Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Shafique Qadir Memon

51 Input Energy Requirements and Performance of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Yield of Maize Crop

Authors: Shafique Qadir Memon, Muhammad Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal, Nadeem Amjad

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to determine direct input energy and indirect energy in maize production, to evaluate the inputs energy consumption and outputs energy gained for maize production in Islamabad, Pakistan for spring 2013. Results showed that grain yield was maximum under deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input/output were maximum in deep tillage as compared to conventional tillage while lowest in zero tillage, net energy gain were found maximum under deep tillage.

Keywords: tillage, energy, grain yield, net energy gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
50 Economical Analysis of Optimum Insulation Thickness for HVAC Duct

Authors: D. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. G. Memon, R. A. Memon, K. Harijan

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is usually lost due to compression of insulation in Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) duct. In this paper, the economic impact of compression of insulation is estimated. Relevant mathematical models were used to estimate the optimal thickness at the points of compression. Furthermore, the payback period is calculated for the optimal thickness at the critical parts of supply air duct (SAD) and return air duct (RAD) considering natural gas (NG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels for chillier operation. The mathematical model is developed using preliminary data obtained for an HVAC system of a pharmaceutical company. The higher heat gain and cooling loss, due to compression of thermal insulation, is estimated using relevant heat transfer equations. The results reveal that maximum energy savings (ES) in SAD is 34.5 and 40%, while in RAD is 22.9% and 29% for NG and LPG, respectively. Moreover, the minimum payback period (PP) for SAD is 2 and 1.6years, while in RAD is 4.3 and 2.7years for NG and LPG, respectively. The optimum insulation thickness (OIT) corresponding to maximum ES and minimum PP is estimated to be 35 and 42mm for SAD, while 30 and 38mm for RAD in case of NG and LPG, respectively.

Keywords: optimum insulation thickness, life cycle cost analysis, payback period, HVAC system

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
49 Analyzing the Ecosystem for Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of Rural Areas of Jamshoro, Pakistan

Authors: Aisha M. Memon, Arabella Bhutto, Zahid A. Memon, Adnan Pitafi

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This study aims to identify the existing and non-existing elements in the entrepreneurial ecosystem which include finance, institutions, laws and regulations, human capital, culture, and markets, to measure the level of effectiveness of existing elements and to develop recommendations for improving the ecosystem to facilitate the women entrepreneurs in Jamshoro, Pakistan. The nature of this study is qualitative. Data were drawn from 25 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion with women entrepreneurs in rural Jamshoro, Pakistan. The findings show the lack of awareness and knowledge among women entrepreneurs about available financial resources, lack of knowledge about laws, an absence of familial and societal support for women in accessing the entrepreneurial ecosystem, the absence of business and innovation enablers in rural areas, communication gaps, and unskilled human capital. The study found that institutions like non-for-profit organizations are playing an active role in the growth of women entrepreneurs. The existing entrepreneurial ecosystem in Jamshoro can be improved through culturally sensitive coordinated approach, interventions aimed at increasing awareness about the resources, promoting an understanding about the laws and regulations, making business enablers more effective, establishing public-private partnerships, and providing the women entrepreneurs easy access to market and financial resources.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship ecosystem, Pakistan, women entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
48 Using Probe Person Data for Travel Mode Detection

Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato, Hideki Yaginuma

Abstract:

Recently GPS data is used in a lot of studies to automatically reconstruct travel patterns for trip survey. The aim is to minimize the use of questionnaire surveys and travel diaries so as to reduce their negative effects. In this paper data acquired from GPS and accelerometer embedded in smart phones is utilized to predict the mode of transportation used by the phone carrier. For prediction, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) are employed. Moreover a unique method to improve the prediction results from these algorithms is also proposed. Results suggest that the prediction accuracy of AdaBoost after improvement is relatively better than the rest.

Keywords: accelerometer, AdaBoost, GPS, mode prediction, support vector machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
47 A Review of Travel Data Collection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Awais Shafique, Eiji Hato

Abstract:

Household trip data is of crucial importance for managing present transportation infrastructure as well as to plan and design future facilities. It also provides basis for new policies implemented under Transportation Demand Management. The methods used for household trip data collection have changed with passage of time, starting with the conventional face-to-face interviews or paper-and-pencil interviews and reaching to the recent approach of employing smartphones. This study summarizes the step-wise evolution in the travel data collection methods. It provides a comprehensive review of the topic, for readers interested to know the changing trends in the data collection field.

Keywords: computer, smartphone, telephone, travel survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
46 Reduction of Defects Using Seven Quality Control Tools for Productivity Improvement at Automobile Company

Authors: Abdul Sattar Jamali, Imdad Ali Memon, Maqsood Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Quality of production near to zero defects is an objective of every manufacturing and service organization. In order to maintain and improve the quality by reduction in defects, Statistical tools are being used by any organizations. There are many statistical tools are available to assess the quality. Keeping in view the importance of many statistical tools, traditional 7QC tools has been used in any manufacturing and automobile Industry. Therefore, the 7QC tools have been successfully applied at one of the Automobile Company Pakistan. Preliminary survey has been done for the implementation of 7QC tool in the assembly line of Automobile Industry. During preliminary survey two inspection points were decided to collect the data, which are Chassis line and trim line. The data for defects at Chassis line and trim line were collected for reduction in defects which ultimately improve productivity. Every 7QC tools has its benefits observed from the results. The flow charts developed for better understanding about inspection point for data collection. The check sheets developed for helps for defects data collection. Histogram represents the severity level of defects. Pareto charts show the cumulative effect of defects. The Cause and Effect diagrams developed for finding the root causes of each defects. Scatter diagram developed the relation of defects increasing or decreasing. The P-Control charts developed for showing out of control points beyond the limits for corrective actions. The successful implementation of 7QC tools at the inspection points at Automobile Industry concluded that the considerable amount of reduction on defects level, as in Chassis line from 132 defects to 13 defects. The total 90% defects were reduced in Chassis Line. In Trim line defects were reduced from 157 defects to 28 defects. The total 82% defects were reduced in Trim Line. As the Automobile Company exercised only few of the 7 QC tools, not fully getting the fruits by the application of 7 QC tools. Therefore, it is suggested the company may need to manage a mechanism for the application of 7 QC tools at every section.

Keywords: check sheet, cause and effect diagram, control chart, histogram

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
45 A Smart Visitors’ Notification System with Automatic Secure Door Lock Using Mobile Communication Technology

Authors: Rabail Shafique Satti, Sidra Ejaz, Madiha Arshad, Marwa Khalid, Sadia Majeed

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The paper presents the development of an automated security system to automate the entry of visitors, providing more flexibility of managing their record and securing homes or workplaces. Face recognition is part of this system to authenticate the visitors. A cost effective and SMS based door security module has been developed and integrated with the GSM network and made part of this system to allow communication between system and owner. This system functions in real time as when the visitor’s arrived it will detect and recognizes his face and on the result of face recognition process it will open the door for authorized visitors or notifies and allows the owner’s to take further action in case of unauthorized visitor. The proposed system is developed and it is successfully ensuring security, managing records and operating gate without physical interaction of owner.

Keywords: SMS, e-mail, GSM modem, authenticate, face recognition, authorized

Procedia PDF Downloads 523
44 Case for Simulating Consumer Response to Feed in Tariff Based on Socio-Economic Parameters

Authors: Fahad Javed, Tasneem Akhter, Maria Zafar, Adnan Shafique

Abstract:

Evaluation and quantification of techniques is critical element of research and development of technology. Simulations and models play an important role in providing the tools for such assessments. When we look at technologies which impact or is dependent on an average Joe consumer then modeling the socio-economic and psychological aspects of the consumer also gain an importance. For feed in tariff for home consumers which is being deployed for average consumer may force many consumers to be adapters of the technology. Understanding how consumers will adapt this technologies thus hold as much significance as evaluating how the techniques would work in consumer agnostic scenarios. In this paper we first build the case for simulators which accommodate socio-economic realities of the consumers to evaluate smart grid technologies, provide a glossary of data that can aid in this effort and present an abstract model to capture and simulate consumers' adaptation and behavioral response to smart grid technologies. We provide a case study to express the power of such simulators.

Keywords: smart grids, simulation, socio-economic parameters, feed in tariff (FiT), forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
43 Switching Losses in Power Electronic Converter of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

A cautious and astute selection of switching devices used in power electronic converters of a switched reluctance (SR) motor is required. It is a matter of choice of best switching devices with respect to their switching ability rather than fulfilling the number of switches. This paper highlights the computational determination of switching losses comprising of switch-on, switch-off and conduction losses respectively by using experimental data in simulation model of a SR machine. The finding of this research is helpful for proper selection of electronic switches and suitable converter topology for switched reluctance motor.

Keywords: converter, operating modes, switched reluctance motor, switching losses

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
42 Mulberry Leave: An Efficient and Economical Adsorbent for Remediation of Arsenic (V) and Arsenic (III) Contaminated Water

Authors: Saima Q. Memon, Mazhar I. Khaskheli

Abstract:

The aim of present study was to investigate the efficiency of mulberry leaves for the removal of both arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) from aqueous medium. Batch equilibrium studies were carried out to optimize various parameters such as pH of metal ion solution, volume of sorbate, sorbent doze, and agitation speed and agitation time. Maximum sorption efficiency of mulberry leaves for As (III) and As (V) at optimum conditions were 2818 μg.g-1 and 4930 μg.g-1, respectively. The experimental data was a good fit to Freundlich and D-R adsorption isotherm. Energy of adsorption was found to be in the range of 3-6 KJ/mole suggesting the physical nature of process. Kinetic data followed the first order rate, Morris-Weber equations. Developed method was applied to remove arsenic from real water samples.

Keywords: arsenic removal, mulberry, adsorption isotherms, kinetics of adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
41 Numerical Investigation into the Effect of Axial Fan Blade Angle on the Fan Performance

Authors: Shayan Arefi, Qadir Esmaili, Seyed Ali Jazayeri

Abstract:

The performance of cooling system affects on efficiency of turbo generators and temperature of winding. Fan blade is one of the most important components of cooling system which plays a significant role in ventilation of generators. Fan performance curve depends on the blade geometry and boundary condition. This paper calculates numerically the performance curve of axial flow fan mounted on turbo generator with 160 MW output power. The numerical calculation was implemented by Ansys-workbench software. The geometrical model of blade was created by bladegen, grid generation and configuration was made by turbogrid and finally, the simulation was implemented by CFX. For the first step, the performance curves consist of pressure rise and efficiency flow rate were calculated in the original angle of blade. Then, by changing the attack angle of blade, the related performance curves were calculated. CFD results for performance curve of each angle show a good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, the field velocity and pressure gradient of flow near the blade were investigated and simulated numerically with varying of angle.

Keywords: turbo generator, axial fan, Ansys, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
40 Reversible and Adaptive Watermarking for MRI Medical Images

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

A new medical image watermarking scheme delivering high embedding capacity is presented in this paper. Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT), Companding technique and adaptive thresholding are used in this scheme. The proposed scheme implants, recovers the hidden information and restores the input image to its pristine state at the receiving end. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images are used for experimental purposes. The scheme first segment the MRI medical image into non-overlapping blocks and then inserts watermark into wavelet coefficients having a high frequency of each block. The scheme uses block-based watermarking adopting iterative optimization of threshold for companding in order to avoid the histogram pre and post processing. Results show that proposed scheme performs better than other reversible medical image watermarking schemes available in literature for MRI medical images.

Keywords: adaptive thresholding, companding technique, data authentication, reversible watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
39 Effect of Clinical Depression on Automatic Speaker Verification

Authors: Sheeraz Memon, Namunu C. Maddage, Margaret Lech, Nicholas Allen

Abstract:

The effect of a clinical environment on the accuracy of the speaker verification was tested. The speaker verification tests were performed within homogeneous environments containing clinically depressed speakers only, and non-depresses speakers only, as well as within mixed environments containing different mixtures of both climatically depressed and non-depressed speakers. The speaker verification framework included the MFCCs features and the GMM modeling and classification method. The speaker verification experiments within homogeneous environments showed 5.1% increase of the EER within the clinically depressed environment when compared to the non-depressed environment. It indicated that the clinical depression increases the intra-speaker variability and makes the speaker verification task more challenging. Experiments with mixed environments indicated that the increase of the percentage of the depressed individuals within a mixed environment increases the speaker verification equal error rates.

Keywords: speaker verification, GMM, EM, clinical environment, clinical depression

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
38 Strategic Orientation of Islamic Banks: A Review of Strategy Language

Authors: Imam Uddin, Imtiaz Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the ideological contextuality of market oriented strategy language used by Industry leaders to envision the future of Islamic financial Institutions (IFIs) in the light of Wittgenstein language-games and Foucault’s power-discourse framework. The analysis infers that the explicit market orientation of strategy language and modern knowledge of finance now defines various concepts related of Islamic finance, let alone Islamic finance theory itself. Theorizing and practicing Islamic finance therefore under the dominant influence of modern strategy discourse and modern knowledge of finance has significant implications for developing an ethical and spiritual orientation of Islamic banks. The concerned academia and scholarship therefore need to review such trends and work around the possible degradation to the public image of IFIs and resulting disappointments of religiously inspired customers.

Keywords: Islamic finance discourse, strategy discourse, language games, strategic intent, productive misunderstanding

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
37 Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicates a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
36 Correlation to Predict the Effect of Particle Type on Axial Voidage Profile in Circulating Fluidized Beds

Authors: M. S. Khurram, S. A. Memon, S. Khan

Abstract:

Bed voidage behavior among different flow regimes for Geldart A, B, and D particles (fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC), particle A and glass beads) of diameter range 57-872 μm, apparent density 1470-3092 kg/m3, and bulk density range 890-1773 kg/m3 were investigated in a gas-solid circulating fluidized bed of 0.1 m-i.d. and 2.56 m-height of plexi-glass. Effects of variables (gas velocity, particle properties, and static bed height) were analyzed on bed voidage. The axial voidage profile showed a typical trend along the riser: a dense bed at the lower part followed by a transition in the splash zone and a lean phase in the freeboard. Bed expansion and dense bed voidage increased with an increase of gas velocity as usual. From experimental results, a generalized model relationship based on inverse fluidization number for dense bed voidage from bubbling to fast fluidization regimes was presented.

Keywords: axial voidage, circulating fluidized bed, splash zone, static bed

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
35 A Simple Method for Evaluation of Uniformity for Gafchromic Sheets for Film Dosimetry

Authors: Fayzan Ahmed, Saad Bin Saeed, Abdul Qadir Jangda

Abstract:

Gafchromic™ sheet are extensively used for the QA of intensity modulated radiation therapy and other in-vivo dosimetry. Intra-sheet Non-uniformity of scanner as well as film causes undesirable fluctuations which are reflected in dosimetry The aim of this study is to define a systematic and robust method to investigate the intra-sheet uniformity of the unexposed Gafchromic Sheets and the region of interest (ROI) of the scanner. Sheets of lot No#: A05151201 were scanned before and after the expiry period with the EPSON™ XL10000 scanner in the transmission mode, landscape orientation, and 72 dpi resolution. ROI of (8’x 10’ inches) equal to the sheet dimension in the center of the scanner is used to acquire images with full transmission, block transmission and with sheets in place. 500 virtual grids, created in MATALB® are imported as a macros in ImageJ (1.49m Wayne Rasband) to analyze the images. In order to remove the edge effects, the outer 86 grids are excluded from the analysis. The standard deviation of the block transmission and full transmission are 0.38% and 0.66% confirming a higher uniformity of the scanner. Expired and non-expired sheets have standard deviations of 2.18% and 1.29%, show that uniformity decreases after expiry. The results are promising and indicate a good potential of this method to be used as a uniformity check for scanner and unexposed Gafchromic sheets.

Keywords: IMRT, film dosimetry, virtual grids, uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
34 Extraction of Polystyrene from Styrofoam Waste: Synthesis of Novel Chelating Resin for the Enrichment and Speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(vi) Ions in Industrial Effluents

Authors: Ali N. Siyal, Saima Q. Memon, Latif Elçi, Aydan Elçi

Abstract:

Polystyrene (PS) was extracted from Styrofoam (expanded polystyrene foam) waste, so called white pollutant. The PS was functionalized with N, N- Bis(2-aminobenzylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine (ABA) ligand through an azo spacer. The resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The PS-N=N-ABA resin was used for the enrichment and speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and total Cr determination in aqueous samples by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The separation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions was achieved at pH 2. The recovery of Cr(VI) ions was achieved ≥ 95.0% at optimum parameters: pH 2; resin amount 300 mg; flow rates 2.0 mL min-1 of solution and 2.0 mL min-1 of eluent (2.0 mol L-1 HNO3). Total Cr was determined by oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) ions using H2O2. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of Cr(VI) were found to be 0.40 and 1.20 μg L-1, respectively with preconcentration factor of 250. Total saturation and breakthrough capacitates of the resin for Cr(IV) ions were found to be 0.181 and 0.531 mmol g-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration/speciation of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions and determination of total Cr in industrial effluents.

Keywords: styrofoam waste, polymeric resin, preconcentration, speciation, Cr(III)/Cr(VI) ions, FAAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
33 Cytotoxic Effect of Neem Seed Extract (Azadirachta indica) in Comparison with Artificial Insecticide Novastar on Haemocytes (THC and DHC) of Musca domestica

Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Awan, Adnan Qadir, Zeeshan Anjum

Abstract:

Housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus is ubiquitous and hazardous for Homo sapiens and livestock in sundry venerations. Musca domestica cart 100 different pathogens, such as typhoid, salmonella, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax and parasitic worms. The flies in rural areas usually carry more pathogens. Houseflies feed on liquid or semi-liquid substances besides solid materials which are softened by saliva. Neem botanically known as Azadirachta indica belongs to the family Meliaceae and is an indigenous tree to Pakistan. The neem tree is also one such tree which has been revered by the Pakistanis and Kashmiris for its medicinal properties. Present study showed neem seed extract has potentially toxic ability that affect Total Haemocyte Count (THC) and Differential Haemocytes Count (DHC) in insect’s blood cells, of the housefly. A significant variation in haemolymph density was observed just after application, 30 minutes and 60 minutes post treatment in term of THC and DHC in comparison with novastar. The study strappingly acclaim use of neem seed extract as insecticide as compare to artificial insecticides.

Keywords: neem, Azadirachta indica, Musca domestica, differential haemocyte count (DHC), total haemocytes count (DHC), novastar

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
32 Cloning, Expression and N-Terminal Pegylation of Human Interferon Alpha-2b Analogs and Their Cytotoxic Evaluation against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Syeda Kiran Shahzadi, Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Abdul Qadir

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In the current research, three recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins (two modified and one normal form) were produced and Pegylated with an aim to produce more effective drugs against viral infections and cancers. The modified recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were produced by site-directed modifications of interferon alpha 2b gene, targeting the amino acids at positions ‘R23’ and ‘H34’. The resulting chemically modified and unmodified forms of human interferon alpha 2b were conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol propanealdehyde (400 KDa) and methoxy-polyethylene glycol succinimidyl succinate (400 KDa). Pegylation of normal and modified forms of Interferon alpha-2b prolong their release time and enhance their efficacy. The conjugation of PEG with modified and unmodified human interferon alpha 2b protein drugs was also characterized with 1H-NMR, HPLC, and SDS-PAGE. Antiproliferative assays of modified and unmodified forms of drugs were performed in cell based bioassays using MDBK cell lines. The results indicated that experimentally produced recombinant human interferon alpha-2b proteins were biologically active and resulted in significant inhibition of cell growth.

Keywords: protein refolding, antiproliferative activities, biomedical applications, human interferon alpha-2b, pegylation, mPEG-propionaldehyde, site directed mutagenesis, E. coli expression

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
31 C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Athar Hussain Memon

Abstract:

Objectives: We tried to determine the frequency of raised C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study of six months study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad from March 2013 to August 2013. All diabetic patients of ≥35 years age of either gender for >01 year duration visited at OPD were evaluated for C-reactive protein and their glycemic status by hemoglobin A1c. The data was analyzed in SPSS and the frequency and percentage were calculated. Results: During six month study period, total 100 diabetic patients were evaluated for C-reactive protein. The majority of patients were from urban areas 75/100 (75%). The mean ±SD for age of patients with diabetes mellitus was 51.63±7.82. The mean age ±SD of patient with raised CRP was 53±7.21. The mean ±SD for HbA1c in patients with raised CRP is 9.55±1.73. The mean random blood sugar level in patients with raised CRP was 247.42 ± 6.62. The majority of subjects were of 50-69 years of age group with female predominance (p=0.01) while the CRP was raised in 70 (70%) patients in relation to age (p=0.02) and gender (p=0.01), respectively. Both HbA1c and CRP were raised in 64.9% (p=0.04) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean ±SD of CRP was 5.8±1.21 while for male and female individuals with raised CRP was 3.52±1.22 and 5.7±1.63, respectively. Conclusions: The raised CRP was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, diabetes and metabolism

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
30 Effects of a Bacteria-Based Probiotic on Subpopulations of Peripheral Leukocytes and Their Interleukin mRNA Expression in Calves

Authors: Abdul Qadir Qadis, Satoru Goya, Minoru Yatsu, Yu-uki Yoshida, Toshihiro Ichijo, Shigeru Sato

Abstract:

Bacterial probiotics are known to modulate the gut-associated lymphoid and epithelial tissue response to enhance the activities of intestinal and systemic immune system in human and animals. In cattle, the immune-stimulatory effects of probiotics have been evaluated during intestinal disorders. To investigate the effects of probiotic on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, eight healthy Holstein calves (10 ± 3 weeks) were assigned to a 4 × 2 experimental design. The probiotic, consisting of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum, was administered orally at 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to calves once daily for 5 consecutive days. Calves given no probiotic served as the control. In the treatment group, increases in numbers of CD282+ monocytes, CD3+ T-cells and CD4+, CD8+ and WC1+ γδ T- cell subsets were noted on day 7 post-placement compared to pre-dose day and the control group. Expression of interleukin-6, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was elevated in peripheral leukocytes on days 7 and 14. These results suggest that peripheral blood leukocytes in healthy calves may be stimulated via the gastrointestinal microbiota, which was increased by the oral probiotic treatment. The 5-day repeated administration of a bacterial probiotic may enhance cellular immune function in weaned calves.

Keywords: bacterial-probiotic, calf, interleukin, leukocyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 535
29 Effect of Measured and Calculated Static Torque on Instantaneous Torque Profile of Switched Reluctance Motor

Authors: Ali Asghar Memon

Abstract:

The simulation modeling of switched reluctance (SR) machine often relies and uses the three data tables identified as static torque characteristics that include flux linkage characteristics, co energy characteristics and static torque characteristics separately. It has been noticed from the literature that the data of static torque used in the simulation model is often calculated so far the literature is concerned. This paper presents the simulation model that include the data of measured and calculated static torque separately to see its effect on instantaneous torque profile of the machine. This is probably for the first time so far the literature review is concerned that static torque from co energy information, and measured static torque directly from experiments are separately used in the model. This research is helpful for accurate modeling of switched reluctance drive.

Keywords: static characteristics, current chopping, flux linkage characteristics, switched reluctance motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
28 An Improved Modular Multilevel Converter Voltage Balancing Approach for Grid Connected PV System

Authors: Safia Bashir, Zulfiqar Memon

Abstract:

During the last decade, renewable energy sources in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) has gained increased attention. Therefore, various PV converters topologies have emerged. Among this topology, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) is considered as one of the most promising topologies for the grid-connected PV system due to its modularity and transformerless features. When it comes to the safe operation of MMC, the balancing of the Submodules Voltages (SMs) plays a critical role. This paper proposes a balancing approach based on space vector PWM (SVPWM). Unlike the existing techniques, this method generates the switching vectors for the MMC by using only one SVPWM for the upper arm. The lower arm switching vectors are obtained by finding the complement of the upper arm switching vectors. The use of one SVPWM not only simplifies the calculation but also helped in reducing the circulating current in the MMC. The proposed method is varied through simulation using Matlab/Simulink and compared with other available modulation methods. The results validate the ability of the suggested method in balancing the SMs capacitors voltages and reducing the circulating current which will help in reducing the power loss of the PV system.

Keywords: capacitor voltage balancing, circulating current, modular multilevel converter, PV system

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
27 Redefining "Dedhee" in Terms of Knowledge Gathering and Conserving Hazara Literature

Authors: Urooj Shafique, Salman Jamil

Abstract:

In the context of an urban human life, city requires to meeting some standards which, at a glance are called the standards of a quality life. Measuring the quality of life according to particular social, economic and cultural conditions of a country and also the emphasis of a country twenty years visions on this issue has special importance. Cultural gathering spaces improve social and economic vitality on one side and on the other side provide favorable conditions for citizen leisure. But unfortunately these cultural gathering spaces in our society are losing their meaning and importance with time. Like coffee houses and libraries. Dedhee was the most prominent place among the cultural gathering spaces in Hazara division. People used to visit them in order to get something out of these spaces. At present they lie in our cities as places of no interest. Libraries are converted into storage houses where books lie untouched for years and years. The aim of my project is to create unique space that engage community members in the learning and creation process, where people can share their knowledge with others as well as enjoy their personal space. The spaces are flexible enough to accommodate people of different moods and interests, with the purpose of helping communities to become aware of their own cultures and to be socially engaged. The site for this specific project has been selected near Cantonment Park Abbottabad, Pakistan. The city of Abbottabad is famous for its writers, poets and storytellers. The site is selected next to the Cantonment Park, at a central location in the whole city so that it can attract users from almost every point of the city. The project provides a cultural gathering space for the people of the city where they can sit and discuss their ideas within a creative and expressive environment, which can represent the cultures of a community.

Keywords: cultural gathering space, Dedhee, Hazara literature, intellectuals’ hub

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
26 Optimization of SWL Algorithms Using Alternative Adder Module in FPGA

Authors: Tayab D. Memon, Shahji Farooque, Marvi Deshi, Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar, B. S. Chowdhry

Abstract:

Recently single-bit ternary FIR-like filter (SBTFF) hardware synthesize in FPGA is reported and compared with multi-bit FIR filter on similar spectral characteristics. Results shows that SBTFF dominates upon multi-bit filter overall. In this paper, an optimized adder module for ternary quantized sigma-delta modulated signal is presented. The adder is simulated using ModelSim for functional verification the area-performance of the proposed adder were obtained through synthesis in Xilinx and compared to conventional adder trees. The synthesis results show that the proposed adder tree achieves higher clock rates and lower chip area at higher inputs to the adder block; whereas conventional adder tree achieves better performance and lower chip area at lower number of inputs to the same adder block. These results enhance the usefulness of existing short word length DSP algorithms for fast and efficient mobile communication.

Keywords: short word length (SWL), DSP algorithms, FPGA, SBTFF, VHDL

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25 Self-Organized TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ Nanotubes on β-Ti Alloy by Anodization

Authors: Muhammad Qadir, Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen

Abstract:

Surface properties such as topography and physicochemistry of metallic implants determine the cell behavior. The surface of titanium (Ti)-based implant can be modified to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, a self-organized titania–niobium pentoxide–zirconia (TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂) nanotubular layer on β phase Ti35Zr28Nb alloy was fabricated via electrochemical anodization. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement techniques were used to investigate the nanotubes dimensions (i.e., the inner and outer diameters, and wall thicknesses), microstructural features and evolution of the hydrophilic properties. The in vitro biocompatibility of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes (NTs) was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs has been studied. The results indicated that the average inner diameter, outer diameter and the wall thickness of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs were ranged from 25–70 nm, 45–90 nm and 5–13 nm, respectively, and were directly influenced by the applied voltage during anodization. The average inner and outer diameters of NTs increased with increasing applied voltage, and the length of NTs increased with increasing anodization time and water content of the electrolyte. In addition, the size distribution of the NTs noticeably affected the hydrophilic properties and enhanced the biocompatibility as compared with the uncoated substrate. The results of this study could be considered for developing nano-scale coatings for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Keywords: Titanium alloy, TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes, anodization, surface wettability, biocompatibility

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24 Prevelance of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae) in District Jacobabad, Sindh, Pakistran

Authors: Kamal Khan Abro, Nasreen Memon, Attaullah Ansari, Mahpara Pirzada, Saima Pathan

Abstract:

Jacobabad district has a hot desert climate with very hot summers and insignificant winters. The highest recorded temperature is 53.8 °C (127.0 °F), and the lowest recorded temperature is −4.9 °C (25.0 °F). Rainfall is short and mostly occurs in the monsoon season (July–September). Agriculture point of view Jacobabad district is very important district of Sindh Pakistan in which many types of crop and vegetables are cultivated annually such as Wheat, Rice, and Brassica, Cabbage, Spinach, Chili etc. which are badly attacked by many crops pest. Insects are very tiny, sensitive and most attractive mortal and most important collection of animal wildlife they play important role in biological control agent, biodiversity & agroecosystem. The brassica crop extremely infested by many different types of pest such as Aphids, Whitefly, Jassids, Thrips, Mealybug, scale insect pink worm, bollworm and borers Mealy bug, scale insect etc. These pests destroy many crops. The present study was carried out from Jacobabad district from January 2017 to April 2017.

Keywords: prevelance, green peach aphid, Jacobabad, Sindh Pakistan

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23 Project Time Prediction Model: A Case Study of Construction Projects in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Tauha Hussain Ali, Shabir Hussain Khahro, Nafees Ahmed Memon

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of project time for planning and bid preparation stage should contain realistic dates. Constructors use their experience to estimate the project duration for the new projects, which is based on intuitions. It has been a constant concern to both researchers and constructors to analyze the accurate prediction of project duration for bid preparation stage. In Pakistan, such study for time cost relationship has been lacked to predict duration performance for the construction projects. This study is an attempt to explore the time cost relationship that would conclude with a mathematical model to predict the time for the drainage rehabilitation projects in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data has been collected from National Engineering Services (NESPAK), Pakistan and regression analysis has been carried out for the analysis of results. Significant relationship has been found between time and cost of the construction projects in Sindh and the generated mathematical model can be used by the constructors to predict the project duration for the upcoming projects of same nature. This study also provides the professionals with a requisite knowledge to make decisions regarding project duration, which is significantly important to win the projects at the bid stage.

Keywords: BTC Model, project time, relationship of time cost, regression

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22 Development of Electrospun Porous Carbon Fibers from Cellulose/Polyacrylonitrile Blend

Authors: Zubair Khaliq, M. Bilal Qadir, Amir Shahzad, Zulfiqar Ali, Ahsan Nazir, Ali Afzal, Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

Carbon fibers are one of the most demanding materials on earth due to their potential application in energy, high strength materials, and conductive materials. The nanostructure of carbon fibers offers enhanced properties of conductivity due to the larger surface area. The next generation carbon nanofibers demand the porous structure as it offers more surface area. Multiple techniques are used to produce carbon fibers. However, electrospinning followed by carbonization of the polymeric materials is easy to carry process on a laboratory scale. Also, it offers multiple diversity of changing parameters to acquire the desired properties of carbon fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the most used material for the production of carbon fibers due to its promising processing parameters. Also, cellulose is one of the highest yield producers of carbon fibers. However, the electrospinning of cellulosic materials is difficult due to its rigid chain structure. The combination of PAN and cellulose can offer a suitable solution for the production of carbon fibers. Both materials are miscible in the mixed solvent of N, N, Dimethylacetamide and lithium chloride. This study focuses on the production of porous carbon fibers as a function of PAN/Cellulose blend ratio, solution properties, and electrospinning parameters. These single polymer and blend with different ratios were electrospun to give fine fibers. The higher amount of cellulose offered more difficulty in electrospinning of nanofibers. After carbonization, the carbon fibers were studied in terms of their blend ratio, surface area, and texture. Cellulose contents offered the porous structure of carbon fibers. Also, the presence of LiCl contributed to the porous structure of carbon fibers.

Keywords: cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, carbon nanofibers, electrospinning, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 54