obtained isotherms were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich models and according to the adjustment coefficient values R2, the obtained isotherms are well represented by Freundlich model.

Keywords: maritime pine bark (MP), pinyon pine bark (PP), Aleppo pine (AP) bark, adsorption, dyes

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
751 CO₂ Capture by Clay and Its Adsorption Mechanism

Authors: Jedli Hedi, Hedfi Hachem, Abdessalem Jbara, Slimi Khalifa


Natural and modified clay were used as an adsorbent for CO2 capture. Sample of clay was subjected to acid treatments to improve their textural properties, namely, its surface area and pore volume. The modifications were carried out by heating the clays at 120 °C and then by acid treatment with 3M sulphuric acid solution at boiling temperature for 10 h. The CO2 adsorption capacities of the acid-treated clay were performed out in a batch reactor. It was found that the clay sample treated with 3M H2SO4 exhibited the highest Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (16.29–24.68 m2/g) and pore volume (0.056–0.064 cm3/g). After the acid treatment, the CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased. The CO2 adsorption capacity of clay increased after the acid treatment. The CO2 adsorption by clay, were characterized by SEM, FTIR, ATD-ATG and BET method. For describing the phenomenon of CO2 adsorption for these materials, the adsorption isotherms were modeled using the Freundlich and Langmuir models. CO2 adsorption isotherm was found attributable to physical adsorption.

Keywords: clay, acid treatment, CO2 capture, adsorption mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
750 Removal of Copper(II) and Lead(II) from Aqueous Phase by Plum Stone Activated Carbon

Authors: Serife Parlayici, Erol Pehlivan


In this study, plum stone shell activated carbon (PS-AC) was prepared to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. Some important parameters that influence the adsorption of metal ions such as pH, contact time and metal concentration have been systematically investigated in batch type reactors. The characterization of adsorbent is carried out by means of FTIR and SEM. It was found that the adsorption capacities of PS-AC were pH-dependent, and the optimal pH values were 4.5 and 5.0 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption was rapid and the equilibrium was reached within 60 minutes to remove of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption stability was studied in various doses of adsorbent. Langmuir, Freundlich and D-R adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibrium studies of PS-AC. Adsorption data showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) is compatible with Langmuir isotherm model. The result showed that adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir isotherm were 33.22 mg/g and 57.80 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

Keywords: plum-stone, activated carbon, copper and lead, isotherms

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
749 Adsorption of Cd2+ from Aqueous Solutions Using Chitosan Obtained from a Mixture of Littorina littorea and Achatinoidea Shells

Authors: E. D. Paul, O. F. Paul, J. E. Toryila, A. J. Salifu, C. E. Gimba


Adsorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution by Chitosan, a natural polymer, obtained from a mixture of the exoskeletons of Littorina littorea (Periwinkle) and Achatinoidea (Snail) was studied at varying adsorbent dose, contact time, metal ion concentrations, temperature and pH using batch adsorption method. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined between 298 K and 345 K. The adsorption data were adjusted to Langmuir, Freundlich and the pseudo second order kinetic models. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm model most fitted the experimental data, with a maximum monolayer adsorption of 35.1 mgkg⁻¹ at 308 K. The entropy and enthalpy of adsorption were -0.1121 kJmol⁻¹K⁻¹ and -11.43 kJmol⁻¹ respectively. The Freundlich adsorption model, gave Kf and n values consistent with good adsorption. The pseudo-second order reaction model gave a straight line plot with rate constant of 1.291x 10⁻³ kgmg⁻¹ min⁻¹. The qe value was 21.98 mgkg⁻¹, indicating that the adsorption of Cadmium ion by the chitosan composite followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, littorina littorea, achatinoidea, natural polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
748 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek


Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential, albumin

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
747 Kinetics and Thermodynamics Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Material

Authors: Makhlouf Mourad, Messabih Sidi Mohamed, Bouchher Omar, Houali Farida, Benrachedi Khaled


Mesoporous materials are very commonly used as adsorbent materials for removing phenolic compounds. However, the adsorption mechanism of these compounds is still poorly controlled. However, understanding the interactions mesoporous materials/adsorbed molecules is very important in order to optimize the processes of liquid phase adsorption. The difficulty of synthesis is to keep an orderly and cubic pore structure and achieve a homogeneous surface modification. The grafting of Si(CH3)3 was chosen, to transform hydrophilic surfaces hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of this work is to study the kinetics and thermodynamics of two volatile organic compounds VOC phenol (PhOH) and P hydroxy benzoic acid (4AHB) on a mesoporous material of type MCM-48 grafted with an organosilane of the Trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) type, the material thus grafted or functionalized (hereinafter referred to as MCM-48-G). In a first step, the kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption isotherms of each of the VOCs in mono-solution was carried out. In a second step, a similar study was carried out on a mixture of these two compounds. Kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order) were used to determine kinetic adsorption parameters. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption isotherms were determined by the adsorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich). The comparative study of adsorption of PhOH and 4AHB proved that MCM-48-G had a high adsorption capacity for PhOH and 4AHB; this may be related to the hydrophobicity created by the organic function of TMCS in MCM-48-G. The adsorption results for the two compounds using the Freundlich and Langmuir models show that the adsorption of 4AHB was higher than PhOH. The values ​​obtained by the adsorption thermodynamics show that the adsorption interactions for our sample with the phenol and 4AHB are of a physical nature. The adsorption of our VOCs on the MCM-48 (G) is a spontaneous and exothermic process.

Keywords: adsorption, kinetics, isotherm, mesoporous materials, Phenol, P-hydroxy benzoique acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
746 Study of the Adsorptives Properties of Zeolites X Exchanged by the Cations Cu2 + and/or Zn2+

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, I. Batonneau-Gener, A. Khelifa


Applying growing zeolites is due to their intrinsic physicochemical properties: a porous structure, regular, generating a large free volume, a high specific surface area, acidic properties of interest to the origin of their activity, selectivity energy and dimensional, leading to a screening phenomenon, hence the name of molecular sieves is generally attributed to them. Most of the special properties of zeolites have been valued as direct applications such as ion exchange, adsorption, separation and catalysis. Due to their crystalline structure stable, their large pore volume and their high content of cation X zeolites are widely used in the process of adsorption and separation. The acidic properties of zeolites X and interesting selectivity conferred on them their porous structure is also have potential catalysts. The study presented in this manuscript is devoted to the chemical modification of an X zeolite by cation exchange. Ion exchange of zeolite NaX by Zn 2 + cations and / or Cu 2 + is gradually conducted by following the evolution of some of its characteristics: crystallinity by XRD, micropore volume by nitrogen adsorption. Once characterized, the different samples will be used for the adsorption of propane and propylene. Particular attention is paid thereafter, on the modeling of adsorption isotherms. In this vein, various equations of adsorption isotherms and localized mobile, some taking into account the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, are used to describe the experimental isotherms. We also used the Toth equation, a mathematical model with three parameters whose adjustment requires nonlinear regression. The last part is dedicated to the study of acid properties of Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X, with the adsorption-desorption of pyridine followed by IR. The effect of substitution at different rates of Na + by Cu2 + cations and / or Zn 2 +, on the crystallinity and on the textural properties was treated. Some results on the morphology of the crystallites and the thermal effects during a temperature rise, obtained by scanning electron microscopy and DTA-TGA thermal analyzer, respectively, are also reported. The acidity of our different samples was also studied. Thus, the nature and strength of each type of acidity are estimated. The evaluation of these various features will provide a comparison between Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X. One study on adsorption of C3H8 and C3H6 in NaX, Cu (x) X , Zn (x) x and CuZn (x) x has been undertaken.

Keywords: adsorption, acidity, ion exchange, zeolite

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745 Removal of P-Nitrophenol in Wastewater by Using Fe-Nano Zeolite Synthesized

Authors: Pham-Thi Huong, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Chi-Hyeon Lee, JiTae Kim


This study analyzed the removal of p-nitrophenol from wastewater using Fe-nano zeolite synthesized. The basic physical-chemical properties of Fe-nano zeolite was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We focus on finding out the optimum conditions in adsorption and desorption processes for removal of p-nitrophenol by using Fe-nano zeolite in wastewater. The optimum pH for p-nitrophenol removal in wastewater was 5.0. Adsorption isotherms were better fitted with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich with 165.58 mg/g adsorption capacity of p-nitrophenol. These findings support potential of Fe-nano zeolite as an effective adsorbent for p-nitrophenol removal from wastewater.

Keywords: Fe-nano zeolite, adsorption, wastewater, regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
744 Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a New Adsorbent for the Removal of Pyridine from Organic Medium

Authors: Opeyemi Elujulo, Aderonke Okoya, Kehinde Awokoya


Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for the adsorption of pyridine (PYD) was obtained from PYD (the template), styrene (the functional monomer), divinyl benzene (the crosslinker), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and water (the porogen). When the template was removed by solvent extraction, imprinted binding sites were left in the polymer material that are capable of selectively rebinding the target molecule. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the adsorption of the material in terms of adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the imprinted polymer exhibited higher affinity for PYD compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP).

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, bulk polymerization, environmental pollutant, adsorption

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743 Synthesis of NiO and ZnO Nanoparticles and Charactiration for the Eradication of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater

Authors: Sadia Ata, Anila Tabassum, Samina ghafoor, Ijaz ul Mohsin, Azam Muktar


Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Hg2+, in wastewater are considered as the serious environmental problem. Among these heavy metals, Lead or Pb (II) is the most toxic heavy metal. Exposure to lead causes damage of nervous system, mental retardation, renal kidney disease, anemia and cancer in human beings. Adsorption is the most widely used method to remove metal ions based on the physical interaction between metal ions and sorbents. With the development of nanotechnology, nano-sized materials are proved to be effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater due to their unique structural properties. The present work mainly focuses on the synthesis of NiO and ZnO nanoparticles for the removal of Lead ions, their preparation, characterization by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, along with adsorption isotherm model and adsorption kinetics to understand the adsorption procedure.

Keywords: heavy metal, adsorption isotherms, nanoparticles, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
742 The Use of Thermally Modified Diatomite to Remove Lead Ions

Authors: Hilary Limo Rutto


To better understand the application of diatomite as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from heavy metal-contaminated water, in this paper, diatomite was used to adsorb Pb2+ from aqueous solution under various conditions. The intrinsic exchange properties were further improved by heating the raw diatomite with fluxing agent at different temperatures and modification with manganese oxides. It is evident that the mass of the adsorbed Pb2+ generally increases after thermal treatment and modification with manganese oxides. The adsorption characteristics of lead on diatomite were studied at pH range of 2.5–12. The favourable pH range was found to be 7.5-8.5. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e.,∆H° ∆G° ∆S°) were evaluated from the temperature dependent adsorption isotherms. The results indicated that the adsorption process of Pb2+ on diatomite was spontaneous, endothermic and physical in nature. The equilibrium data have been analyzed using Langmuir and freundlich isotherm. The Langmuir isotherm was demonstrated to provide the best correlation for the adsorption of lead onto diatomite. The kinetics was studied using Pseudo- first and second-order model on the adsorption of lead onto diatomite. The results give best fit in second-order studies and it can be concluded that the adsorption of lead onto diatomite is second order reaction.

Keywords: thermally modified, diatomite, adsorption, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
741 Arsenic(III) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption onto Fly Ash

Authors: Olushola Ayanda, Simphiwe Nelana, Eliazer Naidoo


In the present study, the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of the adsorption of As(III) ions from aqueous solution onto fly ash (FA) was investigated in batch adsorption system. Prior to the adsorption studies, the FA was characterized by means of x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area determination. The effect of contact time, initial As(III) concentration, FA dosage, stirring speed, solution pH and temperature was examined on the adsorption rate. Experimental results showed a very good compliance with the pseudo-second-order equation, while the equilibrium study showed that the sorption of As(III) ions onto FA fitted the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous, moreover, the maximum percentage removal of As(III) achieved with approx. 2.5 g FA mixed with 25 mL of 100 mg/L As(III) solution was 65.4 % at pH 10, 60 min contact time, temperature of 353 K and a stirring speed of 120 rpm.

Keywords: arsenic, fly ash, kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
740 Adsorption of Peppermint Essential Oil by Polypropylene Nanofiber

Authors: Duduku Krishnaiah, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Kumaran Govindaraj, Chiam Chel Ken, Zykamilia Kamin


Pure essential oil is highly demanded in the market since most of the so-called pure essential oils in the market contains alcohol. This is because of the usage of alcohol in separating oil and water mixture. Removal of pure essential oil from water without using any chemical solvent has become a challenging issue. Adsorbents generally have the properties of separating hydrophobic oil from hydrophilic mixture. Polypropylen nanofiber is a thermoplastic polymer which is produced from propylene. It was used as an adsorbent in this study. Based on the research, it was found that the polypropylene nanofiber was able to adsorb peppermint oil from the aqueous solution over a wide range of concentration. Based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), nanofiber has very small nano diameter fiber size in average before the adsorption and larger scaled average diameter of fibers after adsorption which indicates that smaller diameter of nanofiber enhances the adsorption process. The adsorption capacity of peppermint oil increases as the initial concentration of peppermint oil and amount of polypropylene nanofiber used increases. The maximum adsorption capacity of polypropylene nanofiber was found to be 689.5 mg/g at (T= 30°C). Moreover, the adsorption capacity of peppermint oil decreases as the temperature of solution increases. The equilibrium data of polypropylene nanofiber is best represented by Freundlich isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacity of 689.5 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics of polypropylene nanofiber was best represented by pseudo-second order model.

Keywords: nanofiber, adsorption, peppermint essential oil, isotherms, adsorption kinetics

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739 Cadmium Adsorption by Modified Magnetic Biochar

Authors: Chompoonut Chaiyaraksa, Chanida Singbubpha, Kliaothong Angkabkingkaew, Thitikorn Boonyasawin


Heavy metal contamination in an environment is an important problem in Thailand that needs to be addressed urgently, particularly contaminated with water. It can spread to other environments faster. This research aims to study the adsorption of cadmium ion by unmodified biochar and sodium dodecyl sulfate modified magnetic biochar derived from Eichhornia Crassipes. The determination of the adsorbent characteristics was by Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, X-ray Diffractometer, and the pH drift method. This study also included the comparison of adsorption efficiency of both types of biochar, adsorption isotherms, and kinetics. The pH value at the point of zero charges of the unmodified biochar and modified magnetic biochar was 7.40 and 3.00, respectively. The maximum value of adsorption reached when using pH 8. The equilibrium adsorption time was 5 hours and 1 hour for unmodified biochar and modified magnetic biochar, respectively. The cadmium adsorption by both adsorbents followed Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin – Radushkevich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic. The adsorption process was spontaneous at high temperatures and non-spontaneous at low temperatures. It was an endothermic process, physisorption in nature, and can occur naturally.

Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, magnetic biochar, sodium dodecyl sulfate, water treatment

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738 An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells

Authors: Somen Mondal, Subrata Kumar Majumder


Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model, characterization

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737 Optimization of Adsorption Performance of Lignocellulosic Waste Pretreatment and Chemical Modification

Authors: Bendjelloul Meriem, Elandaloussi El Hadj


In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a lignocellulosic waste (wood sawdust) for the removal of cadmium Cd (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorbent material SBO-CH2-CO2Na has been prepared by alkaline pretreatment of wood sawdust followed by a chemical modification with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid. The characterization of the as-prepared material by FTIR has proven that the grafting of acetate spacer took actually place in the lignocellulosic backbone by the appearance of characteristic band of carboxylic groups in the IR spectrum. The removal study of Cd2+ by SBO-CH2-CO2Na material at the solid-liquid interface was carried out by kinetics, sorption isotherms, effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The last part of this work was dedicated to assess the regenerability of the adsorbent material after three reuse cycles. The results indicate that SBO-CH2-CO2Na matrix possesses a high effectiveness in removing Cd (II) with an adsorption capacity of 222.22 mg/g, yet a better value that those of many low-cost adsorbents so far reported in the literature. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ionic exchange is the most appropriate mechanism involved in the removal of cadmium ions.

Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, lignocellulosic, regenerability

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736 Mulberry Leave: An Efficient and Economical Adsorbent for Remediation of Arsenic (V) and Arsenic (III) Contaminated Water

Authors: Saima Q. Memon, Mazhar I. Khaskheli


The aim of present study was to investigate the efficiency of mulberry leaves for the removal of both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) from aqueous medium. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimize various parameters such as pH of metal ion solution, volume of sorbate, sorbent doze, and agitation speed and agitation time. Maximum sorption efficiency of mulberry leaves for As (III) and As (V) at optimum conditions were 2818 μg.g-1 and 4930 μg.g-1, respectively. The experimental data was a good fit to Freundlich and D-R adsorption isotherm. Energy of adsorption was found to be in the range of 3-6 KJ/mole suggesting the physical nature of process. Kinetic data followed the first order rate, Morris-Weber equations. Developed method was applied to remove arsenic from real water samples.

Keywords: arsenic removal, mulberry, adsorption isotherms, kinetics of adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
735 Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Chitosan Nanocomposite for Methylene Blue Adsorption

Authors: S. Melvin Samuel, Jayanta Bhattacharya


In the present study, a graphene oxide/chitosan (GO-CS) composite material was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The synthesized GO-CS adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of MB was conducted in batch mode. The effect of parameters influencing the adsorption of MB such as pH of the solution, initial MB concentration, shaking speed, contact time and adsorbent dosage were studied. The results showed that the GO-CS composite material has high adsorption capacity of 196 mg/g of MB solution at pH 9.0. Further, the adsorption of MB on GO-CS followed pseudo second order kinetics and equilibrium adsorption data well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model. The study suggests that the GO-CS is a favorable adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Methylene blue, Graphene oxide-chitosan, Isotherms, Kinetics.

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734 Sustainable Biogas Upgrading: Characterization of Adsorption Properties of Tuff

Authors: Emanuele Bonamente, Andrea Aquino, Franco Cotana


This paper presents experimental results from the analysis of Tuff for CO2 and H2S removal from biogas. Synthetic zeolites, commonly used for biogas upgrading, are characterized by excellent performance in terms of carbon dioxide adsorption, however, cost and environmental footprint represent a negative contribute to their sustainability. Natural zeolites contained in Tuff, a totally inexpensive byproduct of the construction industry, show very interesting selective adsorption properties, associated with its availability in regions, as central Italy, where biogas production from small scale plants is rapidly increasing. An in-house experimental device was assembled to measure the adsorption capacity of Tuff as a function of partial CO2 pressure for different temperatures (i.e. adsorption isotherms). Results show performances as high as 66% with respect to commercial zeolites (13X). A sensitivity analysis of different regeneration processes is also presented. A comparative analysis of natural and synthetic zeolites was finally performed using biogas samples obtained from different types of feedstock and characterized by varying CO2 and H2S content.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, CO2 adsorption, sustainable energy, tuff

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
733 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption Using Macadamia Nutshells: Effect of Different Treatment Methods

Authors: Vusumzi E. Pakade, Themba D. Ntuli, Augustine E. Ofomaja


Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different methods (raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)) were investigated for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent dosage 0.2 g L-1, and concentration 100 mg L-1. The different treatment methods altered the surface characteristics of the sorbents and produced different maximum binding capacities of 42.5, 40.6 and 37.5 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively. The data was fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms. No single model could clearly explain the data perhaps due to the complexity of process taking place. The kinetic modeling results showed that the process of Cr(VI) biosorption with Macadamia sorbents was better described by a process of chemical sorption in pseudo-second order. These results showed that the three treatment methods yielded different surface properties which then influenced adsorption of Cr(VI) differently.

Keywords: biosorption, chromium(VI), isotherms, Macadamia, reduction, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 161