Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 473

Search results for: axial voidage

473 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
472 Ocular Biometry: Common Etiologies of Difference More Than 0.33mm between Axial Lengths of the 2 Eyes

Authors: Ghandehari Motlagh, Mohammad

Abstract:

Purpose: We tried to find the most common etiologies for anisometropia in pre-op cataract cases: axial or refractive. Methods: In this cross-sectional study ,41 pre-op cataract eyes with more than 0.33 difference between axial lengths of 2 eyes were enrolled.Considered for each 1mm difference between axial lengths in long eyes( AXL more than 25):1.75-2.00 D of anisometropia, for normal eyes(AXL: 22- 25):2.50D and for short eyes (AXL less than 22):3.50-3.75 D as axial anisometropia. If there are more or lesser anisometropia, we recorded as refractive anisometropia. Results: Average of anisometropia :4.24 D, prevalence of PK or LK :1 (2.38%), kc:1(2.38%), glaucoma surgery: 1(2.38%), and pseudophakic status of the opposite eye 8(19.04%). Prevalence of axial anisometropia:21 (52.4%) and refractive anisometropia 20(47.6%).Then on basis of this study we can rely on the patient’s refraction exactly before phaco for evaluation of axial length differences between the 2 eyes, because most of the anisometropias are axial. Conclusion: In most cases, cataract does not induce significant change in refractive error (secondary myopia) and AXL difference between the 2 eyes are correlated with anisometropia.so it can be used for cataract patient’s ocular biometry evaluation. Pre-cataract refraction is a valuable variable should be measured and recorded in routin eye examination.

Keywords: ocular axial length, anisometropia, cataract, ophthalmology and optometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
471 A Comprehensive Review of Axial Flux Machines and Its Applications

Authors: Shahbaz Amin, Sabir Hussain Shah, Sahib Khan

Abstract:

This paper presents a thorough review concerning the design types of axial flux permanent magnet machines (AFPM) in terms of different features such as construction, design, materials, and manufacturing. Particular emphasis is given on the design and performance analysis of AFPM machines. A comparison among different permanent magnet machines is also provided. First of all, early and modern axial flux machines are mentioned. Secondly, rotor construction of different axial flux machines is described, then different stator constructions are mentioned depending upon the presence of slots and stator back iron. Then according to the arrangement of the rotor stator structure the machines are classified into single, double and multi-stack arrangements. Advantages, disadvantages and applications of each type of rotor and stator are pointed out. Finally on the basis of the reviewed literature merits, demerits, features and application of different axial flux machines structures are explained and clarified. Thus, this paper provides connection between the machines that are currently being used in industry and the developments of AFPM throughout the years.

Keywords: axial flux machines, axial flux applications, coreless machines, PM machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
470 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang

Abstract:

According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
469 Eccentric Loading of CFDST Columns

Authors: Trevor N. Haas, Alexander Koen

Abstract:

Columns have traditionally been constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel. Much attention was allocated to estimate the axial capacity of the traditional column sections to the detriment of other forms of construction. Other forms of column construction such as Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubes received little research attention, and almost no attention when subjected to eccentric loading. This paper investigates the axial capacity of columns when subjected to eccentric loading. The experimental axial capacities are compared to other established theoretical formulae on concentric loading to determine a possible relationship. The study found a good correlation between the reduction in axial capacity for different column lengths and hollow section ratios.

Keywords: CSDST, CFST, axial capacity, hollow section ratios

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
468 Investigation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls with Axial Force

Authors: Hyun Ah Yoon, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall system of residential buildings is popular in South Korea. RC walls are subjected to axial forces in common and the effect of axial forces on the strength loss of the fire damaged walls has not been investigated. This paper aims at investigating temperature distribution on fire damaged concrete walls having different axial loads. In the experiments, a variable of specimens is axial force ratio. RC walls are fabricated with 150mm of wall thicknesses, 750mm of lengths and 1,300mm of heights having concrete strength of 24MPa. After curing, specimens are heated on one surface with ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve for 2 hours and temperature distributions during the test are measured using thermocouples inside the walls. The experimental results show that the temperature of the RC walls exposed to fire increases as axial force ratio increases. To verify the experiments, finite element (FE) models are generated for coupled temperature-structure analyses. The analytical results of thermal behaviors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted displacement of the walls decreases when the axial force increases. 

Keywords: axial force ratio, fire, reinforced concrete wall, residual strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
467 Determination of the Axial-Vector from an Extended Linear Sigma Model

Authors: Tarek Sayed Taha Ali

Abstract:

The dependence of the axial-vector coupling constant gA on the quark masses has been investigated in the frame work of the extended linear sigma model. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation. Our study shows a better fitting to the experimental data compared with the existing models.

Keywords: extended linear sigma model, nucleon properties, axial coupling constant, physic

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
466 The Effects of Time and Cyclic Loading to the Axial Capacity for Offshore Pile in Shallow Gas

Authors: Christian H. Girsang, M. Razi B. Mansoor, Noorizal N. Huang

Abstract:

An offshore platform was installed in 1977 at about 260km offshore West Malaysia at the water depth of 73.6m. Twelve (12) piles were installed with four (4) are skirt piles. The piles have 1.219m outside diameter and wall thickness of 31mm and were driven to 109m below seabed. Deterministic analyses of the pile capacity under axial loading were conducted using the current API (American Petroleum Institute) method and the four (4) CPT-based methods: the ICP (Imperial College Pile)-method, the NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)-Method, the UWA (University of Western Australia)-method and the Fugro-method. A statistical analysis of the model uncertainty associated with each pile capacity method was performed. There were two (2) piles analysed: Pile 1 and piles other than Pile 1, where Pile 1 is the pile that was most affected by shallow gas problems. Using the mean estimate of soil properties, the five (5) methods used for deterministic estimation of axial pile capacity in compression predict an axial capacity from 28 to 42MN for Pile 1 and 32 to 49MN for piles other than Pile 1. These values refer to the static capacity shortly after pile installation. They do not include the effects of cyclic loading during the design storm or time after installation on the axial pile capacity. On average, the axial pile capacity is expected to have increased by about 40% because of ageing since the installation of the platform in 1977. On the other hand, the cyclic loading effects during the design storm may reduce the axial capacity of the piles by around 25%. The study concluded that all piles have sufficient safety factor when the pile aging and cyclic loading effect are considered, as all safety factors are above 2.0 for maximum operating and storm loads.

Keywords: axial capacity, cyclic loading, pile ageing, shallow gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
465 Evaluating of Design Codes for Circular High Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Authors: Soner Guler, Eylem Guzel, Mustafa Gülen

Abstract:

Recently, concrete-filled steel tube columns are highly popular in high-rise buildings. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and American Concrete Institute (ACI) design codes. The axial load capacities of fifteen concrete-filled steel tubes stub columns were compared with design codes EU4 and ACI. The results showed that the EC4 overestimate the axial load capacity for all the specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Eurocode 4, ACI design codes

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
464 Impedance Matching of Axial Mode Helical Antennas

Authors: Hossein Mardani, Neil Buchanan, Robert Cahill, Vincent Fusco

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas to find an effective way for matching it to 50 Ω. The study is done on the important matching parameters such as like wire diameter and helix to the ground plane gap. It is intended that these parameters control the matching without detrimentally affecting the radiation pattern. Using transmission line theory, a simple broadband technique is proposed, which is applicable for perfect matching of antennas with similar design parameters. We provide design curves to help to choose the proper dimensions of the matching section based on the antenna’s unmatched input impedance. Finally, using the proposed technique, a 4-turn axial mode helix is designed at 2.5 GHz center frequency and the measurement results of the manufactured antenna will be included. This parametric study gives a good insight into the input impedance characteristics of axial mode helical antennas and the proposed impedance matching approach provides a simple, useful method for matching these types of antennas.

Keywords: antenna, helix, helical, axial mode, wireless power transfer, impedance matching

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
463 Numerical Investigation the Effect of Adjustable Guide Vane for Improving the Airflow Rate in Axial Fans

Authors: Behzad Shahizare, N. Nik-Ghazali, Kannan M. Munisamy, Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to clarify the effect of the adjustable outlet guide vane (OGV) on the axial fan. Three-dimensional Numerical study was performed to analyze the effect of adjustable guide vane for improving the airflow rate in axial fans. Grid independence test was done between five different meshes in order to choose the reliable mesh. In flow analyses, Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations was solved using three types of turbulence models named k-ɛ, k-ω and k-ω SST. The aerodynamic performances of the fan and guide vane were evaluated. Numerical method was validated by comparing with experimental test according to AMECA 210 standard. Results showed that, by using the adjustable guide vane the airflow rate is increased around 3% to 6 %. The maximum enhancement of the airflow rate was achieved when pressure was 374pa.

Keywords: axial fan, adjustable guide vane, CFD, turbo machinery

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
462 Methodology of Preliminary Design and Performance of a Axial-Flow Fan through CFD

Authors: Ramiro Gustavo Ramirez Camacho, Waldir De Oliveira, Eraldo Cruz Dos Santos, Edna Raimunda Da Silva, Tania Marie Arispe Angulo, Carlos Eduardo Alves Da Costa, Tânia Cristina Alves Dos Reis

Abstract:

It presents a preliminary design methodology of an axial fan based on the lift wing theory and the potential vortex hypothesis. The literature considers a study of acoustic and engineering expertise to model a fan with low noise. Axial fans with inadequate intake geometry, often suffer poor condition of the flow at the entrance, varying from velocity profiles spatially asymmetric to swirl floating with respect to time, this produces random forces acting on the blades. This produces broadband gust noise which in most cases triggers the tonal noise. The analysis of the axial flow fan will be conducted for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations and models of turbulence in steady and transitory (RANS - URANS) 3-D, in order to find an efficient aerodynamic design, with low noise and suitable for industrial installation. Therefore, the process will require the use of computational optimization methods, aerodynamic design methodologies, and numerical methods as CFD- Computational Fluid Dynamics. The objective is the development of the methodology of the construction axial fan, provide of design the geometry of the blade, and evaluate aerodynamic performance

Keywords: Axial fan design, CFD, Preliminary Design, Optimization

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461 Study of Crashworthiness Behavior of Thin-Walled Tube under Axial Loading by Using Computational Mechanics

Authors: M. Kamal M. Shah, Noorhifiantylaily Ahmad, O. Irma Wani, J. Sahari

Abstract:

This paper presents the computationally mechanics analysis of energy absorption for cylindrical and square thin wall tubed structure by using ABAQUS/explicit. The crashworthiness behavior of AISI 1020 mild steel thin-walled tube under axial loading has been studied. The influence effects of different model’s cross-section, as well as model length on the crashworthiness behavior of thin-walled tube, are investigated. The model was placed on loading platform under axial loading with impact velocity of 5 m/s to obtain the deformation results of each model under quasi-static loading. The results showed that model undergoes different deformation mode exhibits different energy absorption performance.

Keywords: axial loading, computational mechanics, energy absorption performance, crashworthiness behavior, deformation mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
460 Devulcanization of Waste Rubber Tyre Utilizing Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonic Energy

Authors: Ricky Saputra, Rashmi Walvekar, Mohammad Khalid, Kaveh Shahbaz, Suganti Ramarad

Abstract:

This particular study of interest aims to study the effect of coupling ultrasonic treatment with eutectic solvents in devulcanization process of waste rubber tyre. Specifically, three different types of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) were utilized, namely ChCl:Urea (1:2), ChCl:ZnCl₂ (1:2) and ZnCl₂:urea (2:7) in which their physicochemical properties were analysed and proven to have permissible water content that is less than 3.0 wt%, degradation temperature below 200ᵒC and freezing point below 60ᵒC. The mass ratio of rubber to DES was varied from 1:20-1:40, sonicated for 1 hour at 37 kHz and heated at variable time of 5-30 min at 180ᵒC. Energy dispersive x-rays (EDX) results revealed that the first two DESs give the highest degree of sulphur removal at 74.44 and 76.69% respectively with optimum heating time at 15 minutes whereby if prolonged, reformation of crosslink network would be experienced. Such is supported by the evidence shown by both FTIR and FESEM results where di-sulfide peak reappears at 30 minutes and morphological structures from 15 to 30 minutes change from smooth with high voidage to rigid with low voidage respectively. Furthermore, TGA curve reveals similar phenomena whereby at 15 minutes thermal decomposition temperature is at the lowest due to the decrease of molecular weight as a result of sulphur removal but increases back at 30 minutes. Type of bond change was also analysed whereby it was found that only di-sulphide bond was cleaved and which indicates partial-devulcanization. Overall, the results show that DES has a great potential to be used as devulcanizing solvent.

Keywords: crosslink network, devulcanization, eutectic solvents, reformation, ultrasonic

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459 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song

Abstract:

An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024 aluminum, friction stir joining

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458 Effect of Non-Crimp Fabric Structure on Mechanical Properties of Laminates

Authors: Hireni R. Mankodi, D. J. Chudasama

Abstract:

The textile preforms play a key role in providing the mechanical properties and gives the idea about selection parameter of preforms to improve the quality and performance of laminates. The main objectives of this work are to study the effect of non-crimp fabric preform structure in final properties of laminates. It has been observed that the multi-axial preform give better mechanical properties of laminates as compared to woven and biaxial fabrics. This study investigated the effect of different non-crimp glass preform structure on tensile strength, bending and compression properties of glass laminates. The different woven, bi-axial and multi-axial fabrics with similar GSM used to manufacture the laminates using polyester resin. The structural and mechanical properties of preform and laminates were studied using standard methods. It has been observed that the glass fabric geometry, including type of weaves, warps and filling density and number of layer plays significant role in deciding mechanical properties of laminates.

Keywords: preform, non-crimp structure, laminates, bi-axial, multiaxial

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457 A Comparison of Computational and Experimental Data to Investigate the Influence of the Tangential Velocity of Inner Rotating Wall on Axial Velocity Profile of Flow through Vertical Annular Pipe with Rotating Inner Surface

Authors: Abdusalam Sharf

Abstract:

In the oil and gas industries, one of the most important issues in drilling wells is understanding the behavior of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates. The main emphasis is placed on a comparison of experimental and computational investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The computational investigations were carried out by employing CFD software, and Gambit and Fluent. Three turbulence models were used: standard, RNG with enhanced wall treatment, and SST model. The profiles of the axial velocity had investigated at different rotation speeds of the inner pipe with three different volumetric flow rates. The comparison results showed that the calculations satisfactorily predict the qualitative features of the axial and swirl velocity profiles and the RNG model performs the best results.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), SST k−ω shear-stress transport (k−ω mode variant), RNG k–ε renormalisation group (k−ε mode variant), y+ dimensionless distance from wall

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456 Effect of CSL Tube Type on the Drilled Shaft Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Ali Motevalli, Shahin Nayyeri Amiri

Abstract:

Cross-Hole Sonic Logging (CSL) is a common type of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method, which is currently used to check the integrity of placed drilled shafts. CSL evaluates the integrity of the concrete inside the cage and between the access tubes based on propagation of ultrasonic waves between two or more access tubes. A number of access tubes are installed inside the reinforcing cage prior to concrete placement as guides for sensors. The access tubes can be PVC or steel galvanized based on ASTM6760. The type of the CSL tubes can affect the axial strength of the drilled shaft. The objective of this study is to compare the amount of axial load capacity of drilled shafts due to using a different type of CSL tubes inside the caging. To achieve this, three (3) large-scale drilled shaft samples were built and tested using a hydraulic actuator at the Florida International University’s (FIU) Titan America Structures and Construction Testing (TASCT) laboratory. During the static load test, load-displacement curves were recorded by the data acquisition system (MegaDAC). Three drilled shaft samples were built to evaluate the effect of the type of the CSL tube on the axial load capacity in drilled shaft foundations.

Keywords: drilled shaft foundations, axial load capacity, cage, PVC, galvanized tube, CSL tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
455 Anchorage Effect on Axial Strength of Fiber Reinforced Polymers Confined Rectangular Columns

Authors: Yavuz Yardim

Abstract:

FRP systems have been largely used to improve the performance of structural members, due to their high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Application of this strengthening procedure in circular columns has resulted quite beneficial in increasing their seismic and axial capacity. Whereas in the rectangular ones, strength enhancement was considerably less due to stress concentration in the corner. In this work three anchorage configurations are tested for their efficiency in increasing the uniformity of confinement pressure in the CFRP strengthened non-circular sections. There is a slight increase in the axial strength of specimens as a general trend. More specifically fan anchorage reached an increase of 17.5% compared to the unanchored specimens. The study shows that uniformity of confining pressure has increased by adding anchorage.

Keywords: rectangular columns, FRP, confinement, anchorage

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
454 Effect of Size and Soil Characteristic on Contribution of Side and Tip Resistance of the Drilled Shafts Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Mehrak Zargaryaeghoubi, Masood Hajali

Abstract:

Drilled shafts are the most popular of deep foundations, because they have the capability that one single shaft can easily carry the entire load of a large column from a bridge or tall building. Drilled shaft may be an economical alternative to pile foundations because a pile cap is not needed, which not only reduces that expense, but also provides a rough surface in the border of soil and concrete to carry a more axial load. Due to the larger construction sizes of drilled shafts, they have an excellent axial load carrying capacity. Part of the axial load carrying capacity of the drilled shaft is resisted by the soil below the tip of the shaft which is tip resistance and the other part is resisted by the friction developed around the drilled shaft which is side resistance. The condition at the bottom of the excavation can affect the end bearing capacity of the drilled shaft. Also, type of the soil and size of the drilled shaft can affect the frictional resistance. The main loads applied on the drilled shafts are axial compressive loads. It is important to know how many percent of the maximum applied load will be shed inside friction and how much will be transferred to the base. The axial capacity of the drilled shaft foundation is influenced by the size of the drilled shaft, and soil characteristics. In this study, the effect of the size and soil characteristic will be investigated on the contribution of side resistance and end-bearing capacity. Also, the study presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of a drilled shaft subjected to axial load using ANSYS. The top displacement and settlement of the drilled shaft are verified with analytical results. The soil profile is considered as Table 1 and for a drilled shaft with 7 ft diameter and 95 ft length the stresses in z-direction are calculated through the length of the shaft. From the stresses in z-direction through the length of the shaft the side resistance can be calculated and with the z-direction stress at the tip, the tip resistance can be calculated. The result of the side and tip resistance for this drilled shaft are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: Drilled Shaft Foundation, size and soil characteristic, axial load capacity, Finite Element

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453 Evaluating the Fire Resistance of Offshore Tubular K-Joints Subjected to Balanced Axial Loads

Authors: Neda Azari Dodaran, Hamid Ahmadi

Abstract:

Results of 405 finite element (FE) analyses were used in the present research to study the effect of the joint geometry on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness of tubular K-joints subjected to axial loading at fire-induced elevated temperatures. The FE models were validated against the data available from experimental tests. Structural behavior under different temperatures (200ºC, 400ºC, 500ºC, and 700ºC) was investigated and compared to the behavior at ambient temperature (20ºC). A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of dimensionless geometrical parameters (β, γ, θ, and τ) on the ultimate strength and initial stiffness. Afterwards, ultimate strength data extracted from the FE analyses were compared with the values calculated from the equations proposed by available design codes in which the ultimate strength of the joint at elevated temperatures is obtained by replacing the yield stress of the steel at ambient temperature with the corresponding value at elevated temperature. It was indicated that this method may not have acceptable accuracy for K-joints under axial loading. Hence, a design formula was developed, through nonlinear regression analyses, to determine the ultimate strength of K-joints subjected to balanced axial loads at elevated temperatures.

Keywords: axial loading, elevated temperature, parametric equation, static strength, tubular K-joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
452 A Brief Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Fuat Korkut, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian Standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
451 A Review of the Axial Capacity of Circular High Strength Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns

Authors: Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel, Soner Guler

Abstract:

The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian Standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
450 A Comparative Study for the Axial Load Capacity of Circular High Strength CFST Columns

Authors: Eylem Guzel, Faruk Osmanoglu, Muhammet Kurucu

Abstract:

The concrete filled steel tube (CFST) columns are commonly used in construction applications such as high-rise buildings and bridges owing to its lots of remarkable benefits. The use of concrete-filled steel tube columns provides large areas by reduction in cross-sectional area of columns. The main aim of this study is to examine the axial load capacities of circular high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns according to Eurocode 4 (EC4) and Chinese Code (DL/T). The results showed that the predictions of EC4 and Chinese Code DL/T are unsafe for all specimens.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube column, axial load capacity, Chinese code, Australian standard

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
449 Effect of Reinforcement Steel Ratio on the Behavior of R. C. Columns Exposed to Fire

Authors: Hatem Ghith

Abstract:

This research paper experimentally investigates the effect of burning by fire flame from one face on the behavior and load carrying capacity for reinforced columns. Residual ultimate load carrying capacity, axial deformation, crack pattern and maximum crack width for column specimens with and without burning were recorded and discussed. Tested six reinforced concrete columns were divided into control specimen and two groups. The first group was exposed to a fire with a different temperature (300, 500, 700 °C) for an hour with reinforcement ratio 0.89% and the second group was exposed to a fire with a temperature 500 °C for an hour with different reinforcement ratio (0.89%, 2.18%, and 3.57%), then all columns were tested under short-term axial loading. From the obtained results, it could be concluded that the fire parameters significantly influence the fire resistance of R.C columns. The fire parameters cause axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity that generated from the difference in temperature and consequently the compressive stresses of both faces of the columns but the increased reinforcement ratio enhanced the resistance of columns for axial deformation and moment on the column due to the eccentricity.

Keywords: columns, reinforcement ratio, strength, time exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
448 Suggestion of Two-Step Traction Therapy for Safer and More Effective Conservative Treatment for Low Back Pain

Authors: Won Man Park, Dae Kyung Choi, Kyungsoo Kim, Yoon Hyuk Kim

Abstract:

Traction therapy has been used in the treatment of spinal pain for decades. However, a case study reported the occurrence of large disc protrusion during motorized traction therapy. In this study, we hypothesized that additional local decompression with a global axial traction could be helpful for risk reduction of intervertebral disc damage. A validated three dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine was used. Two-step traction therapy using the axial global traction (the first step) with 1/3 body weight and the additional local decompression (the second step) with 7 mm translation of L4 spinal bone was determined for the traction therapy. During two-step traction therapy, the sacrum was constrained in all translational directions. Reduced lordosis angle by the global axial traction recovered with the additional local decompression. Stress on fibers of the annulus fibrosus by the axial global traction decreased with the local decompression by 17%~96% in the posterior region of intervertebral disc. Stresses on ligaments except anterior longitudinal ligaments in all motion segments decreased till 4.9 mm~5.6 mm translation of L4 spinal bone. The results of this study showed that the additional local decompression is very useful for reducing risk of damage in the intervertebral disc and ligaments caused by the global axial traction force. Moreover, the local decompression could be used to enhance reduction of intradiscal pressure.

Keywords: lumbar spine, traction-therapy, biomechanics, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
447 Performance Analysis of Solar Air Heater with Fins and Perforated Twisted Tape Insert

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Prabha Chand

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the analytical investigation on the thermal and thermo-hydraulic performance of the solar air collector fitted with fins and perforated twisted tapes (PTT) of twist ratio 2 with different axial pitch ratio. The mathematical models are presented, and the effect of mass flow rate and axial pitch ratios on the thermal and effective efficiency has been discussed. The results obtained are compared with the results of the solar air heater without fins and twisted tapes. Results conveyed that the collectors with fins and perforated twisted tape perform better but at the expense of increased pressure drop. Also, twisted tape with minimum axial pitch ratio is found to be more efficient than others.

Keywords: solar air heater, thermal efficiency, twisted tape, twist ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
446 Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Seismic Behavior of Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened by Fiber-Reinforced Polymers Jacketing

Authors: Ebrahim Zamani Beydokhti, Hashem Shariatmadar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation on the behavior of retrofitted beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. The experimental program comprises 8 external beam–column joint connection subassemblages tested in 2 phases; one was the damaging phase and second was the repairing phase. The beam-column joints were no seismically designed, i.e. the joint, beam and column critical zones had no special transverse stirrups. The joins were tested under cyclic loading in previous research. The experiment had two phases named damage phase and retrofit phase. Then the experimental results compared with analytical results achieved from modeling in OpenSees software. The presence of lateral slab and the axial load amount were analytically investigated. The results showed that increasing the axial load and presence of lateral slab increased the joint capacity. The presence of lateral slab increased the dissipated energy, while the axial load had no significant effect on it.

Keywords: concrete beam-column joints, CFRP sheets, lateral slab, axial load

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
445 Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing

Authors: K. Yathish, K. G. Binu, B. S. Shenoy, D. S. Rao, R. Pai

Abstract:

Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil

Keywords: journal bearing, TiO2 nanoparticles, viscosity model, Reynold's equation, load carrying capacity

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444 Second Order Analysis of Frames Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method as a method of non-linear frame analysis by considering the effect of the axial load (second order analysis). The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. This part of the investigation is performed to generalize the established method for the assemblage structures such as frameworks. As explained, the governing differential equations are non-linear and cannot be formulated easily due to unknown axial load of the struts in the frame. By the assumption of constant axial load, the governing equations are changed to linear ones in most methods. Since the modeling and the solutions of the non-linear form of the governing equations are cumbersome, the linear form of the equations would be used in the established method. However, according to the ability of the method to reconsider the minor omitted parameters in modeling during the solution procedure, the axial load in the elements at each stage of the iteration can be computed and applied in the next stage. Therefore, the ability of the method to present an accurate approach to the solutions of non-linear equations will be demonstrated again in this paper.

Keywords: nonlinear, stability, buckling, modified newmark method

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